Code of Federal Regulations

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation.

The CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register (part of the National Archives and Records Administration) and the Government Publishing Office.[1] In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the Electronic CFR website, which is updated daily.

Code of Federal Regulations
Title 3 CFR 2005 Compilation.djvu
The Code of Federal Regulations
DisciplineAdministrative law
LanguageEnglish
Publication details
Publisher
FrequencyAnnually
LicensePublic domain
Standard abbreviations
C.F.R.
Code Fed. Regul.
Indexing
ISSN1946-4975
Links
Code of Federal Regulations
A few volumes of the CFR at a law library (titles 12–26).

Background

Under the nondelegation doctrine, federal agencies are authorized by "enabling legislation" to promulgate regulations (rulemaking).[2] The process of rulemaking is governed by the Administrative Procedure Act (APA): generally, the APA requires a process that includes publication of the proposed rules in a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), a period for comments and participation in the decisionmaking, and adoption and publication of the final rule, via the Federal Register.[2][3]

Publication procedure

The rules and regulations are first promulgated or published in the Federal Register. The CFR is structured into 50 subject matter titles. Agencies are assigned chapters within these titles. The titles are broken down into chapters, parts, sections and paragraphs.[4] For example, 42 CFR 260.11(a)(1) would be read as "title 42, part 260, section 11, paragraph (a)(1)."

While new regulations are continually becoming effective, the printed volumes of the CFR are issued once each calendar year, on this schedule:

  • Titles 1–16 are updated as of January 1
  • Titles 17–27 are updated as of April 1
  • Titles 28–41 are updated as of July 1
  • Titles 42–50 are updated as of October 1

The Office of the Federal Register also keeps an unofficial, online version of the CFR, the e-CFR, which is normally updated within two days after changes that have been published in the Federal Register become effective.[5] The Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules lists rulemaking authority for regulations codified in the CFR.[6]

List of CFR titles

Code of Federal Regulations Mid-Manhattan Library
Code of Federal Regulations, seen at the Mid-Manhattan Library. Editions of Title 3, on the President, are kept on archive. Notice that for the first year of each new presidency, the volume is thicker.

The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas:[2]

History

The Federal Register Act originally provided for a complete compilation of all existing regulations promulgated prior to the first publication of the Federal Register, but was amended in 1937 to provide a codification of all regulations every five years.[7] The first edition of the CFR was published in 1938.[7] Beginning in 1963 for some titles and for all titles in 1967, the Office of the Federal Register began publishing yearly revisions, and beginning in 1972 published revisions in staggered quarters.[7]

On March 11, 2014, Rep. Darrell Issa introduced the Federal Register Modernization Act (H.R. 4195; 113th Congress), a bill that would revise requirements for the filing of documents with the Office of the Federal Register for inclusion in the Federal Register and for the publication of the Code of Federal Regulations to reflect the changed publication requirement in which they would be available online but would not be required to be printed.[8] The American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) strongly opposed the bill, arguing that the bill undermines citizens' right to be informed by making it more difficult for citizens to find their government's regulations.[9] According to AALL, a survey they conducted "revealed that members of the public, librarians, researchers, students, attorneys, and small business owners continue to rely on the print" version of the Federal Register.[9] AALL also argued that the lack of print versions of the Federal Register and CFR would mean the 15 percent of Americans who don't use the internet would lose their access to that material.[9] The House voted on July 14, 2014 to pass the bill 386–0.[10][11]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Browse Code of Federal Regulations (Annual Edition)". FDsys. US Government Publishing Office Federal Digital System. Retrieved 2014-05-23.
  2. ^ a b c "Federal Administrative Law". Duke University School of Law. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  3. ^ 5 U.S.C. § 553
  4. ^ "eCFR – Code of Federal Regulations". FDsys – US Government Publishing Office Federal Digital System. 2014-05-21. Retrieved 2014-05-23.
  5. ^ "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations". Office of the Federal Register. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  6. ^ "About Code of Federal Regulations". Government Publishing Office. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  7. ^ a b c "A Research Guide to the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations". Law Librarians' Society of Washington, D.C. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  8. ^ "H.R. 4195 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  9. ^ a b c "The Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations" (PDF). American Association of Law Libraries. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  10. ^ Medici, Andy (15 July 2014). "House passes bills to change TSP default fund, extend whistleblower protections". Federal Times. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  11. ^ "H.R. 4195 – All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved 14 July 2014.

References

Further reading

External links

American cheese

American cheese is a type of processed cheese. It can be orange, yellow, or white in color, is mild and salty in flavor, has a medium-firm consistency, and has a very low melting point. It originated in the 1910s, and is a common staple in many American dishes.

Federal Aviation Regulations

The Federal Aviation Regulations, or FARs, are rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States. The FARs are part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). A wide variety of activities are regulated, such as aircraft design and maintenance, typical airline flights, pilot training activities, hot-air ballooning, lighter-than-air aircraft, man-made structure heights, obstruction lighting and marking, and even model rocket launches, model aircraft operation, sUAS & Drone operation, and kite flying. The rules are designed to promote safe aviation, protecting pilots, flight attendants, passengers and the general public from unnecessary risk. Since 1958, these rules have typically been referred to as "FARs", short for Federal Aviation Regulations. However, another set of regulations (Title 48) is titled "Federal Acquisitions Regulations", and this has led to confusion with the use of the acronym "FAR". Therefore, the FAA began to refer to specific regulations by the term "14 CFR part XX".

Federal Register

The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices. It is published daily, except on federal holidays. The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are ultimately reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), which is updated annually.

The Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register (within the National Archives and Records Administration) and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no copyright restrictions on the Federal Register; as a work of the U.S. government, it is in the public domain.

Mountain Time Zone

The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when standard time is in effect, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time (UTC−06:00). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time at the 105th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. In the United States, the exact specification for the location of time zones and the dividing lines between zones is set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations at 49 CFR 71.In the United States and Canada, this time zone is generically called Mountain Time (MT). Specifically, it is Mountain Standard Time (MST) when observing standard time, and Mountain Daylight Time (MDT) when observing daylight saving time. The term refers to how the Rocky Mountains, which range from northwestern Canada to the US state of New Mexico, are located almost entirely in the time zone. In Mexico, this time zone is known as the Zona Pacífico (Pacific Zone). In the US and Canada, the Mountain Time Zone is to the east of the Pacific Time Zone and to the west of the Central Time Zone.

In some areas, starting in 2007, the local time changes from MST to MDT at 2 am MST to 3 am MDT on the second Sunday in March and returns at 2 am MDT to 1 am MST on the first Sunday in November.

Sonora in Mexico and most of Arizona in the United States do not observe daylight saving time, and during the spring, summer, and autumn months they are on the same time as Pacific Daylight Time. The Navajo Nation, most of which lies within Arizona but extends into Utah and New Mexico (which do observe DST), does observe DST, although the Hopi Nation, as well as some Arizona state offices lying within the Navajo Nation, do not.

The largest city in the Mountain Time Zone is Phoenix, Arizona. The Phoenix metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the zone; the next largest metropolitan area that observes Mountain Time is Denver, closely followed by the El Paso–Juárez area.

TV broadcasting in the Mountain Time Zone is typically tape-delayed one hour, so that shows match the broadcast times of the Central Time Zone (i.e. prime time begins at 7 pm MT following the same order of programming as the Central Time Zone).

Research chemical

Research chemicals are chemical substances used by scientists for medical and scientific research purposes. One characteristic of a research chemical is that it is for laboratory research use only; a research chemical is not intended for human or veterinary use. This distinction is required on the labels of research chemicals, and is what exempts them from regulation under parts 100-740 in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR).

Title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Title 12 - Banks and Banking is one of fifty titles comprising the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), containing the principal set of rules and regulations issued by federal agencies regarding banks and banking. It is available in digital and printed form, and can be referenced online using the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR).

Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations

Title 15 is the portion of the Code of Federal Regulations that governs Commerce and Foreign Trade within the United States. It is available in digital or printed form.

Title 15 comprises three volumes, and is divided into four Subtitles:

Subtitle A — Office of the Secretary of Commerce

Subtitle B — Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade

Subtitle C — Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements

Subtitle D — Regulations Relating to Telecommunications and Information

Title 21 CFR Part 11

Title 21 CFR Part 11 is the part of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations that establishes the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on electronic records and electronic signatures (ERES). Part 11, as it is commonly called, defines the criteria under which electronic records and electronic signatures are considered trustworthy, reliable, and equivalent to paper records (Title 21 CFR Part 11 Section 11.1 (a)).

Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations

Title 21 is the portion of the Code of Federal Regulations that governs food and drugs within the United States for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP).It is divided into three chapters:

Chapter I — Food and Drug Administration

Chapter II — Drug Enforcement Administration

Chapter III — Office of National Drug Control Policy

Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Title 22 – Foreign Relations is one of fifty titles comprising the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), containing the principal set of rules and regulations issued by federal agencies regarding foreign relations. It is available in digital and printed form, and can be referenced online using the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR).

Title 28 of the Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Title 28 - Judicial Administration is one of fifty titles comprising the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), containing the principal set of rules and regulations issued by federal agencies regarding judicial administration. It is available in digital and printed form, and can be referenced online using the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR).

Title 31 of the Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Title 31 - Money and Finance: Treasury is one of fifty titles comprising the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 31 is the principal set of rules and regulations issued by federal agencies of the United States regarding money, finance, and the treasury. It is available in digital and printed form, and can be referenced online using the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR).

Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations

Title 33 is the portion of the Code of Federal Regulations that governs Navigation and Navigable Waters within the United States. It is available in digital or printed form.

Title 33 and Title 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations are usually consulted by Classification societies, engineering firms, deck officers on oceangoing vessels, and marine engineers.

It is divided into three chapters:

Chapter I — United States Coast Guard,

Chapter II — Army Corps of Engineers,

Chapter IV[sic.] — Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.

Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations

Title 40 is a part of the United States Code of Federal Regulations. Title 40 arranges mainly environmental regulations that were promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), based on the provisions of United States laws (statutes of the U.S. Federal Code). Parts of the regulation may be updated annually on July 1.

Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Title 45 - Public Welfare is one of fifty titles comprising the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 45 is the principle set of rules and regulations issued by federal agencies of the United States regarding public welfare. It is available in digital and printed form, and can be referenced online using the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR).

Title 47 CFR Part 15

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Part 15 (47 CFR 15) is an oft-quoted part of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions. It is a part of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), and regulates everything from spurious emissions to unlicensed low-power broadcasting. Nearly every electronics device sold inside the United States radiates unintentional emissions, and must be reviewed to comply with Part 15 before it can be advertised or sold in the US market.

Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations

The Code of Federal Regulations, Telecommunications, containing the U.S. federal regulations for telecommunications can be found under Title 47 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations.

Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Title 49 - Transportation is one of fifty titles comprising the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 49 is the principle set of rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) issued by the Departments of Transportation and Homeland Security, federal agencies of the United States regarding transportation and transportation related security. This title is available in digital and printed form, and can be referenced online using the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR).

Title 8 of the Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Title 8 - Aliens and Nationality is one of fifty titles comprising the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), containing the principal set of rules and regulations issued by federal agencies regarding aliens and nationality. It is available in digital and printed form, and can be referenced online using the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR).

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