Cocom

The Cocom or Cocomes were a Maya family or dynasty who controlled the Yucatán Peninsula in the late Postclassic period. Their capital was at Mayapan. The dynasty was founded by Hunac Ceel, and was overthrown sometime between 1440 and 1441 by Ah Xupan of the Xiu lineage.[1]

References

  1. ^ Hassig, Ross (1992). War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. University of California Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-520-07734-8.
Ah Xiu Xupan

Ah Xiu Xupan

(Maya glyphs

) was the last known ruler of the Mayan chiefdom of Tutul-Xiu when it was part of the League of Mayapan.

In 1441, Ah Xiu Xupan, who was the great ruler of Uxmal at that time, was given the task of starting a war with the royal family of Cocom, which founded Tibolón. He managed to kill everyone except for one Cocom survivor. The war between Uxmal and Cocom plunged the league into chaos; there was segregation in the provinces and several uprisings broke out. By 1461, the league was completely disintegrated.

After the war, Yucatán was divided into sixteen kuchkabals.

Bilateral Affairs Officer

A Bilateral Affairs Officer is a United States Army or Air National Guard officer recruited from the state National Guard unit of which he or she is a member. In the National Guard State Partnership Program, each state has a 'partner country' and the Bilateral Affairs Office serves as a conduit between the two. It is considered a diplomatic level assignment.

The Bilateral Affairs Officer functions as a security co-operation action officer and forward National Guard Liaison Officer, representing the interests of the respective National Guard. The Bilateral Affairs Office (and/or TCA Coordinator) works for the COCOM (Combatant Command) and for the Embassy Office of Defense Coordinator. The COCOM funds this position and the Bilateral Affairs Office will be under the direction of the Office of Defense Coordinator in the partner country.

Furthermore, the Bilateral Affairs Officer coordinates with the State Partnership Director for State Partnership Program events and National Guard forces to participate in military-to-military events. As a result, the positions of Bilateral Affairs Officer and State Partnership Director are mutually supportive.

Cocom (disambiguation)

Cocom may refer to:

The Cocom, a Mayan dynasty of Mayapan in the Yucatan

CoCom, the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls organized to restrict Western exports to COMECON countries

COCOM (or CoCOM), Unified Combatant Command which is a United States joint military command that is composed of forces from two or more services and has a broad and continuing mission.

COCOM A/S, a Danish cable modem company acquired by CISCO Systems in 1999

Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls

The Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom) was established by Western bloc powers in the first five years after the end of World War II, during the Cold War, to put an arms embargo on Comecon countries. CoCom ceased to function on March 31, 1994, and the then-current control list of embargoed goods was retained by the member nations until the successor, the Wassenaar Arrangement, was established.

Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted self-governing state, group, or individual. Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers, tariffs, and restrictions on financial transactions. An embargo is similar, but usually implies a more severe sanction.

Economic sanctions generally aim to change the behavior of elites in the target country. However, the efficacy of sanctions is debatable and sanctions can have unintended consequences.

Economic sanctions are not necessarily imposed because of economic circumstances—they may also be imposed for a variety of political, military, and social issues. Economic sanctions can be used for achieving domestic and international purposes.An embargo (from the Spanish embargo, meaning hindrance, obstruction, etc. in a general sense, a trading ban in trade terminology and literally "distraint" in juridic parlance) is the partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country/state or a group of countries. Embargoes are considered strong diplomatic measures imposed in an effort, by the imposing country, to elicit a given national-interest result from the country on which it is imposed. Embargoes are generally considered legal barriers to trade, not to be confused with blockades, which are often considered to be acts of war.Embargoes can mean limiting or banning export or import, creating quotas for quantity, imposing special tolls, taxes, banning freight or transport vehicles, freezing or seizing freights, assets, bank accounts, limiting the transport of particular technologies or products (high-tech) for example CoCom during the cold-war.In response to embargoes, a closed economy or autarky often develops in an area subjected to heavy embargo. Effectiveness of embargoes is thus in proportion to the extent and degree of international participation.

Embargo can be an opportunity to some countries to develop faster a self-sufficiency.

Export of cryptography

The export of cryptography is the transfer from one country to another of devices and technology related to cryptography.

In the early days of the Cold War, the United States and its allies developed an elaborate series of export control regulations designed to prevent a wide range of Western technology from falling into the hands of others, particularly the Eastern bloc. All export of technology classed as 'critical' required a license. CoCom was organized to coordinate Western export controls.

Currently, many countries, notably those participating in the Wassenaar Arrangement, have similar restrictions.

History of computer hardware in Soviet Bloc countries

The history of computing hardware in the Soviet Bloc is somewhat different from that of the Western world. As a result of the CoCom embargo, computers could not be imported on a large scale from Western Bloc.

Soviet Bloc manufacturers created copies of Western designs based on intelligence gathering and reverse engineering. This redevelopment led to some incompatibilities with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and IEEE standards, such as spacing integrated circuit pins at ​1⁄10 of a 25 mm length (colloquially a "metric inch") instead of a standard inch of 25.4 mm. This made Soviet chips unsalable on the world market outside the Comecon, and made test machinery more expensive.

Hitori Kumagai

Hitori Kumagai (熊谷 独, Kumagai Hitori), born Kazuo Kumagai (熊谷 一男, Kumagai Kazuo) on 10 June 1936, is a Japanese author and whistleblower who uncovered the Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal.

I Marine Expeditionary Force

The I Marine Expeditionary Force ("I" pronounced "One") is a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) of the United States Marine Corps primarily composed of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, and 1st Marine Logistics Group. It is based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.

I Marine Expeditionary Force is the largest of the three MEFs in the Fleet Marine Force and is often referred to as the "Warfighting MEF" for its consistent involvement and contributions in major armed conflicts. It is presently commanded by Lt. Gen. Joseph Osterman. The deputy commander is Brig. Gen. Rick Uribe.

Kuchkabal

The Kuchkabal, Ah Kuch-Kab, or Ah Cuch-Cab (plural Kuchkabalob) were the forms of government used by the pre-Columbian nations of the Yucatan Peninsula. There were somewhere between 16 and 24 kuchkabalob in the 16th century. Kuchkabal could also refer to the ruling family.

League of Mayapan

The League of Mayapan (Yucatec Luub Mayapan Maya glyphs ) was a confederation of Maya states in the post classic period of Mesoamerica on the Yucatan peninsula.

The main members of the league were the Itza, the Tutul-Xiu, Mayapan, and Uxmal.

Mayapan means flag of the Maya.

List of acquisitions by Cisco Systems

Cisco Systems is an American computer networking company. Cisco made its first acquisition in 1993, which was followed by a series of further acquisitions.

Mayapan

Mayapan (Màayapáan in Modern Maya), (in Spanish Mayapán), (pronounced mī-ä-ˈpän) is a Pre-Columbian Maya site a couple of kilometers south of the town of Telchaquillo in Municipality of Tecoh, approximately 40 km south-east of Mérida and 100 km west of Chichen Itza; in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. Mayapan was the political and cultural capital of the Maya in the Yucatán Peninsula during the Late Post-Classic period from the 1220s until the 1440s. Estimates of the total city population are 15,000–17,000 persons, and the site has more than 4,000 structures within the city walls, and additional dwellings outside.

The site has been professionally surveyed and excavated by archeological teams, beginning in 1939; five years of work was done by a team in the 1950s, and additional studies were done in the 1990s. Since 2000, a collaborative Mexican-United States team has been conducting excavations and recovery at the site, which continue.

Multiracial Americans

Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of two or more races. The term may also include Americans of mixed race ancestry who self-identify with just one group culturally and socially (cf. the one-drop rule). In the 2010 US census, approximately 9 million individuals or 2.9% of the population, self-identified as multiracial. There is evidence that an accounting by genetic ancestry would produce a higher number. Historical reasons, including slavery creating a racial caste and the European-American suppression of Native Americans, often led people to identify or be classified by only one ethnicity, generally that of the culture in which they were raised. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their multiracial heritage because of racial discrimination against minorities. While many Americans may be biologically multiracial, they often do not know it or do not identify so culturally, any more than they maintain all the differing traditions of a variety of national ancestries.After a lengthy period of formal racial segregation in the former Confederacy following the Reconstruction Era and bans on interracial marriage in various parts of the country, more people are openly forming interracial unions. In addition, social conditions have changed and many multiracial people do not believe it is socially advantageous to try to "pass" as white. Diverse immigration has brought more mixed race people into the United States, such as a significant population of Hispanics identifying as mestizos. Since the 1980s, the United States has had a growing multiracial identity movement (cf. Loving Day). Because more Americans have insisted on being allowed to acknowledge their mixed racial origins, the 2000 census for the first time allowed residents to check more than one ethno-racial identity and thereby identify as multiracial. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected as the first biracial President of the United States; he acknowledges both sides of his family and identifies as African-American.Today, multiracial individuals are found in every corner of the country. Multiracial groups in the United States include many African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Métis Americans, Mixed bloods, Louisiana Creoles, Hapas, Melungeons, and several other communities found primarily in the Eastern US. Many Native Americans are multiracial in ancestry while identifying fully as members of federally recognized tribes.

Napuc Chi

Napuc Chi (died ca. 1541), often known by his title Ah Kin Chi (where Ah Kin, or in modern orthography Aj K'in is a title meaning "priest" or "sacerdote") was a Yucatec Maya noble from Maní. Other names used in source texts for this individual include Chi Ah Kin and Kinchil Coba. He was general-in-chief of the army of Tutul-Xiu, king of Maní, and won a good military reputation during the war against the Spaniards, whom he defeated in several battles. When Tutul Xiu submitted to the Spanish conquerors, he sent envoys to all the caciques in Yucatan, to invite them to make peace also; and for this purpose Ah Kin Chi and other noblemen were directed to visit King Cocóm at Zotuta, and this chief received them with apparent regard, entertaining them with a splendid hunting party and banquet, at the end of which all the envoys were beheaded by order and in presence of Cocóm. Ah Kin Chi was the only one spared, in order to make him suffer what they considered the most ignominious punishment, that of cutting his eyes out and scalping him. In this condition he was taken to the Mani frontier and left there until some Indians took him before his king. He died a few months afterward. In 1599 the king of Spain gave a pension of $200 to Gaspar Antonio Chi, son of Ah Kin Chi and grandson of Tutul Xiu.

Sotuta Municipality

Sotuta Municipality (In the Yucatec Maya Language: “turning water” is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing 613.15 square kilometres (236.74 sq mi) of land and located roughly 98 kilometres (61 mi) southeast of the city of Mérida.

Special Operations Command Korea

Special Operations Command Korea or SOCKOR, the United States (U.S.) Theater Special Operations Command (TSOC) in the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a Sub-Unified Command assigned under the Combatant Command (COCOM) of United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), who delegated Operational Command (OPCON) of SOCKOR to the U.S. Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM) Commander, who further delegated OPCON of SOCKOR to the United States Forces Korea (USFK) Commander.SOCKOR focuses on readiness and the ability to fight in defense of the Korean peninsula and the U.S.-ROK Alliance. This is accomplished through several means, ranging from individual and unit readiness and training to continuous updates and validation of operational plans, and participation in Joint Chiefs of Staff and other exercises.

Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal

Several countries of the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom) member nations had illegally exported to the Soviet Union machine tools that could be used in combination with the Kongsberg numerical control (NC) devices made in Norway in violation of the CoCom agreement during the Cold War.The involvement of Toshiba in this scandal was disclosed in May 1987. There was a significant fallout from the revelation as it was feared that American military secrets had been disclosed. Three Republican members of Congress symbolically struck a Toshiba radio set with a sledgehammer.

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies is a multilateral export control regime (MECR) with 42 participating states including many former Comecon (Warsaw Pact) countries.

The Wassenaar Arrangement was established to contribute to regional and international security and stability by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilizing accumulations. Participating states seek, through their national policies, to ensure that transfers of these items do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities which undermine these goals, and are not diverted to support such capabilities.

It is the successor to the Cold War-era Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM), and was established on 12 July 1996, in Wassenaar, the Netherlands, which is near The Hague. The Wassenaar Arrangement is considerably less strict than COCOM, focusing primarily on the transparency of national export control regimes and not granting veto power to individual members over organizational decisions. A Secretariat for administering the agreement is located in Vienna, Austria. Like COCOM, however, it is not a treaty, and therefore is not legally binding.

Every six months member countries exchange information on deliveries of conventional arms to non-Wassenaar members that fall under eight broad weapons categories: battle tanks, armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs), large-caliber artillery, military aircraft, military helicopters, warships, missiles or missile systems, and small arms and light weapons.

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