Coconut water

Coconut water, less commonly coconut juice, is the clear liquid inside coconuts (fruits of the coconut palm). In early development, it serves as a suspension for the endosperm of the coconut during the nuclear phase of development. As growth continues, the endosperm matures into its cellular phase and deposits into the rind of the coconut pulp.[1] The liquid inside young coconuts is often preferred to the liquid of a ripened coconut.

Coconut Drink, Pangandaran
A young coconut, ready to drink
Fresh coconut water
Coconut water out of a mature coconut

Harvesting

Fresh coconuts are typically harvested from the tree while they are green. A hole may be bored into the coconut to provide access to the liquid and pulp ("meat"). In young coconuts, the liquid and air may be under some pressure and may spray slightly when the inner husk is first penetrated. Coconuts that have fallen to the ground are susceptible to rot and damage from insects or other animals.

Products

Plain coconut water has long been a popular drink in tropical countries, where it is available fresh, canned, or bottled.

Coconuts for drinking are served chilled, fresh, or packaged. They are often sold by street vendors who cut them open with machetes or similar implements in front of customers. Coconut water for retail can be found in ordinary aluminum cans, Tetra Paks, or plastic bottles, sometimes with coconut pulp or coconut jelly included.

Coconut water can be fermented to produce coconut vinegar. It is also used to make nata de coco, a jelly-like food.

Nutritional value

Coconut water
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy79 kJ (19 kcal)
3.71 g
Sugars2.61 g
Dietary fiber1.1 g
0.20 g
Saturated0.176 g
Monounsaturated0.008 g
Polyunsaturated0.002 g
0.72 g
Tryptophan0.008 g
Threonine0.026 g
Isoleucine0.028 g
Leucine0.053 g
Lysine0.032 g
Methionine0.013 g
Cystine0.014 g
Phenylalanine0.037 g
Tyrosine0.022 g
Valine0.044 g
Arginine0.118 g
Histidine0.017 g
Alanine0.037 g
Aspartic acid0.070 g
Glutamic acid0.165 g
Glycine0.034 g
Proline0.030 g
Serine0.037 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.030 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
5%
0.057 mg
Niacin (B3)
1%
0.080 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
1%
0.043 mg
Vitamin B6
2%
0.032 mg
Folate (B9)
1%
3 μg
Choline
0%
1.1 mg
Vitamin C
3%
2.4 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
2%
24 mg
Copper
2%
0.04 mg
Iron
2%
0.29 mg
Magnesium
7%
25 mg
Manganese
7%
0.142 mg
Phosphorus
3%
20 mg
Potassium
5%
250 mg
Selenium
1%
1 μg
Sodium
7%
105 mg
Zinc
1%
0.10 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water95 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Providing 19 calories in a 100 millilitres (3.5 imp fl oz; 3.4 US fl oz) amount, coconut water is 95% water and 4% carbohydrates, with protein and total fat content under 1% each (table). Coconut water contains small amounts of vitamins and dietary minerals, all under 10% of the Daily Value (DV)(table).

Risks

One health risk arising from excessive consumption of coconut water is an overabundance of potassium in the blood (hyperkalemia), inducing acute kidney failure, heart arrhythmia, loss of consciousness and eventually death.[2][3] Hyperkalemia and loss of consciousness after the consumption of several liters of coconut water were reported only as a clinical case study in association with one individual's use of a commercial product following physical exertion.[3] However, the levels of potassium in each 100 ml serving of unprocessed coconut water are not very significant (2–7% of the DV).[4]

Anecdotal sources describe coconut water being used in India for the senicide of elderly people, a procedure known as thalaikoothal.[5] In this custom, the elderly person is made to drink an excessive amount of coconut water, eventually resulting in fever and death, the exact causes of which were not determined.[5]

Commercialization

Since the early 21st century, coconut water has been marketed as a natural energy or sports drink having low levels of fat, carbohydrates, and calories, and significant electrolyte content. However, the contents of primary electrolytes sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium per 100 millilitres (3.5 imp fl oz; 3.4 US fl oz) serving of unprocessed coconut water are insignificant (2–7% of the DV) and not balanced.

False advertising

Further, marketing claims attributing health benefits to coconut water are not based on science and are disallowed by certain regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration.[6] In the United States, the FDA warned producers about misleading marketing claims that coconut water is antiviral, can lower cholesterol, can regulate blood glucose levels, and other false claims, as inappropriate for the product.[7]

Some companies have faced class action lawsuits over false advertising claims that the product was "super-hydrating", "nutrient-packed", and "mega-electrolyte".[8] The plaintiffs also alleged that one company, Vita Coco, falsely claimed that its product had "15 times the electrolytes found in sports drinks" and misrepresented the levels of sodium and magnesium as advertised. The company denied any wrongdoing and settled the lawsuit for US$10 million in April 2012.[8]

Medical use in Cambodia

Although substituting coconut water for saline is not recommended by physicians today, it was a common practice during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979.[9][10] The Documentation Center of Cambodia cited the practice of allowing untrained nurses to administer green coconut water during the Pol Pot regime as a crime against humanity.[11]

Folk medicine

Coconut water has been used in the folk medicine practices of Jamaica for such uses as the treatment of diarrhea.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Janick J, Paull RE (2008). Cocos in The Encyclopedia of Fruit and Nuts. pp. 109–113. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  2. ^ Rees, Richard; Barnett, Joe; Marks, Daniel; George, Marc (September 2012). "Coconut water-induced hyperkalaemia". British Journal of Hospital Medicine. 73 (9): 534. doi:10.12968/hmed.2012.73.9.534. PMID 23124410.
  3. ^ a b Hakimian, J; Goldbarg, SH; Park, CH; Kerwin, TC (2014). "Death by coconut". Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 7: 180–181. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000941. PMID 24550410. Archived from the original on 2015-05-23.
  4. ^ Martinez-Belkin N (2 December 2014). ""Raw" Coconut Water Under Scrutiny of the FDA". BevNet.com.
  5. ^ a b Shahina, KK (2010-11-20). "Mother, shall I put you to sleep?". Tehelka Magazine. 7 (46). Archived from the original on 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
  6. ^ Martinez-Belkin N (2 December 2014). ""Raw" Coconut Water Under Scrutiny of the FDA". BevNet.com.
  7. ^ Crawford, Elizabeth (October 29, 2014). "Coconut products can never claim to be 'healthy' because of the saturated fats, says legal expert". foodnavigator-usa.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Vita Coco coconut water settles class action lawsuit". Lexology. Manatt Phelps & Phillips LLP. May 27, 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  9. ^ Barclay, Eliza (15 Aug 2011). "Coconut Water To The Rescue? Parsing The Medical Claims". NPR. Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved 1 Oct 2013.
  10. ^ Short, Philip (2006). Pol Pot: Anatomy of a Nightmare. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-8006-3.
  11. ^ Vilim, Laura (2012). "'Keeping Them Alive, One Gets Nothing; Killing Them, One Loses Nothing': Prosecuting Khmer Rouge Medical Practices as Crimes against Humanity" (PDF). Georgetown University Law Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-04-07.
  12. ^ Mitchell, SA (2011). "Plants used in Jamaican folk medicine against the common cold, flu and diarrhea". J Antivir Antiretrovir. 3 (4): 173. Archived from the original on 2015-10-02.

External links

Media related to Coconut water at Wikimedia Commons

Anuraga Karikkin Vellam

Anuraga Karikkin Vellam (English: The Tender Coconut Water of Love) is a 2016 Indian Malayalam film directed by debutant Khalid Rahman. It stars Asif Ali, Biju Menon, Asha Sarath, and Rajisha Vijayan in lead roles. Written by Naveen Bhaskar, it revolves around the life of an ordinary man, Raghu, and his son, Abhilash. The soundtrack and background score for the film are composed by Prashant Pillai.

Produced jointly by Shaji Nadesan, Prithviraj Sukumaran, Santhosh Sivan, and Arya under the banner of August Cinema. Anuraga Karikkin Vellam was released on 7 July 2016.The performance of Rajisha Vijayan made her to win the Kerala State Film Award for Best Actress in 2016 .

Coconut

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull" after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.Coconuts are known for their versatility of uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. The inner flesh of the mature seed forms a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called "coconut milk" in the literature, and when immature, may be harvested for their potable "coconut water", also called "coconut juice".

Mature, ripe coconuts can be used as edible seeds, or processed for oil and plant milk from the flesh, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. Dried coconut flesh is called copra, and the oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking – frying in particular – as well as in soaps and cosmetics. The hard shells, fibrous husks and long pinnate leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The coconut also has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.

Coconut milk

Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated pulp of a mature coconut. The opacity and rich taste of coconut milk are due to its high oil content, most of which is saturated fat. Coconut milk is a traditional food ingredient used in Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Caribbean, and northern South America.

ConsumerLab.com

ConsumerLab.com, LLC. is a privately held American company registered in White Plains, NY. It is a publisher of test results on health, wellness, and nutrition products. Consumer Labs is not a laboratory, but contracts studies to outside laboratories. It purchases supplement products and other consumer goods directly from public storefronts and publishes reports based on the results. It primarily derives revenue from the sale of subscriptions to its online publications. Other sources of revenue include a proprietary certification program, licensing fees, contents re-publication license fees and advertising.In 2000, ConsumerLab.com generated media attention when its testing of ginseng products revealed substantial pesticide contamination in many products. In 2008, they found 12 red yeast rice product samples to contain widely varying amounts of active ingredients and some included toxins. The testing was repeated in 2014 and 2018 with similar findings. In 2011, they found that two of three coconut water products contained less sodium and magnesium than claimed on the label. This spurred a class-action lawsuit against Vita Coco's manufacturer, All Market Inc., which was eventually settled for $10 million in 2012. In 2012, a ConsumerLab.com study on an energy drink reported the tested sample contained about 207 mg of caffeine.

Cuisine of São Tomé and Príncipe

Santomean cuisine comprises the cuisine, dishes and foods of São Tomé and Príncipe, a Portuguese-speaking island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. The country consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands: São Tomé and Príncipe, located about 140 kilometres (87 mi) apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres (155 and 140 mi), respectively, off the northwestern coast of Gabon.

Cuisine of Tuvalu

The cuisine of Tuvalu, a state in the Central Pacific (Oceania), is based on the staple of coconut and the many species of fish found in the ocean and the lagoons of the atolls of Tuvalu. Pulaka, (cyrtosperma merkusii), or swamp taro, is an important source of carbohydrates. Rice now forms an important part of the diet. Coconut is used in different forms with coconut water, coconut milk and the flesh of the coconut being used to flavour dishes. Various desserts made on the islands include coconut and coconut milk, instead of animal milk.

Double Cola

Double-Cola is the name of a carbonated soft drink. It is manufactured by The Double Cola Company, headquartered in Chattanooga, Tennessee.Double-Cola is considered a regionally manufactured US brand of soft drink, predominantly distributed east of the Mississippi River. It is also available in select international markets.

Endosperm

The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. This can make endosperm a source of nutrition in animal diet. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production. Other examples of endosperm that forms the bulk of the edible portion are coconut "meat" and coconut "water", and corn. Some plants, such as orchids, lack endosperm in their seeds.

Jesse Itzler

Jesse Eric Itzler (born August 22, 1968) is an entrepreneur, author, and former rapper. He is the co-founder of Marquis Jet, one of the largest private jet card companies in the world, a partner in Zico Coconut Water, the founder of The 100 Mile Group and an owner of the NBA's Atlanta Hawks.

Mandher Devi temple stampede

The Mandher Devi temple stampede occurred on 25 January 2005 at Mandher Devi temple near Wai in Satara district in Indian state of Maharashtra. The stampede broke out as 300,000 people converged on the Mandher Devi temple to undertake the annual pilgrimage on the full moon day in January and for participation in a 24-hour-long festival that includes ritual animal sacrifices to the goddess.

Witnesses said the rush started around midday after some pilgrims slipped on the temple's steep stone steps, which were wet with coconut water spilled from fruit presented as offerings to the goddess Kalubai. A fire then broke out in shops nearby and gas cylinders exploded. Scores were crushed to death on the steep and narrow hill path leading to the temple and many others were charred. 291 pilgrims died in the stampede.

Naked Juice

Naked Juice is an American brand that produces juices and smoothies. The company is based in Monrovia, California and is owned by Pepsico. Naked Juice Co. of Glendora, Inc. operates as a subsidiary of PepsiCo, Inc. The first Naked Juice drink was produced in 1983 and sold in California under the name "Naked Juice", referring to the composition of no artificial flavors, added sugar, or preservatives. Distribution has since expanded, and Naked Juice products are distributed in the United States, as well as in Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and France, among others.

As of 2011, the Naked Juice product line consisted of more than 20 different drinks, including fruit juices, juice smoothies, and protein smoothies, along with other beverages like coconut water. The drinks are promoted as containing high concentrations of antioxidants.

Nata de coco

Nata de coco (also marketed as "coconut gel") is a chewy, translucent, jelly-like food produced by the fermentation of coconut water, which gels through the production of microbial cellulose by Komagataeibacter xylinus. Originating in the Philippines, nata de coco is most commonly sweetened as a candy or dessert, and can accompany a variety of foods, including pickles, drinks, ice cream, puddings, and fruit cocktails.

Sanna (dish)

Sannas (Konkani: सान्नां) are spongy steamed savoury rice cakes originating from the Indian subcontinent. They are popular in Goa and Mangalore in Karnataka, India, especially among the Goans, both Hindus and Catholics, the Konkani diaspora of Karnataka and of a small community settled in Kerala, and the East Indians and the Kupari Catholic community based in and around Mumbai.

Sannas were often called Hitt or Hittli in old Konkani by Hindus, and are now commonly known as Idli. They are made on various religious occasions such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Saunsar padvo/Yugadi and Makar Sankranti, whereas Catholics prepare them during church feasts. Sometimes a sweet version is made with jaggery, known as godachi sanna (Konkani: गोडाची सान्नां, goddachee sanna).

Hindus normally use urad dal, coconut water and coconut milk for fermentation. Catholic sannas consist of two types: toddy-fermented sannas and those made using the sap of the coconut palm.Mangalorean Catholic Cuisine is incomplete without sannas. They are a much-loved bread served with pork bafat, a spicy pork dish prepared with a medley of powdered spices. Sannas are also served alongside chicken or mutton curries, or can be eaten for breakfast with coconut chutney or sambhar, or with sweet coconut milk sweetened with jaggery and flavoured with cardamom.

In modern times toddy-fermented sannas are rarely made. Instead, the batter can be leavened with yeast.

Satay celup

Sate Celup or Satay Celup (Steamboat Satay) is a dish where an assortment of raw and semi-cooked seafood, meat (including raw meat) and vegetables on skewers are dunked into a hot boiling pot of satay gravy.

Satay celup is popular in Malacca (historical city in Malaysia). Many tourists and locals consider satay celup a favourite because there are more than 80 types of seafood and vegetables to choose from and the sauces are thick and aromatic. Moreover, the food is always kept fresh in huge refrigerators or on shelves of cold storages in food courts. In Singapore, the dish is prepared by preparing a large pot of satay gravy and slathering it on individual skewers.

Satay celup is sold at prices that start as low as 80 cents in Malacca where delicious food is easily obtainable at cheap prices. Barley drinks often accompany the meal due to its hot and spicy flavour, coconut water or Chinese herbs tea will be a good combination.

Satay celup is sold in a self-service mode, and as soon as seats are picked by customers, food can be immediately taken using trays provided.

For people who are unable to stand the hot flavour, one can easily request for a plain water so it can be dipped into it to wash away the sauce.

Shirodhara

Shirodhara is a form of Ayurveda therapy that involves gently pouring liquids over the forehead and can be one of the steps involved in Panchakarma. The name comes from the Sanskrit words shiro (head) and dhara (flow). The liquids used in shirodhara depend on what is being treated, but can include oil, milk, buttermilk, coconut water, or even plain water.

Shirodhara has been used to treat a variety of conditions including eye diseases, sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, greying of hair, neurological disorders, memory loss, insomnia, hearing impairment, tinnitus, vertigo, Ménière's disease and certain types of skin diseases like psoriasis. It is also used non-medicinally at spas for its relaxing properties. Studies report that Ayurvedic Shirodhara is a safe option to improve sleep quality among people who have sleep problems. Shirodhara is also effective in treating mental conditions such as anxiety, and mental stress. The calming effect produced by Shirodhara is similar to that obtained with meditation.There are specialized forms of shirodhara called ksheeradhara, thakradhara, taildhara and jaladhara.Shirodhara may begin with a full body massage known as Abhyangam. Shirodhara also involves a head massage. Shirodhara is thought to work by relaxing the hypothalamus in the brain. It can also normalize the functions of hormones that regulate sleep and emotions.

Sky juice

Sky juice is a Bahamian cuisine beverage combining coconut water or coconut milk, condensed milk or evaporated milk, and alcohol (especially gin but rum can be used as a substitute). Nutmeg and cinnamon can spice it up.In Malaysia, Sky Juice refers to drinking water, plain water.

Trinidad and Tobago cuisine

Trinidad and Tobago cuisine is indicative of the blends of African-West African, Amerindian, Arab, Chinese, Creole, European, Indian-South Asian, and Latin American-Spanish-Portuguese influences

Tsamma juice

Tsamma juice ( SAH-mə) is a brand of watermelon juice, produced by Frey Farms since 2014. The juice is also available ready-mixed with coconut water or blueberry juice and is suitable as a mixer in alcoholic drinks.The brand is named after Tsamma, a local name for a type of watermelon found in sub-Saharan Africa, said to be "the Mother of all watermelon varieties"; however, the juice is farmed from watermelons grown in the Midwest and Southern United States. The production farms cover a total of 7,000 acres (2,800 ha) of watermelons, and also house a major national supplier of pumpkins.

ZICO (beverage)

ZICO Beverages is an American beverage company that manufactures coconut water.

In 2013, ZICO was acquired by The Coca-Cola Company.

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