The coat of arms of Luxembourg has its origins in the Middle Ages and was derived from the arms of the Duchy of Limburg, in modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands. In heraldic language, the arms are described as: Barry of ten Argent and Azure, a Lion rampant queue forchée Gules crowned, armed and langued Or.
|Coat of arms of the |
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
|Armiger||Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg|
|Adopted||1235 current in 1972|
|Crest||The Grand-Ducal Crown|
|Blazon||Barry of ten Argent and Azure, a Lion rampant queue forchée Gules crowned, armed and langued Or.|
|Supporters||Two lions reguardant queue forchée crowned Or, armed and langued Gules|
|Orders||Order of the Oak Crown|
|Other elements||The whole resting on a Mantle Gules lined Ermine, fringed and tasseled Or, summoned to the Grand-Ducal Crown|
There are greater, middle and lesser versions of the coat of arms of Luxembourg. The greater coat of arms has two reguardant and crowned lions as supporters, the Dynastic Order (the Order of the Oak Crown) and all surrounded by ermine mantling crowned with a heraldic royal crown (the crown used by the Grand Duke). The middle coat of arms has the supporters, the order and the crown. The lesser coat of arms has the crown and the escutcheon without external ornaments.
Quarterly: 1 and 4 Luxembourg, 2 and 3 Nassau (Blazon: Azure billetty Or, a lion or armed and langued Gules). The lesser variant of the arms of the monarch has no external ornaments. The middle variant has the supporters, the order and the crown.
The greater variant has a dynastic inescutcheon with the arms of the House of Bourbon-Parma (Blazon: Azure bordure Gules charged with eight escallops Argent, three fleurs-de-lys Or). The supporters are holding a lance Or, flying the flag of Luxembourg, all surrounded by ermine mantling with the crown.
The coat of arms adopted by Grand Duke Adolphe in 1898:
These arms were adopted in 1898 by Grand Duke Adolphe and used by him and his successors up until Grand Duke Jean. Upon acceding to the throne in 1964, Grand Duke Jean used the lesser and medium arms as adopted in 1898. The greater arms featuring the former territorial claims attached to the duchy of Nassau that was annexed by Prussia in 1866 were, however, unreflective of political reality of the time and were not used extensively: They were only used on the Great Seal of Grand Duke Jean.
Prior to acceding the throne, Grand Duke Jean made use of the following arms:
In 1939, a coat of arms for Prince Jean was created during the centenary celebrations of the independence of Luxembourg and to mark his reaching the age of majority. In 1953, another arms were created on the occasion of Jean's marriage to Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium.
The original coat of arms from 1890–1898:
The current greater and lesser coats of arms for the Hereditary Grand Duke are currently prescribed by grand-ducal decree of 31 October 2012 and are similar to that of the Grand Duke's with the addition of a gold label on the shield for differencing. In the greater arms, the supporters also do not carry flags.
Henry V was the first Count of Luxembourg to adopt a primitive form of these arms. His father, Waleran III, Duke of Limburg, bore the arms, argent a lion rampant queue fourché gules armed, langued and crowned or (white field bearing a red double tailed lion with yellow claws, teeth, tongue and crown). Henry V replaced the white field by a series of white and blue stripes (burely of 10 argent and azure) to differentiate from his half-brother Henry IV, Duke of Limburg.
It is yet uncertain where the origins of this burely of 10 argent and azure are. Jean-Claude Loutsch, Luxembourg's most prominent heraldist, authored the theory that the original Luxembourg dynasties may have born a striped banner (colours unknown). Two dynasties closely related to the first Houses of Luxembourg also adopted striped coats of arms during this period. Both the Counts of Loon and Counts of Grandpré bore the arms burely of 10 or and gules (yellow and red alternating stripes). In such a case, the choice of colour of the stripes would have been determined to match the white field and red lion of Limburg.
In 1282, after the death of Waleran IV of Limburg, Henry VI, count of Luxembourg changed his arms by doubling the lion's tail and passing it in saltire as a claim on the duchy of Limburg. After Henry VI's death in 1288 at the Battle of Worringen, Henry VII readopted his grandfather Henry V's arms, which remained in use until the extinction of the House of Luxembourg.
The Luxembourg Coat of Arms bears a striking similarity to both the arms of Lusignan and of Stratford. The relationship is unknown, if indeed any exists at all. Historians have generated various theories as to the connection between the houses and the arms, none conclusive.
Anthony I, Count of Ligny (1450–1519) was the youngest son of Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol and his wife, Jeanne de Bar, Countess of Marle and Soissons. In 1482, he inherited the County of Brienne from his brother Peter II, Count of Saint-Pol. After the death of Charles of Bourbon in 1510, Anthony inherited the County of Ligny, which thereby fell back to the House of Luxemburg.Armorial of Europe
This is a list of the national coats of arms or equivalent emblems used by countries and dependent territories in Europe.Armorial of sovereign states
This gallery of sovereign state coats of arms shows the coat of arms, an emblem serving a similar purpose or both (such as greater and lesser coat of arms, national emblem or seal) of each of the countries in the list of countries.Banner of arms
A banner of arms is a type of heraldic flag which has the same image as a coat of arms, i.e. the shield of a full heraldic achievement, rendered in a square or rectangular shape of the flag.The term is derived from the terminology of heraldry but mostly used in vexillology. Examples of modern national flags which are banners of arms are the flags of Austria, Iraq, and Switzerland.
The banner of arms is sometimes simply called a banner, but a banner is in a more strict sense a one of a kind personal flag of a nobleman held in battle.Civil air ensign
A civil air ensign is a flag (or a variation thereof) which represents civil aviation in a country or organization. Typically, it is flown from buildings connected with the administration of civil aviation and it may also be flown by airlines of the appropriate country. A civil air ensign is the equivalent of the civil ensign which represents merchant shipping. Not all countries have civil air ensigns and those without usually fly their national flags instead.Embassy of Luxembourg, London
The Embassy of Luxembourg in London is the diplomatic mission of Luxembourg in the United Kingdom. It was the home of the Luxembourg government-in-exile during the Second World War.The building forms one of a group of Grade II listed stucco buildings along the eastern side of Wilton Crescent.Flag of Luxembourg
The flag of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerger Fändel, German: Flagge Luxemburgs, French: Drapeau du Luxembourg) consists of three horizontal stripes, red, white and blue, and can be in 1:2 or 3:5 ratio. It was first used between 1845 and 1848 and officially adopted on 1993.
Luxembourg had no flag until 1830, when patriots were urged to display the national colours. The flag was defined as a horizontal tricolour of red, white, and blue in 1848, but it was not officially adopted until 1993. The tricolour flag is almost identical to Flag of the Netherlands, except that it is longer and its blue stripe and red stripe are a lighter shade. The red, white, and blue colours were derived from the coat of arms of the House of Luxembourg.House of Nassau
The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe.
It is named after the lordship associated with Nassau Castle, located in present-day Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The lords of Nassau were originally titled "Count of Nassau", then elevated to the princely class as "Princely Counts" (in German: gefürstete Grafen, i.e. Counts who are granted all legal and aristocratic privileges of a Prince).
Early on they divided into two main branches: the elder (Walramian) branch, that gave rise to the German Emperor Adolf, and the younger (Ottonian) branch, that gave rise to the Princes of Orange and the monarchs of the Netherlands.
At the end of the Holy Roman Empire and the Napoleonic Wars, the Walramian branch had inherited or acquired all the Nassau ancestral lands and proclaimed themselves, with the permission of the Congress of Vienna, the "Dukes of Nassau", forming the independent state of Nassau with its capital at Wiesbaden; this territory today mainly lies in the German Federal State of Hesse (Hessen), and partially in the neighbouring State of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz). The Duchy was annexed in 1866 after the Austrian-Prussian War as an ally of Austria by Prussia. It was subsequently incorporated into the newly created Prussian Province of Hesse-Nassau.
Today, the term Nassau is used in Germany as a name for a geographical, historical and cultural region, but no longer has any political meaning. All Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchs since 1815 have been senior members of the House of Nassau. However, in 1890 in the Netherlands and in 1912 in Luxembourg, the male lines of heirs to the two thrones became extinct, so that since then, they have descended in the female line from the House of Nassau.
According to German tradition, the family name is passed on only in the male line of succession. The House would therefore, from this German perspective, be extinct since 1985. However, both Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchial traditions, constitutional rules and legislation in that matter differ from the German tradition, and thus both countries do not consider the House extinct. The Grand Duke of Luxembourg uses "Duke of Nassau" as his secondary title and a title of pretense to the dignity of Chief of the House of Nassau (being the most senior member of the eldest branch of the House), but not to lay any territorial claims to the former Duchy of Nassau which is now part of the Federal Republic of Germany.List of coats of arms
Here is a list of articles about coats of arms..List of flags of Luxembourg
This is a list of flags used in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a country in western Europe. For more information about the national flag, visit the article Flag of Luxembourg.List of monarchs of Luxembourg
The territory of Luxembourg was ruled successively by counts, dukes and grand dukes. It was part of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, and later the Holy Roman Empire until it became a sovereign state in 1815.Military Medal (Luxembourg)
The Military Medal (French: Médaille militaire German: Militärmedaille) is the highest military decoration of Luxembourg. Established on 30 October 1945 by Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, at the suggestion of then Prince Jean, it can be awarded for outstanding achievements and extraordinary deeds to all military personnel, without distinction of rank.Monarchy of Luxembourg
The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the monarchical head of state of Luxembourg. Luxembourg has been a grand duchy since 15 March 1815, when it was elevated from a duchy, and was in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands until 1890 under the House of Orange-Nassau and is the world's only sovereign grand duchy. Since 1815, there have been nine monarchs of Luxembourg, including the incumbent, Henri.National symbols of Luxembourg
There are a number of national symbols of Luxembourg, representing Luxembourg or its people in either official or unofficial capacities.
Under Luxembourgian law, 'national emblem' (French: emblèmes nationaux) is strictly-defined as the national anthem, the national flag, the national coat of arms, and the national civil ensign. However, there are many other symbols, both official and unofficial, that symbolise the Luxembourgian nation in the public consciousness.Outline of Luxembourg
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Luxembourg:
Luxembourg – small sovereign country located in Western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. Luxembourg has a population of half a million people in an area of approximately 2,586 square kilometres (999 sq mi).Luxembourg is a parliamentary representative democracy with a constitutional monarchy, ruled by a Grand Duke. It is the world's only remaining sovereign Grand Duchy. The country has a highly developed economy, with the highest Gross Domestic Product per capita in the world (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 2007). Its historic and strategic importance dates back to its founding as a Roman era fortress site and Frankish count's castle site in the Early Middle Ages. It was an important bastion along the Spanish road when Spain was the principal European power influencing the whole western hemisphere and beyond in the 14th–17th centuries.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, Benelux, and the Western European Union, reflecting the political consensus in favour of economic, political, and military integration. The city of Luxembourg, the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the European Union.
Luxembourg lies on the cultural divide between Romance Europe and Germanic Europe, borrowing customs from each of the distinct traditions. Luxembourg is a trilingual country; French, German, and Luxembourgish are official languages. Although a secular state, Luxembourg is predominantly Roman Catholic.