Cobra

Cobra is the common name of various elapid snakes, most of which belonging to the genus Naja.[1]

Cobra
Temporal range: Miocene-Holocene
Indiancobra
Indian cobra, Naja naja in a defensive posture
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Suborder:
Family:
Elapidae (with some exceptions)

Laurenti, 1768

Biology

All of the known cobras are venomous and many are capable of rearing upwards and producing a hood when threatened.[2]

Snakes known as cobras

All members of the genus Naja, the "true" cobras, rear and produce hoods.

Other "cobra" genera and species are as follows:

The false water cobra, Hydrodynastes gigas, is the only "cobra" that is not a member of the Elapidae. It does not rear, produces only a slight flattening of the neck, and is only mildly venomous.[5]:p.53

Notes

  1. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cobra" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 613.
  2. ^ Two non-venomous species of snake, the hognose snake and the striped keelback, also rear and produce hoods but are not considered "cobras"; likewise, some venomous elapid snakes such as the black mamba are also capable of producing hoods but are not called "cobras".
  3. ^ Wolfgang Bücherl; Eleanor E. Buckley; Venancio Deulofeu (17 September 2013). Venomous Animals and Their Venoms: Venomous Vertebrates. Elsevier. p. 492. ISBN 978-1-4832-6363-2.
  4. ^ United States. Department of the Navy. Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (2013). Venomous Snakes of the World: A Manual for Use by U. S. Amphibious Forces. Skyhorse. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-62087-623-7.
  5. ^ a b c d e Mark O'Shea (20 February 2008). Venomous Snakes of the World. New Holland. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-84773-086-2.
AC Cobra

The AC Cobra, sold as the Shelby Cobra in the United States, is an Anglo-American sports car with a Ford V8 engine, produced intermittently in both the UK and the US since 1962.

Baroness (G.I. Joe)

The Baroness is a fictional character from the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline by Hasbro, originally appearing in the first issue of the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero comic series by Marvel Comics in June, 1982. The Baroness is a villainess, associated with G.I. Joe's nemesis, Cobra.

Baroness serves as Cobra's intelligence officer and lieutenant to Cobra Commander. With long black hair, black-rimmed glasses, and a black leather outfit, Baroness is a dark, sensual femme fatale whose beauty is matched only by her ruthlessness. In both comic and cartoon incarnations, as well as the 2009 live-action movie for the series, she has romantic relationships with Destro.

Although the character was not part of the initial G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero release in 1982, she did appear in G.I. Joe #1, published by Marvel Comics in June 1982 and was, in fact, the first character to cross over from the comics into the animated series and finally into the toy line. She made her debut as an action figure in the 1984 series, wearing a new uniform that was then carried back over to the comic and cartoon.

Bell AH-1 Cobra

The Bell AH-1 Cobra is a two-blade, single-engine attack helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It was developed using the engine, transmission and rotor system of the Bell UH-1 Iroquois. A member of the prolific Huey family, the AH-1 is also referred to as the HueyCobra or Snake.

The AH-1 was the backbone of the United States Army's attack helicopter fleet, but has been replaced by the AH-64 Apache in Army service. Upgraded versions continue to fly with the militaries of several other nations. The AH-1 twin-engine versions remain in service with United States Marine Corps (USMC) as the service's primary attack helicopter. Surplus AH-1 helicopters have been converted for fighting forest fires.

Bell AH-1 SuperCobra

The Bell AH-1 SuperCobra is a twin-engine attack helicopter based on the United States Army's single-engine AH-1 Cobra. The twin Cobra family, itself part of the larger Huey family, includes the AH-1J SeaCobra, the AH-1T Improved SeaCobra, and the AH-1W SuperCobra. The AH-1W, the backbone of the United States Marine Corps's attack helicopter fleet for decades, is being replaced by the next generation Bell AH-1Z Viper.

Boeing RC-135

The Boeing RC-135 is a family of large reconnaissance aircraft built by Boeing and modified by a number of companies, including General Dynamics, Lockheed, LTV, E-Systems, and L3 Technologies, and used by the United States Air Force and Royal Air Force to support theater and national level intelligence consumers with near real-time on-scene collection, analysis and dissemination capabilities. Based on the C-135 Stratolifter airframe, various types of RC-135s have been in service since 1961. Unlike the C-135 and KC-135 which are recognized by Boeing as the Model 717, most of the current RC-135 fleet (with the exception of the RAF’s RC-135Ws) is internally designated as the Model 739 by the company. Many variants have been modified numerous times, resulting in a large variety of designations, configurations, and program names.

Cobra (G.I. Joe)

Cobra (sometimes referred to as Cobra Command) is the nemesis of the G.I. Joe Team in the Hasbro action figure toyline G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero and G.I. Joe: Sigma 6, as well as in related media.Cobra was first introduced during the launch of the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline in mid-1982. The toyline was accompanied by a Marvel Comics series, written by Larry Hama, and an animated television series by Sunbow and Marvel Productions. However, the origin and portrayal of Cobra has differed in each of them.

Marvel Comics invented the Cobra concept, with the name having been proposed by Archie Goodwin. When Marvel first proposed the concept, Hasbro was reluctant to make toys of the villains for fear that they would not sell. According to Jim Shooter, "later...villains became 40% of their volume."

Cobra (Marvel Comics)

Cobra is the name of a number of different fictional characters appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The most well known "Cobra" is Klaus Voorhees, now known as "King Cobra". He first appeared in Journey into Mystery #98 (Nov 1963) created by writer Stan Lee and artist Don Heck. His nephew, Piet Voorhees, took over the name "Cobra" and first appeared in White Tiger #1 (Jan 2007) in a story written by Tamora Pierce and drawn by Timothy Liebe. Marvel has also used the moniker "Cobra" for two World War II Nazi villains and also a mercenary enemy of Moon Knight.

Klaus Voorhees was a laboratory assistant, working with a professor trying to find a cure for various poisonous snake bites. A combination of a bite from a radioactive snake and the experimental anti-venom granted him super powers, which led to him becoming the supervillain known as Cobra. Cobra and Mister Hyde formed a criminal team for years, fighting various heroes such as Thor and Daredevil. He later became a member of the Serpent Squad and later on a member of Sidewinder's Serpent Society. During a takeover attempt by Viper Cobra actually opposed her rule and sided with Captain America to depose Viper and foiling her plans. Cobra later took the name "King Cobra" as he took leadership of the Serpent Society. When Serpent Society became Serpent Solutions under the leadership of the Viper (Jordan Stryke, a different Viper) King Cobra became a member of the group.

Piet Voorhees, nephew of Klaus Voorhees, was injected with the same chemicals that gave Klaus his powers and he became the new Cobra and worked as a mercenary. On one mission he encountered the White Tiger who defeated him. Cobra later joined the Serpent Squad, organized by Sin and would also work for Hydra as mercenary.

The original Cobra has appeared outside of Marvel Comics, most notably in "The Mighty Thor" portion of The Marvel Super Heroes as well as in episodes of The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes and Disk Wars: The Avengers.

Cobra (manga)

Cobra (Japanese: コブラ, Hepburn: Kobura) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Buichi Terasawa. Set in the far future, the series tells the story of Cobra, who lives an adventurous life until his enemies begin to hunt him down. Cobra surgically alters his face and erases his own memory to hide from his foes and have a normal life. Eventually, he regains his memories and reunites with his former partner Lady Armaroid. Terasawa devised it as a mix of spaghetti western and samurai stories, and aspects of films, varying from James Bond to Disney.

The manga was originally serialized in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 1978 to November 1984. Later, Shueisha collected the chapters and published them in 18 tankōbon volumes. The Cobra manga spawned various sequel manga series, one-shots, a feature-length anime film, two anime series—a 31-episode series in 1982, and a 13-episode series in 2010—, two original video animations (OVAs), audio albums, video games, and other merchandise. In 2010, Alexandre Aja announced the interest in producing a live-action film.

In the United States, portions of the manga were published by Viz Media in 1990 and the complete series was published in Kindle format by Creek & River in 2015. The feature film was licensed by Tara for its release in American theaters and by Manga Entertainment in British theaters in 1995. Urban Vision and Discotek Media released it for home video market, while Madman Entertainment acquired it for the Australasian region's release. The anime series was licensed in the Northern American region by Nozomi Entertainment.

In Japan, the Cobra manga has sold 40 million copies, making it one of Weekly Shōnen Jump's best-selling manga series of all time. Publications for manga, anime and other media have compared the series to Star Wars and Barbarella, and the main character's attitude to James Bond. Its film adaptation received mixed reviews, and the original anime series as well as Cobra the Animation has been well received by reviewers.

Cobra Commander

Cobra Commander is a fictional character from the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline, comic books, and animated series. He is the supreme leader of the terrorist organization Cobra, and is the principal antagonist and archenemy of the Joes. The character is also featured as an opponent of G.I. Joe in other series, such as Sigma 6 and Renegades, as well as subsequent comic books, video games, and movies. He was portrayed by Joseph Gordon-Levitt in the film G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra, and by Luke Bracey with the voice of Robert Baker in the 2013 sequel G.I. Joe: Retaliation.

Cobra Kai

Cobra Kai is an American comedy-drama web television series, based on The Karate Kid film series created by Robert Mark Kamen, that premiered on May 2, 2018, on YouTube Red (now YouTube Premium). The series was created by Jon Hurwitz, Hayden Schlossberg, and Josh Heald and stars Ralph Macchio and William Zabka, reprising their roles from the films, who also serve as co-executive producers. It takes place 34 years after the original film and follows the reopening of the Cobra Kai karate dojo by Johnny Lawrence and the rekindling of his old rivalry with Daniel LaRusso. On May 10, 2018, it was announced that the series had been renewed for a second season of ten episodes that is set to premiere on April 24, 2019.

Cobra Starship

Cobra Starship was an American dance-pop band created by former Midtown bassist and lead vocalist Gabe Saporta in 2006 in New York City, New York. After writing and recording the band's debut album While the City Sleeps, We Rule the Streets as a solo project, Saporta enlisted guitarist Ryland Blackinton, bassist Alex Suarez, drummer Nate Novarro, and keytarist Victoria Asher, all of whom provide backing vocals.

Over ten years, Cobra Starship produced four albums and two Billboard Hot 100 top 10 singles. The group released its debut album, While the City Sleeps, We Rule the Streets, in 2006, which contained the single "Snakes on a Plane (Bring It)". The band released its second album, ¡Viva La Cobra!, on October 23, 2007. Their third album, Hot Mess, was released on August 11, 2009. Their fourth and final album, Night Shades, was released on August 30, 2011 in the US and October 28, 2011 in the UK.

Cobra Starship officially announced its dissolution on November 10, 2015.

Destro

Laird James McCullen Destro XXIV, usually referred to simply as Destro, is a fictional character from the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline, comic books, and cartoon series. He is the leader of the Iron Grenadiers, and founder of M.A.R.S. Industries, a weapons manufacturer and supplier for Cobra. Destro is portrayed by Christopher Eccleston in the 2009 live-action film G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra.

G.I. Joe

G.I. Joe is a line of action figures produced and owned by the toy company Hasbro. The initial product offering represented four of the branches of the U.S. armed forces with the Action Soldier (U.S. Army), Action Sailor (U.S. Navy), Action Pilot (U.S. Air Force), Action Marine (U.S. Marine Corps) and later on, the Action Nurse. The name derived from the usage of "G.I. Joe" for the generic U.S. soldier, itself derived from the more general term "G.I.". The development of G.I. Joe led to the coining of the term "action figure". G.I. Joe's appeal to children has made it an American icon among toys.The G.I. Joe trademark has been used by Hasbro for several different toy lines, although only two have been successful. The original 12-inch (30 cm) line introduced on February 2, 1964 centered on realistic action figures. In the United Kingdom, this line was licensed to Palitoy and known as Action Man. In 1982 the line was relaunched in a 3.75-inch (9.5 cm) scale complete with vehicles, playsets, and a complex background story involving an ongoing struggle between the G.I. Joe Team and the evil Cobra Command which seeks to take over the Free World through terrorism. As the American line evolved into the Real American Hero series, Action Man also changed, by using the same molds and being renamed as Action Force. Although the members of the G.I. Joe team are not superheroes, they all had expertise in areas such as martial arts, weapons, and explosives.G.I. Joe was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2003.

Indian cobra

The Indian cobra (Naja naja) also known as the spectacled cobra, Asian cobra, or binocellate cobra is a species of the genus Naja found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan, and a member of the "big four" species that inflict the most snakebites on humans in India. It is distinct from the king cobra which belongs to the monotypic genus Ophiophagus. The Indian cobra is revered in Indian mythology and culture, and is often seen with snake charmers. It is now protected in India under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act (1972).

King cobra

The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), also known as the hamadryad, is a venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia. It is threatened by habitat destruction and has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2010.

It is the world's longest venomous snake. Adult king cobras are 3.18 to 4 m (10.4 to 13.1 ft) long. The longest known individual measured 5.85 m (19.2 ft).

Despite the word "cobra" in its common name, this species does not belong to genus Naja but is the sole member of its own. It preys chiefly on other snakes and occasionally on some other vertebrates, such as lizards and rodents. It is a dangerous snake that has a fearsome reputation in its range, although it typically avoids confrontation with humans when possible.

The king cobra is a prominent symbol in the mythology and folk traditions of India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. It is the national reptile of India.

Operation Cobra

Operation Cobra was the codename for an offensive launched by the First United States Army (Lieutenant General Omar Bradley) seven weeks after the D-Day landings, during the Normandy Campaign of World War II. The intention was to take advantage of the distraction of the Germans by the British and Canadian attacks around Caen, in Operation Goodwood and break through the German defenses that were penning in his troops, while the Germans were unbalanced. Once a corridor had been created, the First Army would then be able to advance into Brittany, rolling up the German flanks once free of the constraints of the bocage country. After a slow start the offensive gathered momentum and German resistance collapsed as scattered remnants of broken units fought to escape to the Seine. Lacking the resources to cope with the situation, the German response was ineffectual and the entire Normandy front soon collapsed. Operation Cobra, together with concurrent offensives by the British Second Army and the Canadian First Army, was decisive in securing an Allied victory in the Normandy Campaign.

Having been delayed several times by poor weather, Operation Cobra commenced on 25 July, with a concentrated aerial bombardment from thousands of Allied aircraft. Supporting offensives had drawn the bulk of German armored reserves toward the British and Canadian sector and coupled with the general lack of men and materiel available to the Germans, it was impossible for them to form successive lines of defense. Units of the U.S. VII Corps led the initial two-division assault, while other First U.S. Army corps mounted supporting attacks designed to pin German units in place. Progress was slow on the first day but opposition started to crumble once the defensive crust had been broken. By 27 July, most organized resistance had been overcome and the VII and VIII Corps advanced rapidly, isolating the Cotentin Peninsula.

By 31 July, XIX Corps had destroyed the last forces opposing the First Army, which emerged from the bocage. Reinforcements were moved west by Field Marshal Günther von Kluge and employed in various counterattacks, the largest of which, Unternehmen Lüttich (Operation Liège), was launched on 7 August between Mortain and Avranches. Although this led to the bloodiest phase of the battle, it was mounted by already exhausted and understrength units and was a costly failure. On 8 August, troops of the newly activated Third United States Army captured the city of Le Mans, formerly the German 7th Army headquarters. Operation Cobra transformed the high-intensity infantry combat of Normandy into rapid maneuver warfare and led to the creation of the Falaise pocket and the loss of the German position in northwestern France.

Storm Shadow (G.I. Joe)

Storm Shadow is a fictional character from the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline, comic books and animated series. He is best known as the Cobra Commander's ninja bodyguard, and for his history with fellow ninja Snake Eyes. Throughout their history, he has changed sides several times; conflicted in loyalties between Cobra, G.I. Joe, and his blood brother, Snake Eyes. Storm Shadow is one of the most prominent characters in the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero franchise, and has appeared in every series since its inception. He is portrayed by Lee Byung-hun in the 2009 live-action film G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra, and the 2013 sequel G.I. Joe: Retaliation.

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