Code page 866

Code page 866 (CP 866; Russian: Альтернативная кодировка) is a code page used under DOS and OS/2[1] to write Cyrillic script.[2] It is based on the "alternative code page" developed in 1986 by a research group at the Academy of Science of the USSR.[3] The code page was widely used during the DOS era because it preserves the pseudographic symbols of code page 437 (unlike the "Main code page" or Windows-1251) and maintains alphabetical order (although non-contiguously) of Cyrillic letters (unlike KOI8-R). Initially, this encoding was only available in the Russian version of MS-DOS 4.01 (1990) and since MS-DOS 6.22 in any language version.

Not identical, but two very similar encodings are registered in GOST R 34.303-92[4] as KOI-8 N1 and KOI-8 N2 (not to be confused with the original KOI-8).

Octets in CP866 ordered by nibbles
A VGA-compatible text mode font partially supporting code page 866 (Є, Ї and Ў are missing)

Character set

Each character is shown with its equivalent Unicode code point.

Code page 866[5][6]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
NUL
0000

263A

263B

2665

2666

2663

2660

2022

25D8

25CB

25D9

2642

2640

266A

266B

263C
1_
16

25BA

25C4

2195

203C

00B6
§
00A7

25AC

21A8

2191

2193

2192

2190

221F

2194

25B2

25BC
2_
32
SP
0020
!
0021
"
0022
#
0023
$
0024
%
0025
&
0026
'
0027
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C
-
002D
.
002E
/
002F
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_
64
@
0040
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5_
80
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
[
005B
\
005C
]
005D
^
005E
_
005F
6_
96
`
0060
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E

2302
8_
128
А
0410
Б
0411
В
0412
Г
0413
Д
0414
Е
0415
Ж
0416
З
0417
И
0418
Й
0419
К
041A
Л
041B
М
041C
Н
041D
О
041E
П
041F
9_
144
Р
0420
С
0421
Т
0422
У
0423
Ф
0424
Х
0425
Ц
0426
Ч
0427
Ш
0428
Щ
0429
Ъ
042A
Ы
042B
Ь
042C
Э
042D
Ю
042E
Я
042F
A_
160
а
0430
б
0431
в
0432
г
0433
д
0434
е
0435
ж
0436
з
0437
и
0438
й
0439
к
043A
л
043B
м
043C
н
043D
о
043E
п
043F
B_
176

2591

2592

2593

2502

2524

2561

2562

2556

2555

2563

2551

2557

255D

255C

255B

2510
C_
192

2514

2534

252C

251C

2500

253C

255E

255F

255A

2554

2569

2566

2560

2550

256C

2567
D_
208

2568

2564

2565

2559

2558

2552

2553

256B

256A

2518

250C

2588

2584

258C

2590

2580
E_
224
р
0440
с
0441
т
0442
у
0443
ф
0444
х
0445
ц
0446
ч
0447
ш
0448
щ
0449
ъ
044A
ы
044B
ь
044C
э
044D
ю
044E
я
044F
F_
240
Ё
0401
ё
0451
Є
0404
є
0454
Ї
0407
ї
0457
Ў
040E
ў
045E
°
00B0

2219
·
00B7

221A

2116
¤
00A4

25A0
NBSP
00A0

Variants

There existed a few variants of the code page, but the differences were mostly in the last 16 code points (240–255).

Code page 808

IBM code page 808 is a variant of code page 866; the only difference is the euro sign (€) in position FDhex (253) replacing the universal currency sign (¤).[7]

Alternative code page

The original version of the code page by Bryabrin et al. (1986),[3] called the "Alternative code page" (Russian: Альтернативная кодировка) to distinguish it from the "Main code page" (Russian: Основная кодировка) by the same authors.

Alternative code page
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
F_
240
Ё
0401
ё
0451

256D

2264

256F

2570

2192

2190

2193

2191
÷
00F7
±
00B1}

2116
¤
00A4

25A0
NBSP
00A0

Modified code page 866

An unofficial variant with code points 240–255 identical to code page 437. However, the letter Ёё is usually placed at 240 and 241.[8]

Modified CP 866
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
F_
240
Ё
0401
ё
0451

2265

2264

2320

2321
÷
00F7

2248
°
00B0

2219
·
00B7

221A}

207F
²
00B2

25A0
NBSP
00A0

Code page 1125/848

IBM code page 1125/848[9][10] (Ukrainian standard RST 2018-91[11])
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
F_
240
Ё
0401
ё
0451
Ґ
0490
ґ
0491
Є
0404
є
0454
І
0406
і
0456
Ї
0407
ї
0457
÷
00F7
±
00B1}

2116
¤/
00A4/20AC

25A0
NBSP
00A0

Code page 1131/849

IBM code page 1131/849 (Belarusian)[12][13]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
F_
240
Ё
0401
ё
0451
Є
0404
є
0454
Ї
0407
ї
0457
Ў
040E
ў
045E
І
0406
і
0456
·
00B7
¤/
00A4/20AC}
Ґ
0490
ґ
0491

2219
NBSP
00A0

GOST R 34.303-92

Two variants from GOST R 34.303-92. The first one, KOI-8 N1, leaves several code points empty for further internationalization (compare with code page 850).

The second one, KOI-8 N2, adds letters for Belarusian and Ukrainian. Code points 176–239 are identical to code page 866.

KOI-8 N1 (GOST R 34.303-92)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
B_
176

2591

2592

2593

2502

2524

 

 

 

 

2563

2551

2557

255D

 

 

2510
C_
192

2514

2534

252C

251C

2500

253C

 

 

255A

2554

2569

2566

2560

2550

256C

 
D_
208

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2518

250C

2588

2584

258C

2590

2580
E_
224
р
0440
с
0441
т
0442
у
0443
ф
0444
х
0445
ц
0446
ч
0447
ш
0448
щ
0449
ъ
044A
ы
044B
ь
044C
э
044D
ю
044E
я
044F
F_
240
SHY
00AD

2116

 

 
Ё
0401
ё
0451

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25A0
NBSP
00A0
KOI-8 N2 (GOST R 34.303-92)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
B_
176

2591

2592

2593

2502

2524

2561

2562

2556

2555

2563

2551

2557

255D

255C

255B

2510
C_
192

2514

2534

252C

251C

2500

253C

255E

255F

255A

2554

2569

2566

2560

2550

256C

2567
D_
208

2568

2564

2565

2559

2558

2552

2553

256B

256A

2518

250C

2588

2584

258C

2590

2580
E_
224
р
0440
с
0441
т
0442
у
0443
ф
0444
х
0445
ц
0446
ч
0447
ш
0448
щ
0449
ъ
044A
ы
044B
ь
044C
э
044D
ю
044E
я
044F
F_
240
SHY
00AD

2116
Ґ
0490
ґ
0491
Ё
0401
ё
0451
Є
0404
є
0454
І
0406
і
0456
Ї
0407
ї
0457}
Ў
040E
ў
045E

25A0
NBSP
00A0

FreeDOS

FreeDOS provides additional unofficial extensions of code page 866 for various non-Slavic languages:[14]

Code page 900

Before Microsoft's final code page for Russian MS-DOS 4.01 was registered with IBM by Franz Rau of Microsoft as CP866 in January 1990, draft versions of it developed by Yuri Starikov (Юрий Стариков) of Dialogue were still called code page 900 internally. While the documentation was corrected to reflect the new name before the release of the product, sketches of earlier draft versions still named code page 900 and without Ukrainian and Belarusian letters, which had been added in autumn 1989, were published in the Russian press in 1990.[15] Code page 900 slipped through into the distribution of the Russian MS-DOS 5.0 LCD.CPI codepage information file.[16]

References

  1. ^ "OS/2" (in Russian).
  2. ^ "Code Pages Supported by Windows: OEM Code Pages". Go Global Development Center. Microsoft. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
  3. ^ a b (in Russian) Брябрин В. М., Ландау И. Я., Неменман М. Е. О системе кодирования для персональных ЭВМ // Микропроцессорные средства и системы. — 1986. — № 4. — С. 61–64.
  4. ^ (in Russian) ГОСТ Р 34.303-92. Наборы 8-битных кодированных символов. 8-битный код обмена и обработки информации. = 8-bit coded character sets. 8-bit code for information interchange.
  5. ^ "OEM 866". Go Global Development Center. Microsoft. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  6. ^ "CP 00866". IBM Globalization.
  7. ^ "CP 00808". IBM Globalization.
  8. ^ (in Russian) Фигурнов В. Э. IBM PC для пользователя. — 2-е изд. — М.: 1992. — С. 279.
  9. ^ "CP 01025". IBM Globalization.
  10. ^ "CP 00848". IBM Globalization.
  11. ^ (in Ukrainian) РСТ УРСР 2018-91. Система обробки інформації. Кодування символів української абетки 8-бітними кодами.
  12. ^ "CP 01031". IBM Globalization.
  13. ^ "CP 00849". IBM Globalization.
  14. ^ "CPIDOS - CPX files (Code Page Information) Pack v3.0 - DOS codepages". FreeDOS.
  15. ^ Starikov, Yuri (2005-04-11). "15-летию Russian MS-DOS 4.01 посвящается" [15 Years of Russian MS-DOS 4.01] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2016-12-03. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
  16. ^ Paul, Matthias (2001-06-10) [1995]. "Overview on DOS, OS/2, and Windows codepages" (CODEPAGE.LST file) (1.59 preliminary ed.). Archived from the original on 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2016-08-20.

Further reading

  • Kornai, Andras; Birnbaum, David J.; da Cruz, Frank; Davis, Bur; Fowler, George; Paine, Richard B.; Paperno, Slava; Simonsen, Keld J.; Thobe, Glenn E.; Vulis, Dimitri; van Wingen, Johan W. (1993-03-13). "CYRILLIC ENCODING FAQ Version 1.3". 1.3. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
Che (Cyrillic)

Che or Cha (Ч ч; italics: Ч ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate /tʃ/, like ⟨tch⟩ in "switch".

In English, it is romanized most often as ⟨ch⟩ but sometimes as ⟨tch⟩, like in French. In German, it can be transcribed as ⟨tsch⟩. In linguistics, it is transcribed as ⟨č⟩ so "Tchaikovsky" (Чайковский in Russian) may be transcribed as Chaykovskiy or Čajkovskij.

Code page 855

Code page 855 (also known as CP 855, IBM 00855, OEM 855, MS-DOS Cyrillic) is a code page used under DOS to write Cyrillic script. At one time it was widely used in Serbia, Macedonia and Bulgaria, but it never caught on in Russia, where Code page 866 was more common. This code page is not used much.

Ef (Cyrillic)

Ef or Fe (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative /f/, like the pronunciation of ⟨f⟩ in "fill". The Cyrillic letter Ef is romanized as ⟨f⟩. In Russian and all languages, it is known as Fe.

El (Cyrillic)

El (Лл) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

El commonly represents the alveolar lateral approximant /l/. In Slavic languages it may be either palatalized or slightly velarized; see below.

Em (Cyrillic)

Em (М м; italics: М м) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.Em commonly represents the bilabial nasal consonant /m/, like the pronunciation of ⟨m⟩ in "him".

It is derived from the Greek letter Mu (Μ μ).

En (Cyrillic)

En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the alveolar nasal consonant /n/, like the pronunciation of ⟨n⟩ in "neat".

Er (Cyrillic)

Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the alveolar trill /r/, like the "rolled" sound in the Scottish pronunciation of ⟨r⟩ in "curd".

Ka (Cyrillic)

Ka (К к; italics: К к) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the voiceless velar plosive /k/, like the pronunciation of ⟨k⟩ in "king".

Kha (Cyrillic)

Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It looks the same as the Latin letter X (X x X x), in both uppercase and lowercase, both roman and italic forms, and was derived from the Greek letter Chi, which also bears a resemblance to both the Latin X and Kha.

It commonly represents the voiceless velar fricative /x/, similar to the pronunciation of ⟨ch⟩ in “loch”.

Kha is romanised as ⟨kh⟩ for Russian, Ukrainian, Belarussian, Kazakh, and Tajik, while it is romanised as ⟨h⟩ for Serbian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian.

Main code page (Russian)

The Main code page (Russian: Основная кодировка) is an 8-bit code page used in DOS. It was devised in 1986 by a research group at the Academy of Science of the USSR. The other code page by the same group is known as the "Alternative code page" (Russian: Альтернативная кодировка) which is nearly identical to code page 866. Unlike the latter, the "Main code page" does not preserve the code points of the pseudographic symbols of code page 437. However, the majority of software at that period were made to be compatible with code page 437, as a result the Main code page has never gained any wide use. With the introduction of the Russian version of MS-DOS in 1990 which by default uses code page 866, the Main code page has become obsolete. Neither IBM nor Microsoft have ever supported this code page, so it has not been given its code page number by any vendor.

The Main code page was hardwired in some Soviet IBM PC clones such as ES PEVM or Iskra-1030 (however, other Soviet computers such as UKNC generally used KOI-7 or KOI-8).

The cells B0–EF seem to be the origin for the same rows in ISO/IEC 8859-5.

Sha (Cyrillic)

Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script. It commonly represents the voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/, like the pronunciation of ⟨sh⟩ in "sheep" or the somewhat similar voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/ in Russian. More precisely, the sound in Russian denoted by ⟨ш⟩ is commonly transcribed as a palatoalveolar fricative but is actually a voiceless retroflex fricative. It is used in every variation of the Cyrillic alphabet for Slavic and non-Slavic languages.In English, Sha is romanized as ⟨sh⟩ or as ⟨š⟩, the latter being the equivalent letter in the Latin alphabets of Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Serbian, Croatian, Latvian and Lithuanian.

Shcha

Shcha (Щ щ; italics: Щ щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Russian, it represents the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ(ː)/, similar to the pronunciation of ⟨sh⟩ in sheep (but longer). In Ukrainian and Rusyn, it represents the consonant cluster /ʃt͡ʃ/. (This is also the sound it is normally taught to English speakers as because it is easier to distinguish from Sha's sound.) In Bulgarian, it represents the consonant cluster /ʃt/. In Kurdish, it represents the consonant /d͡ʒ/. Other non-Slavic languages written in Cyrillic use this letter to spell the few loanwords that use it or foreign names; it is usually pronounced /ʃ/ and is often omitted when teaching those languages.

In English, Shcha is romanized as ⟨shch⟩ or ⟨šč⟩ (with hačeks) (occasionally ⟨sch⟩, all reflecting the historical Russian pronunciation of the letter. That can lead to some confusion, as the ⟨ch⟩ in the transcription may seem to indicate that Щ is a combination of Ш and a strong Ч, which is true in Ukrainian but not Russian, where this sound is always more softened. The letter Щ in Russian and Ukrainian corresponds to ШЧ in related words in Belarusian.

Short I

For the sound in English sometimes represented by ĭ, see near-close near-front unrounded vowel.Short I or Yot (Й й; italics: Й й) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is made of the Cyrillic letter И with a breve.

Short I represents the palatal approximant /j/ like the pronunciation of ⟨y⟩ in yesterday.

Depending on the romanization system in use and the Slavic language that is under examination, it can be romanized as ⟨y⟩ (the most common), ⟨j⟩, ⟨i⟩ or ⟨ĭ⟩ (probably the least common).

For more details, see romanization of Russian, romanization of Ukrainian and romanization of Bulgarian.

Short U (Cyrillic)

Short U (Ў ў; italics: Ў ў) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

The only Slavic language using this letter is the Belarusian Cyrillic script.

Among the non-Slavic languages using Cyrillic alphabets, ў is used in the Dungan language and in the Siberian Yupik language. It was also used in Uzbek before the adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1992.

Tse (Cyrillic)

Tse (Ц ц; italics: Ц ц) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the voiceless alveolar affricate /ts/, like the pronunciation of ⟨zz⟩ in "pizza".

In the standard Iron dialect of Ossetic, it represents the voiceless alveolar sibilant fricative /s/. In other dialects, including Digoron, it has the same value as in Russian.

In English, Tse is commonly romanized as ⟨ts⟩. However, in proper names (personal names, toponyms, etc.) and titles it may also be rendered as ⟨c⟩ (which signifies the sound in Serbo-Croatian, Czech, Hungarian etc.), ⟨z⟩ (which signifies the sound in Italian and German), ⟨cz⟩ or ⟨tz⟩. Its equivalent in the modern Romanian Latin alphabet is ⟨ț⟩.

U (Cyrillic)

U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It commonly represents the close back rounded vowel /u/, somewhat like the pronunciation of ⟨oo⟩ in "boot". The forms of the Cyrillic letter U are similar to the lowercase of the Latin letter Y (Y y; Y y), but like most other Cyrillic letters, the upper and lowercase forms are similar in shape and differ mainly in size and vertical placement.

Yi (Cyrillic)

Yi (Ї ї; italics: Ї ї) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. Yi is derived from the French letter Ï.

It represents the iotated vowel sound /ji/, like the pronunciation of ⟨yea⟩ in "yeast". It is used in the Ukrainian alphabet, the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet, and the Prešov Rusyn alphabet of Slovakia.

In various romanization systems, ї is represented by Roman ji, yi, i, or even ï, but the most common is yi.

It was formerly also used in the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet in the late 1700s and early 1800s, where it represented the sound /j/; in this capacity, it was introduced by Dositej Obradović but eventually replaced with the modern letter ј by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić.In Ukrainian, the letter was introduced as part of the Zhelekhivka orthography, in Yevhen Zhelekhivsky's Ukrainian–German dictionary (2 volumes, 1885–6).

Ze (Cyrillic)

Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the voiced alveolar fricative /z/, like the pronunciation of ⟨z⟩ in "zoo".

Ze is romanized using the Latin letter ⟨z⟩.

The shape of Ze is very similar to the Arabic numeral three ⟨3⟩ and the Cyrillic letter E ⟨Э⟩.

Zhe (Cyrillic)

Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the voiced palato-alveolar sibilant /ʒ/ (listen), or the somewhat similar voiced retroflex sibilant /ʐ/ (listen), like the pronunciation of ⟨su⟩ in "treasure".

Zhe is romanized as ⟨zh⟩ or ⟨ž⟩.

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