Cody Rutledge Wilson (born January 31, 1988) is an American crypto-anarchist, free-market anarchist, and gun-rights activist. He is best known as a founder and former director of Defense Distributed, a non-profit organization that develops and publishes open source gun designs, so-called "wiki weapons", suitable for 3D printing and digital manufacture. He is a co-founder of the Dark Wallet bitcoin storage technology.
Wired Magazine's "Danger Room" named Wilson one of "The 15 Most Dangerous People in the World" in 2012. In 2015 and 2017 Wired named Wilson one of the five most dangerous people on the Internet. In September 2018, he was charged with sexual assault of a minor, in Austin, Texas, and was subsequently arrested in Taiwan.
Wilson in Austin 2012
Cody Rutledge Wilson
January 31, 1988
|Alma mater||University of Central Arkansas (B.A., 2010)|
|Occupation||Director of Defense Distributed|
|Known for||Defense Distributed|
Wilson graduated from the University of Central Arkansas (UCA) with a bachelor's degree in English in 2010, where he had a scholarship. While at UCA, Wilson was a member of Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and was elected president of UCA's Student Government Association. He traveled to China with UCA's study-abroad program.
In 2012, Wilson and associates at Defense Distributed started the Wiki Weapon Project to raise funds for designing and releasing the files for a 3D printable gun. At the time Wilson was the project's only spokesperson; he called himself "co-founder" and "director."
Learning of Defense Distributed's plans, manufacturer Stratasys threatened legal action and demanded the return of a 3D printer it had leased to Wilson. On September 26, 2012, before the printer was assembled for use, Wilson received an email from Stratasys suggesting he was using the printer "for illegal purposes". Stratasys immediately cancelled its lease with Wilson and sent a team to confiscate the printer.
While visiting the office of the ATF in Austin to inquire about legalities related to his project, Wilson was interrogated by the officers there. Six months later, he was issued a Federal Firearms License (FFL) to manufacture and deal.
In May 2013, Wilson successfully test-fired a pistol called "the Liberator" that reportedly was made using a Stratasys Dimension series 3D printer purchased on eBay. After test firing, Wilson released the blueprints of the gun's design online through a Defense Distributed website. The State Department Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance demanded that Wilson remove the files, threatening prosecution for violations of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).
On May 6, 2015, Defense Distributed and the Second Amendment Foundation filed a lawsuit against the State Department claiming a violation of their First Amendment rights to free speech. On July 10, 2018, it was reported that the company won this lawsuit and would begin again its work at DEFCAD.
In 2013, Wilson, along with Amir Taaki, began work on a Bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet called Dark Wallet, a project by which he planned to help anonymize financial transactions. He appeared on behalf of the Dark Wallet project at the SXSW festival in Austin, Texas in 2014.
On U.S. election day, November 4, 2014, Wilson announced in an interview that he would stand for election to a seat on the Board of Directors of the Bitcoin Foundation, with "the sole purpose of destroying the Foundation." And Wilson stated: "I will run on a platform of the complete dissolution of the Bitcoin Foundation and will begin and end every single one of my public statements with that message."
Wilson launched a website in 2017 to provide crowdfunding and payment services for groups and individuals who were banned from platforms such as Kickstarter, Patreon, PayPal, and Stripe. His site went live in August 2017 and attracted high-profile alt-right and neo-Nazi figures, including Andrew Anglin and Richard B. Spencer. While Wilson said that Hatreon clients included "right-wing women, people of color, and transgender people," Bloomberg News reported that most of the donations went to white supremacists. According to Hannah Shearer, staff attorney at the Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, Hatreon users were inciting violence contrary to Hatreon’s terms of service, which forbid illegal activity.
The site claimed to have received about $25,000 a month in donations, an amount that was "doubling from month to month." Hatreon took a 5-percent cut of donations. Within several months of Hatreon's launch, the site's payments processor, Visa, suspended its financial services. Without the means to process payments, the site became inactive.
Wilson claims an array of influences from anti-state and libertarian political thinkers, including leftist market anarchists like the mutualist scholar Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, capitalist libertarians such as the Austrian School scholar Hans-Herman Hoppe, and classical liberals including Frederic Bastiat. His political thought has been compared to the "conservative revolutionary" ideas of Ernst Jünger. Jacob Siegel wrote that "Cody Wilson arrives at a place where left, right—and democracy—disappear" and that he oscillates "somewhere between anarch and anarchist."
Wilson is an avowed crypto-anarchist, and has discussed his work in relation to the cypherpunks and Timothy May's vision. He frequently cites the work of post-Marxist thinkers in public comments, especially that of Jean Baudrillard, whom he has claimed as his "master."
Asked during an interview with Popular Science if the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting affected his thinking or plans in any way, Wilson responded, "... understanding that rights and civil liberties are something that we protect is also understanding that they have consequences that are also protected, or tolerated. The exercise of civil liberties is antithetical to the idea of a completely totalizing state. That's just the way it is."
Wilson is generally opposed to intellectual property rights. He has indicated that although his primary goal is the subversion of state-structures, he also hopes that his contributions may help to dismantle the existing system of capitalist property relations.
In a January 2013 interview with Glenn Beck on the nature of and motivations behind his effort to develop and share gun 3D printable files Wilson said, "That's a real political act, giving you a magazine, telling you that it will never be taken away. ... That's real politics. That's radical equality. That's what I believe in. ... I'm just resisting. What am I resisting? I don't know, the collectivization of manufacture? The institutionalization of the human psyche? I'm not sure. But I can tell you one thing: this is a symbol of irreversibility. They can never eradicate the gun from the earth."
In September 2018, charges were filed against Wilson for allegedly having sexual intercourse with a 16-year-old girl he met on SugarDaddyMeet, a website that matches older men with younger women. He is accused of committing a second-degree felony after paying $500 to the girl for sex in a hotel room in Austin, Texas in August 2018. Austin police said they were alerted by a counselor who had been working with the girl.
It was reported that after Wilson, told that a police investigation was underway, fled to Taipei, Taiwan, which does not have an extradition treaty with the U.S. However, Wilson was subsequently arrested in Taiwan by local police and handed to the National Immigration Agency (NIA), charged with a immigration violation as his passport was revoked by the U.S. government. He was deported on September 22, 2018 and was booked by the United States Marshals Service in Harris County Jail in Houston, Texas on September 23, 2018. He was released after posting a $150,000 bond.
Hatreon processing was suspended by Visa in November.
In 2012, the U.S.-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to design a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer. Defense Distributed has also designed a 3D printable AR-15 type rifle lower receiver (capable of lasting more than 650 rounds) and a variety of magazines, including for the AK-47. In May 2013, Defense Distributed completed design of the first working blueprint to produce a plastic gun with a 3D printer. The United States Department of State demanded removal of the instructions from the Defense Distributed website, deeming them a violation of the Arms Export Control Act. In 2015, Defense Distributed founder Cody Wilson sued the United States government on free speech grounds and in 2018 the Department of Justice settled, acknowledging Wilson's right to publish instructions for the production of 3D printed firearms.In 2013 a Texas company, Solid Concepts, demonstrated a 3D printed version of an M1911 pistol made of metal, using an industrial 3D printer.ANX (Hong Kong company)
ANX INTERNATIONAL (formerly known as Asia Nexgen) is a Hong Kong-based financial technology company.Amir Taaki
Amir Taaki (Persian: امیر تاکی; born 6 February 1988) is a British-Iranian anarchist revolutionary, hacktivist, and programmer who is known for his leading role in the bitcoin project, and for pioneering many open source projects. Forbes listed Taaki in their top 30 entrepreneurs of 2014. Driven by the political philosophy of the Rojava revolution, Taaki traveled to Syria, served in the YPG military, and worked in Rojava's civil society on various economic projects for a year and a half.BTCC (company)
BTCC was a Hong Kong based bitcoin exchange that was once the world's second largest by volume in October 2014. Founded in June 2011 as BTCChina, it was China's first bitcoin exchange, and most of its customers are thought to be from the domestic market. In 2018, it was thought to now have almost 150 employees.. It closed down in September of 2018.Base58
Base58 is a group of binary-to-text encoding schemes used to represent large integers as alphanumeric text, introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto for use with Bitcoin. It has since been applied to other cryptocurrencies and applications. It is similar to Base64 but has been modified to avoid both non-alphanumeric characters and letters which might look ambiguous when printed. It is therefore designed for human users who manually enter the data, copying from some visual source, but also allows easy copy and paste because a double-click will usually select the whole string.
Compared to Base64, the following similar-looking letters are omitted: 0 (zero), O (capital o), I (capital i) and l (lower case L) as well as the non-alphanumeric characters + (plus) and / (slash). In contrast to Base64, the digits of the encoding do not line up well with byte boundaries of the original data. For this reason, the method is well-suited to encode large integers, but not designed to encode longer portions of binary data. The actual order of letters in the alphabet depends on the application, which is the reason why the term “Base58” alone is not enough to fully describe the format. A variant, Base56, excludes 1 (one) and o (lowercase o) compared to Base 58.
Base58Check is a Base58 encoding format that unambiguously encodes the type of data in the first few characters and includes an error detection code in the last few characters.BitInstant
BitInstant was a bitcoin exchange start-up based in New York City. Founded in 2011 by Gareth Nelson and Charlie Shrem, BitInstant provided a means to pay traditional funds rapidly to bitcoin exchanges. As of January 2014, BitInstant's website is no longer available, displaying only a blank page. Its blog was unavailable as of October 31, 2014.BitMEX
BitMEX is a cryptocurrency exchange and derivative trading platform. It is owned and operated by HDR Global Trading Limited, which is registered in the Seychelles and has offices worldwide.Bitcoin Foundation
The Bitcoin Foundation is an American nonprofit corporation. It was founded in September 2012 in order to try to restore the reputation of bitcoin after several scandals, and to try to promote its development and uptake. The organization was modeled on the Linux Foundation and is funded mainly through grants made by for-profit companies that depend on the bitcoin technology.Bitcoin Gold
Bitcoin Gold is a distributed digital currency. It is a hard fork of Bitcoin, the open source cryptocurrency. The stated purpose of the hard fork is to restore the mining functionality with common Graphics Processing Units (GPU), in place of mining with specialized ASIC (customized chipsets), used to mine Bitcoin.ASIC resistant GPU powered mining provides a solution, as this kind of hardware is ubiquitous, and anyone can start mining with a standard, off-the-shelf laptop computer.
Bitcoin Gold was hit by double-spending attack on May 18, 2018.Bittrex
Bittrex is a US-based cryptocurrency exchange headquartered in Seattle, Washington. The company was founded in 2013 by Bill Shihara and two business partners, all of whom previously worked as security professionals at Microsoft. The exchange is the thirteenth largest cryptocurrency exchange by daily trading volume, is renowned for the vast number of cryptocurrencies it has listed, and has a good reputation for its security. Bittrex is not a regulated exchange under US securities laws.Corporate customers based in the U.S. states of Washington, California, New York and Montana may trade using U.S. dollars held in Signature Bank of New York.Central Michigan Chippewas football statistical leaders
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Although Central Michigan began competing in intercollegiate football in 1896, the school's official record book considers the "modern era" to have begun in 1951. Records from before this year are often incomplete and inconsistent, and they are generally not included in these lists.
These lists are dominated by more recent players for several reasons:
Since 1951, seasons have increased from 10 games to 11 and then 12 games in length.
The NCAA didn't allow freshmen to play varsity football until 1972 (with the exception of the World War II years), allowing players to have four-year careers.
Bowl games only began counting toward single-season and career statistics in 2002. The Chippewas have played in eight bowl games since this decision, allowing many recent players an extra game to accumulate statistics.
Similarly, Central Michigan has played in the MAC Championship Game three times (2006, 2007, and 2009), giving yet another game to players in those seasons.These lists are updated through the end of the 2016 season.Defense Distributed
Defense Distributed is an online open-source hardware organization that develops digital schematics of firearms in CAD files, or "wiki weapons", that may be downloaded from the Internet and used in 3D printing or CNC milling applications. Among the organization's goals is to develop and freely publish firearms-related design schematics that can be downloaded and reproduced by anyone with a 3D printer or milling machine, facilitating the popular production of ghost guns.The company is best known for developing and releasing the files for the Liberator, the world's first completely 3D printed gun. On May 5, 2013, Defense Distributed made these printable STL files public, and within days the United States Department of State demanded they be removed from the Internet, citing a violation of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations.On May 6, 2015, Defense Distributed, joined by the Second Amendment Foundation (SAF), brought suit against the Department of State in the Western District of Texas, which denied its preliminary injunction request. It subsequently appealed to the Fifth Circuit, which affirmed the denial, and then the Supreme Court, which declined to hear the case.On July 10, 2018 it was announced that Defense Distributed and Second Amendment Foundation had accepted a settlement offer from the Department of State, effectively winning the case and restarting their work. On July 27, Defense Distributed released ten CAD files for download at DEFCAD before Western Washington District Court Judge Robert S. Lasnik subsequently issued an order on July 31 suspending the settlement and halting further release of the company's files. Multiple lawsuits are currently filed by state governments and Defense Distributed seeking to challenge or uphold this settlement.Feinstein AK Mag
The Feinstein AK Mag is a 3D printed magazine for the AK-47 rifle. It was created by Defense Distributed and made public on March 2013. The magazine was created using a Stratasys Dimension SST 3-D printer via the fused deposition modeling (FDM) method.It is a 30-round 7.62×39 AK-47 magazine. It is named after the anti-gun congresswoman Dianne Feinstein. Cody Wilson (founder of Defense Distributed), said the magazine’s name is a symbol of what’s happening in congress and reflects Defense Distributed's belief the proposed ban on assault weapons by Dianne Feinstein will fail. The original prototype was able to withstand 60 rounds before it began to crack.List of bitcoin organizations
This is a list of nonprofit organizations with notable activities related to bitcoin.OKEx
OKEx is a cryptocurrency exchange.Open admissions
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Print the Legend is a 2014 documentary film and Netflix Original focused on the 3D printing revolution. It delves into the growth of the 3D printing industry, with focus on startup companies MakerBot and Formlabs, established companies Stratasys, PrintForm and 3D Systems, and figures of controversy in the industry such as Cody Wilson.
The title of the film comes from the denouement of the film The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance.A trailer for the film is available at the documentary's official website.
It was filmed on Canon EOS C300 and Canon EOS C100.ShapeShift
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