Coat of arms of Hungary

The current coat of arms of Hungary was reinstated on July 3, 1990, after the end of communist rule. The arms have been used before, both with and without the Holy Crown of Hungary, sometimes as part of a larger, more complex coat of arms, and its elements date back to the Middle Ages.

The shield is split into two parts:

  • The Dexter (right side from the bearer's point) features the so-called Árpád stripes, four Argent (silver) and four Gules (red) stripes. Traditionally, the silver stripes represent four rivers: Duna (Danube), Tisza, Dráva, and Száva.[3]
  • The Sinister (left side from the bearer's point) consists of an Argent (silver) double cross on Gules (red) base, situated inside a small Or (golden) crown, the crown is placed on the middle heap of three Vert (green) hills, representing the mountain ranges (trimount) Tátra, Mátra, and Fátra (made up of the Veľká Fatra and Malá Fatra ranges).[4]
Coat of arms of Hungary
Magyarország címere
Coat of arms of Hungary
Versions
Coat of arms of Hungary (1896-1915; angels)
Coat of arms of Hungary (1896-1915; oak and olive branches)
The coat of arms may also be used in other historical forms.[1]
ArmigerHungary
Adopted3 July 1990[2]
CrestHoly Crown of Hungary
BlazonBarry of eight Gules and Argent, impaling Gules, on a trimount Vert a ducal coronet Or issuing therefrom a Patriarchal cross Argent
14-05-06-budapest-RalfR-74
Coat of Arms at Liberty Bridge in Budapest

History

Kingdom of Hungary

The most common motifs of the ninth and the early tenth centuries -the griffin, wolf and hind- seldom figure in later Hungarian iconography and heraldic symbolism, however the Hawk or Turul which in shamanistic lore rested upon the tree of life connecting the earth with the netherworld and the skies preserved for longer as a device belonging to the ruling house.[5]

Coa Hungary Country History Imre (1196-1204)

The red and white stripes were the heraldic symbol of the Árpáds during the 13th century, first used in the coat of arms in 1202 on one of Emeric's seal. This seal did not include the double cross, only the stripes, and there were nine lions on the white stripes. In the Golden Bull of Andrew II there were only seven lions facing each other. In the middle of the stripes linden leaves were depicted.

Coa Hungary Country History Bela III (1172-1196)

The double cross first appears on coins minted under Béla III (c. 1190). It first appears in a heraldic shield on the royal seal of Béla IV (c. 1235).

Coa Hungary Country History Venczel (1301-1305)
The trimount was used with the double cross on the seal of Stephen V (r. 1270–1272) (with an additional wreath around the double cross). The seal of Wenceslaus III of Bohemia (r. 1301–1305) shows the simple double cross with trimount.
Coa Hungary Country History Charles I (1310-1342)

When the House of Árpád became extinct and the Angevins came into power, they wanted to emphasize their legitimacy and their matrilineal relation to the previous royal house by using the Árpáds' coat of arms, the red and white stripes. Charles I combined this coat of arms per pale with the Angevins' fleur-de-lis.

Coa Hungary Country History John I of Hungary (Szapolyai) (1526-1540)
Louis I of Hungary quartered the red and white stripes of the Arpads with the double cross on the trimount. This design was also used by John Zápolya, with his family arms in an inescutcheon.
Coa Hungary Country History (19th Century)
The two coats of arms are often shown side by side in the 15th century. Their combination per pale, with the stripes on the dexter side and the cross with trimount on the sinister first appeared on coins during the reign of Vladislaus I (1440-1444), and later on coins of Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490). The crown above the coat of arms also appeared during the reign of Vladislaus I. At first it was only a non-specific diadem but on the 1464 seal of Matthias Corvinus it resembled more the Holy Crown of Hungary.

The modern version of the coat of arms developed during the reign of Matthias II in the beginning of the 17th century. Its usage became regular during the reign of Maria Theresa.

Coat of arms of the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown (1915-1918, 1919-1946; angels)

In the following centuries, the coat of arms of Hungary became more and more complex. It included the coats of arms of the territories which were part of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen: Croatia, Dalmatia, Slavonia,[6] and Bosnia, but the so-called "small coat of arms" always remained the central piece. (The more complex ones were called "medium" and "large coat of arms".) The adjacent image shows the medium coat of arms, in official use (with some modifications) from the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 till the end of World War I (1918). The outer pieces (anti-clockwise from top left) are the coats of arms of Dalmatia, Slavonia, Bosnia (added in 1915), Fiume, Transylvania, and Croatia.

When Hungary became part of the Habsburg Empire, the coat of arms became a part of that of the Monarchy, but later it became of marginal importance and during the reign of Joseph II - who did not even have himself crowned with the Holy Crown - it was omitted from the coins.

Hungary large coa 1849

During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, following the dethroning of the Habsburg dynasty on 14 April 1849, the Holy Crown was removed from the coat of arms. The remaining small coat of arms is usually referred to as the "Kossuth Coat of Arms" (Hungarian: Kossuth-címer) after Lajos Kossuth, Regent-President of Hungary (so unlike the name suggests, it was not the coat of arms of the Kossuth family). In the large coat of arms, however, a laurel wreath replaced the crown both in the central piece and above the shield, as shown on the adjacent image.

After the revolution was repressed, the Hungarian coat of arms was not used again until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, when the small coat of arms with the crown once more became a part of a more complex coat of arms, similar to the medium coat of arms shown above. The Hungarian arms also became part of the combined coat of arms of Austria-Hungary.

Changes during the 20th Century

Coat of arms of Hungary (1918-1919)

After World War I, during the time of the First Hungarian Republic a new coat of arms was introduced. The new arms was almost the same as the "small coat of arms" only with the monarchist elements removed to make it look more republican. The Hungarian Republic of Councils in 1919 totally abolished the traditional coat of arms and used the communist five-pointed red star on official documents. After the fall of the communists, the Kossuth coat of arms was used for a short while.

Coat of arms of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; angels)

After the restoration of the kingdom, the small coat of arms (with the Holy Crown and the two angels) became official until the First Vienna Award in 1938, when the government started to use the 1915 coat of arms officially again.

Coat of arms of Hungary (1945)

During the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany in 1944-1945 at the end of World War II, the puppet government formed by the fascist[7] Arrow Cross Party added the letter "H" (for Hungaria) and the Arrow Cross symbol to it.

Coat of arms of Hungary (1949-1956)

Following the military forces of Nazi Germany in Hungary being defeated by the Red Army, Soviet military occupation ensued, eventually leading to the creation of a communist government in Hungary. Between 1946 and 1949 the Kossuth-style coat of arms was used, then the Hungarian People's Republic introduced a new state coat of arms in line with socialist heraldry, with a layout closely resembling that of the Soviet Union's.

Coat of arms of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957)

During the 1956 revolution, the "Kossuth" Coat of Arms was used again. In old newsreels, the Kossuth badge can be seen painted onto the turrets of many revolutionary tanks fighting against the Soviet invasion in the streets of Budapest. Although this revolution was crushed quickly by the Soviet Red Army, the new Communist government did not reinstate the 1949-1956 coat of arms, and thus this coat of arms was used for about a year.

Coat of arms of Hungary (1957-1990)

A new coat of arms was created in late 1957. Its usage ended with the adoption of the current coat of arms in 1990.

Coat of arms of Hungary

Since 1990 the historical crowned small coat of arms has served as the official symbol of Hungary. In the first democratically elected Parliament there was considerable debate about the depiction of the Holy Crown on the coat of arms. The liberal opposition party (Alliance of Free Democrats, SZDSZ) proposed the Kossuth-style "Republican" version but the conservative government backed the historical crowned one.[8] After the majority decision, the restored coat of arms with the crown soon became generally accepted by every political party and there is a national consensus concerning it.

Honors

  • In May and June 1946 a set of eight stamps of Coat of Arms of Hungary was issued. These are the issues of inflation.[9]
  • Further, a fourteen-stamp set of Arms and Post-horn were issued May and June 1946; these are also the issues of inflation.[10]
  • Four commemorative stamps were issued on 15 March 1948 as part of the series: Centenary of the beginning of Hungary’s war for Independence.[11]
  • In 20 August 1949 three stamps of Arms of Hungary were issued on the occasion of the Adoption of the Hungarian Peoples’ Republic’s Constitution.[12]
  • On 23 May 1958 three stamps were issued to commemorate the first anniversary of the law amending the constitution.[13]
  • Between 1941-45 as many as 44 Postage-Due stamps of various denominations, watermarks and paper were issued.[14]

Some other stamps were also issued.

See also

References

  • Bálint Hóman: A magyar címer történetéhez ("Additions to the history of the coat of arms of Hungary"), 1920 [3] (Hungarian)
  • Iván Bertényi: Államcímerünk kialakulása ("Emergence of the state coat of arms"), 2003 [4] (Hungarian)
  • József Laszlovszky: A magyar címer története ("History of the Hungarian coat of arms"), Egyetemi Nyomda, Budapest, 1989, p. 39
  1. ^ "National Symbols: The Coat of Arms". www.keh.hu. Office of the President of the Republic. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  2. ^ "1990. évi XLIV. törvény a Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmányának módosításáról" [Act XLIV of 1990 on the Amendment of the Constitution of the Hungarian Republic]. hu.wikisource.org (in Hungarian). Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  3. ^ Betsy Dru Tecco: How to Draw Hungary's Sights and Symbols, The Rosen Publishing Group, New York, 2005 [1]
  4. ^ Betsy Dru Tecco: How to Draw Hungary's Sights and Symbols, The Rosen Publishing Group, New York, 2005 [2]
  5. ^ Martyn C. Rady, Nobility, land and service in medieval Hungary, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000, p.12
  6. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=y0g4YEp7ZrsC&printsec=frontcover&vq=ladis&hl=hu&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  7. ^ "Hungarian Nazis (Arrow Cross Party)". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2012. on October 15th, the Nazis transferred power into the hands of the Arrowcross Party
  8. ^ "Koronával vagy anélkül? ("With or without crown?"), Index.hu". Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  9. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1946/page/3. Mi:HU 897-904, Sn:HU 738-745, Yt:HU 788-795, AFA:HU 845-852.
  10. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1946/page/4, 5. Mi:HU 905-918, Sn:HU 746-759, Yt:HU 796-813.
  11. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1948/page/1. Mi:HU 1007-10, Sn:HU 836-39, Yt:HU 890-93, AFA:HU 981-84.
  12. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1949/page/2,3. Mi:HU 1053X-55X, Sn:HU 856-58, Yt:HU 913-15.
  13. ^ 13
  14. ^ 14

13. colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1958/page/4. Mi:HU 1529A-32A, Sn:HU 1191-93, Yt:HU 1245-47. 14. colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1941/page/4,5. colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1942/page/4. colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1944/page/2,3. colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1945/page/10,11,12.

External links

Coat of arms of Carpatho-Ukraine

The coat of arms of Carpatho-Ukraine is the official heraldic crest of Zakarpattia Oblast in Ukraine.

The coat of arms were created after the end of the First World War, when the region of Carpathian Ruthenia was transferred from Hungary to the newly created state of Czechoslovakia. It was designed by Gustav Friedrich. The Rusyns (Ruthenians) had been promised authonomy within the new country and therefore arms were created for their land.The arms show the Ukrainian tinctures (heraldic colors) of blue and gold in its first (dexter) field and a red bear on silver in its second field. The bear is perhaps a symbol for the Carpathian wildlife. The horizontal lines (in heraldry called fesses) could perhaps have been inspired by the partitions per fess in the coat of arms of Hungary, to which the territory had belonged.The arms were also used by the short-lived state of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939, but with the addition of the

Ukrainian trident in the uppermost blue field, used previously by the Ukrainian People's Republic.

Since the territory is the same for the current Zakarpattia Oblast, the oblast uses the arms as its own.

Coat of arms of Slovakia

The coat of arms of Slovakia consists of a red (gules) shield, in early Gothic style, charged with a silver (argent) double cross standing on the middle peak of a dark blue mountain consisting of three peaks. Extremities of the cross are amplified, and its ends are concaved. The double cross is a symbol of its Christian faith and the hills represent three symbolic mountain ranges: Tatra, Fatra (made up of the Veľká Fatra and Malá Fatra ranges), and Matra (the last one is in northern Hungary).

Cross of Lorraine

The Cross of Lorraine (French: Croix de Lorraine), known as Cross of Anjou in the 16th century, is a heraldic two-barred cross, consisting of a vertical line crossed by two shorter horizontal bars. In most renditions, the horizontal bars are "graded" with the upper bar being the shorter, though variations with the bars of equal length are also seen. The Lorraine name has come to signify several cross variations, including the patriarchal cross with its bars near the top.

Embassy of Hungary, London

The Embassy of Hungary in London is the diplomatic mission of Hungary in the United Kingdom. Opposite the embassy itself can be found the Hungarian Economic, Investment & Trade Commission and the Hungarian National Tourist Office at 46 Eaton Place. A Hungarian Cultural Centre is also maintained at 10 Maiden Lane in Covent Garden.

Flag of Hungary

The flag of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország zászlaja, more commonly Hungarian: magyar zászló) is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green. In this exact form, it has been the official flag of Hungary since May 23, 1957. The flag's form originates from national republican movements of the 18th and 19th centuries, while its colours are from the Middle Ages. The current Hungarian tricolour flag is the same as the republican movement flag of the United Kingdom (used since 1816) and the colours in that form were already used at least since the coronation of Leopold II in 1790, predating the first use of the Italian Tricolour in 1797.

Hungarian heraldry

Hungarian heraldry generally follows German heraldry in its artistic forms,

but has its own distinctive character. It is classified to Central and Eastern European heraldry.

Hungary men's national junior ice hockey team

The Hungarian men's national under 20 ice hockey team is the national under-20 ice hockey team in Hungary. The team represents Hungary at the International Ice Hockey Federation's IIHF World U20 Championship.

Index of Hungary-related articles

This page list topics related to Hungary.

List of Hungarian flags

This is a list of flags used in Hungary. For more information about the national flag, visit the article Flag of Hungary.

Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary

The Hungarian Order of Merit (Hungarian: Magyar Érdemrend) is the second highest State Order of Hungary. Founded in 1991, the order is a revival of an original order founded in 1946 and abolished in 1949. Its origins can be traced to the Order of Merit of the Kingdom of Hungary which existed from 1922 until 1946.

Since 2011, the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary is the highest State Order of Hungary.

Outline of Hungary

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Hungary:

Hungary – landlocked sovereign country located in the Carpathian Basin of Central Europe, bordering Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia. Its capital is Budapest. Hungary is a member of OECD, NATO, EU and a Schengen state. The official language is Hungarian (also known as Magyar), which forms part of the Uralic family. It is one of the four official languages of the European Union that is not of Indo-European origin.

Following a Celtic (after c. 450 BC) and a Roman (9 BC - c. 4th century) period, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late Ninth Century by the Magyar chieftain Árpád, whose great grandson István ascended to the throne with a crown sent from Rome in 1000. The Kingdom of Hungary existed with minor interruptions for more than 900 years, and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centers of the Western world. It was succeeded by a Communist era (1947–1989) during which Hungary gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal move of opening its border with Austria in 1989, thus accelerating the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. The present form of government is a parliamentary republic (since 1989). Hungary's current goal is to become a developed country by International Monetary Fund standards, having become already developed by most traditional measures, including GDP and HDI (world ranking 36th and rising). The country's first ever term of EU presidency is due in 2011.Hungary was one of the 15 most popular tourist destinations in the world in the past decade, with a capital regarded as one of the most beautiful in the world. Despite its relatively small size, the country is home to numerous

World Heritage Sites, UNESCO Biosphere reserves, the second largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grassland in Europe (Hortobágy National Park).

Patriarchal cross

The Patriarchal cross (☨) is a variant of the Christian cross, the religious symbol of Christianity. Similar to the familiar Latin cross, the patriarchal cross possesses a smaller crossbar placed above the main one so that both crossbars are near the top. Sometimes the patriarchal cross has a short, slanted crosspiece near its foot (Russian Orthodox cross). This slanted, lower crosspiece often appears in Byzantine Greek and Eastern European iconography, as well as in other Eastern Orthodox churches.

The Byzantine Christianization came to the Morava Empire in the year 863, provided at the request of Rastislav sent Byzantine Emperor Michael III. The symbol, often referred to as the patriarchal cross, appeared in the Byzantine Empire in large numbers in the 10th century.

For a long time, it was thought to have been given to Saint Stephen by the pope as the symbol of the apostolic Kingdom of Hungary.

The two-barred cross has been one of the main elements in the coat of arms of Hungary since 1190. It appeared during the reign of King Béla III, who was raised in the Byzantine court. Béla was the son of Russian princess Eufrosina Mstislavovna. The cross appears floating in the coat of arms and on the coins from this era. In medieval Kingdom of Hungary was extended Byzantine Cyril-Methodian and western Latin church was expanded later.The two-barred cross in the Hungarian coat of arms comes from the same source of Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire in the 12th century. Unlike the ordinary Christian cross, the symbolism and meaning of the double cross is not well understood.

In most renditions of the Cross of Lorraine, the horizontal bars are "graded" with the upper bar being the shorter, though variations with the bars of equal length are also seen.

Poltura

The poltura is a historic Hungarian monetary unit that was struck under the Hungarian rulers Leopold I, Joseph I, Francis II Rákóczi, Charles III and Maria Theresa. Its forerunner was the Polish półtorak, a coin equal to one and one-half grosz (półtora means one and a half in Polish).

After 1526 (see Battle of Mohács) Poland gained a greater role in the reorganized economy and foreign trade of Hungary. As a result an increasing number of Polish small coins flew into the country. In Royal Hungary, Leopold I was the first who struck silver poltura on the influence of the Polish poltorak. The value of the coin was equal to ½ Groschen (Hungarian: garas) or 1½ Kreuzer (krajczár). Although even Charles III made preparations to mint poltura of copper (evidenced by trial strikes), finally it was Maria Theresa who ordered minting of copper poltura coins by the imperial patent of 27 March 1761. Joseph II, her successor did not mint polturas any more.

Under Rákóczi, polturas were initially struck from silver, but purchasing of arms required bigger and bigger portion of the noble metal reserves. Consequently, copper 1, 10 and 20 poltura coins were stuck for the inner circulation (4 poltura coins are only known as trial strikes) to replace silver coins, these can therefore be considered as emergency money. The general design included the small coat of arms of Hungary with the Holy Crown for the obverse and Madonna with the child Christ for the reverse. The coins also featured indication of year of minting and value, as well as mintmark. The most common denomination was the ten poltura coin, which was colloquially called libertás for the Latin inscription PRO LIBERTATE (for liberty).

Rule of tincture

The most basic rule of heraldic design is the rule of tincture: metal should not be put on metal, nor colour on colour (Humphrey Llwyd, 1568). This means that Or and argent (gold and silver, which may be represented by yellow and white) may not be placed on each other; nor may any of the colours (i.e. azure, gules, sable, vert and purpure, along with some other rarer examples) be placed on another colour. Heraldic furs (i.e. ermine, vair and their variants) as well as "proper" (a charge coloured as it normally is in nature -- although that may be as defined by heralds) are exceptions to the rule of tincture.

Sándor Palace, Budapest

The Sándor Palace (Hungarian: Sándor-palota) is located in Budapest, Hungary.

It is the official residence of the President of Hungary, and the seat of the Office of the President. It has served as both since 2003. Sándor Palace is the 37th biggest palace in present-day Hungary.

The palace is situated at Szent György tér 1-2 (St. George Square) in Buda, immediately north of the Buda Castle complex, which was the former residence of the kings and governors of Hungary.

Trimount

In heraldry, a trimount is a stylized depiction of three rounded hills or mountains, normally from the base of the image. The trimount (in German, Dreiberg) can be found in the heraldry of most European countries. A design of six hills can also be found in Swiss and Italian heraldry. Heraldic animals and flowers are often depicted on, coming up from, or above the trimount.

The coat of arms of Hungary depicts a trimount, as well as the coat of arms of Slovakia. The trimount in the Hungarian and Slovak coat of arms represents three mountain ranges of the Kingdom of Hungary: the Tatra, Fatra, and Mátra. The pointy trimount that appears on the Slovenian flag represents Triglav, the highest mountain in Slovenia.

Two-barred cross

A two-barred cross is like a Latin cross with an extra bar added. The lengths and placement of the bars (or "arms") vary, and most of the variations are interchangeably called either of cross of Lorraine, the patriarchal cross, the Orthodox cross or the archiepiscopal cross.

Árpád stripes

Árpád stripes (Hungarian: Árpád-sávok) is the name of a particular heraldic and vexillologic configuration which has been in constant use since the early 13th century in particular in Hungarian heraldry. It can be seen in the left half of the current coat of arms of Hungary.

They have been associated with the founding dynasty of Hungary, with the House of Árpád, hence the name, but most later rulers and dynasties of Hungary adopted them in one form or another to stress their legitimacy to the Hungarian throne, e.g. by marshalling. The four silver stripes (often depicted as white) are sometimes claimed to symbolise "the four silver rivers" of Hungary—the Danube, Tisza, Sava and Drava.

The Árpád stripes are heraldically "barry of eight gules and argent".

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