Coastal submarine

A coastal submarine or littoral submarine[1] is a small, maneuverable submarine with shallow draft well suited to navigation of coastal channels and harbors. Although size is not precisely defined, coastal submarines are larger than midget submarines, but smaller than sea-going submarines designed for longer patrols on the open ocean. Space limitations aboard coastal submarines restrict fuel availability for distant travel, food availability for extended patrol duration, and number of weapons carried. Within those limitations, however, coastal submarines may be able to reach areas inaccessible to larger submarines, and be more difficult to detect.

History

The earliest submarines were effectively coastal submarines, but as modern submarine tactics developed during World War I, the advantages of rapid construction and portability encouraged development of UB torpedo launching, and UC minelaying coastal submarines in 1915 to operate in the English Channel. These coastal submarines displaced only 15 to 20 percent the weight of a contemporary conventional U-boat,[2] could be built in one-quarter the time it took to complete a conventional U-boat, and be delivered on railway wagons to operating bases in Belgium.[3] Improved versions of UB and UC coastal submarines were devised. Total production of German coastal submarines during World War I was 136 type UB and 95 type UC.[4]

German submarine construction between the world wars began in 1935 with the building of 24 Type II coastal submarines. These coastal U-boats, with another eight completed prior to hostilities, made North Sea combat patrols during the early months of World War II and then served in the Baltic Sea training crews to operate ocean-going submarines.[5] The 30th U-boat Flotilla of six Type II U-boats was transported overland on the Autobahn and then down the Danube for combat patrols in the Black Sea until September 1944.[6]

Examples

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "SSK Andrasta Littoral Submarine, France". naval-technology.com. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  2. ^ Gray, pp.226&228
  3. ^ Tarrant, pp.15-24
  4. ^ Tarrant, p.161
  5. ^ Lenton, pp.121,140-145&149-150
  6. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "30th Flotilla". U-boat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2014.

Sources

  • Gray, Edwyn A. (1972). The Killing Time. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Lenton, H.T. (1976). German Warships of the Second World War. New York: Arco Publishing Company. ISBN 0-668-04037-8.
  • Tarrant, V.E. (1989). The U-Boat Offensive 1914-1945. London: Cassell & Company. ISBN 1-85409-520-X.
Amenities ship

An amenities ship is a ship outfitted with recreational facilities as part of a mobile naval base. Amenities ships included movie theaters and canteens staffed by mercantile crews of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary service. These ships were intended to provide a place where British Pacific Fleet personnel could relax between operations.

Attack submarine

An attack submarine or hunter-killer submarine is a submarine specifically designed for the purpose of attacking and sinking other submarines, surface combatants and merchant vessels. In the Soviet and Russian navies they were and are called "multi-purpose submarines". They are also used to protect friendly surface combatants and missile submarines. Some attack subs are also armed with cruise missiles mounted in vertical launch tubes, increasing the scope of their potential missions to include land targets.

Attack submarines may be either nuclear-powered or diesel-electric ("conventionally") powered. In the United States Navy naming system, and in the equivalent NATO system (STANAG 1166), nuclear-powered attack submarines are known as SSNs and their diesel-electric predecessors were SSKs. In the US Navy, SSNs are unofficially called "fast attacks".

British F-class submarine

The F class submarine was built for the Royal Navy as a coastal submarine based on the doubled hulled V class submarine (World War I) with very few minor improvements. The only important improvement was the addition of a stern torpedo tube. The F class were ordered as a successor to the E class submarine, but only three were built out of the ten ordered.

During World War I, the F class submarine was primarily used for coastal defence.

Only three of the class were built, the first F1 being built at Chatham. All three of the class survived the war and ended their service as training boats at Campbeltown. F1 and F3 were scrapped in 1920, F2 was sold in 1922.

French submarine Doris (1927)

Doris was a Circé-class coastal submarine of the French Navy, in service from 1928 until May 1940, when she was sunk off the Dutch coast by the German coastal submarine U-9. The wreck was rediscovered by Dutch divers in 2003.

General stores issue ship

General stores issue ship is a type of ship used by the United States Navy during World War II and for some time afterwards.

The task of the general stores issue ship was to sail into non-combat, or rear, areas and disburse general stores, such as canned goods, toilet paper, office supplies, etc., to ships and stations.

German Type UB III submarine

The Type UB III submarine was a class of U-boat built during World War I by the German Imperial Navy.

UB III boats carried 10 torpedoes and were usually armed with either an 8.8 cm (3.5 in) or a 10.5 cm (4.1 in) deck gun. They carried a crew of 34 and had a cruising range of 7,120–9,090 nautical miles (13,190–16,830 km; 8,190–10,460 mi). Between 1916 and 1918, 96 were built.The UB III type coastal submarine, despite being a submersible torpedo boat was less akin to UB-II type "attack" (i.e. torpedo-launching) boats that preceded it than the highly successful UC-II type minelaying submarine. The UC-IIs had gained their fearsome reputation by sinking more than 1,800 Allied and neutral vessels. German engineers did not miss the chance of expanding the potential of this capable design by incorporating some of its features into a new submersible torpedo boat.

The UB-IIIs joined the conflict mid-1917, after the United States of America declared war on Germany and the United States Navy was added to the ranks of their enemies. When the convoy system was introduced, it became more difficult to engage enemy merchant shipping without being spotted by destroyer escorts. Nevertheless, the UB-IIIs performed their duties with distinction, sinking 507 ships with a total of 1,212,553 gross register tons (GRT) and 12 warships, including the battleship HMS Britannia, before the end of hostilities.

More than 200 UB III boats were ordered. Of these, 96 were completed, and 89 commissioned into the German Imperial Navy. Thirty-seven boats were lost, four in accidents. Surviving boats had to be surrendered to the Allies in accordance with the requirements of the Armistice with Germany, some of these boats served until 1935.Germany was prohibited from acquiring a new submarine force by the Treaty of Versailles, but German admirals had no intention of allowing their nation to forget how to construct submarines. Germany started to manufacture and to export slightly modified versions of UB-IIs and UB-IIIs. Having kept the skills of their engineers polished by this means, they eventually ordered the construction of a new coastal submarine. The resulting design was an improved UB-III that had the benefit of new, all-welded construction techniques and an array of electronic and electromechanical gadgets: the Type VII submarine, the most common U-boat of the Kriegsmarine, was born.

German submarine U-9 (1935)

German submarine U-9 was a Type IIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. Her keel was laid down on 8 February 1935, by Germaniawerft in Kiel as yard number 543. She was launched on 30 July 1935 and commissioned on 21 August, with Korvettenkapitän Hans-Günther Looff in command.

U-9 conducted 19 patrols under a series of commanders, including U-boat ace Wolfgang Lüth, sinking eight ships totalling 17,221 gross register tons (GRT) and damaging another displacing 412 tons. This included the French Sirène class coastal submarine Doris.

She was sunk by soviet bombs on 20 August 1944. Her wreck was later raised by the Soviets, repaired and recommissioned as TS-16 but was broken up in December 1946 because of her poor performance.

Guard ship

A guard ship is a warship assigned as a stationary guard in a port or harbour, as opposed to a coastal patrol boat which serves its protective role at sea.

List of ship commissionings in 1935

The list of ship commissionings in 1935 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1935.

List of ship commissionings in 1936

The list of ship commissionings in 1936 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1936.

List of ship commissionings in 1939

The list of ship commissionings in 1939 includes a chronological list of ships commissioned in 1939. In cases where no official commissioning ceremony was held, the date of service entry may be used instead.

List of ship commissionings in 1941

The list of ship commissionings in 1941 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1941.

Mine countermeasures vessel

A mine countermeasures vessel or MCMV is a type of naval ship designed for the location of and destruction of naval mines which combines the role of a minesweeper and minehunter in one hull. The term MCMV is also applied collectively to minehunters and minesweepers.

Minehunter

A minehunter is a naval vessel that seeks, detects, and destroys individual naval mines. Minesweepers, on the other hand, clear mined areas as a whole, without prior detection of mines. A vessel that combines both of these roles is known as a mine countermeasures vessel (MCMV).

Ocean boarding vessel

Ocean boarding vessels (OBVs) were merchant ships taken over by the Royal Navy for the purpose of enforcing wartime blockades by intercepting and boarding foreign vessels.

Quebec-class submarine

The Quebec-class submarine was the NATO reporting name of the Soviet Project 615 submarine class, a small coastal submarine of the late 1950s.

Repair ship

A repair ship is a naval auxiliary ship designed to provide maintenance support to warships. Repair ships provide similar services to destroyer, submarine and seaplane tenders or depot ships, but may offer a broader range of repair capability including equipment and personnel for repair of more significant machinery failures or battle damage.

Sang-O-class submarine

The Sang-O (Shark) class submarines (Hangul: 상어급 잠수함) are in use by North Korea, and are the country's largest indigenously-built submarines. A single unit was captured by the Republic of Korea Navy (South Korea) after it ran aground on 18 September 1996 in the 1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident.

Type 946 submarine rescue ship

The Type 946 930 submarine rescue ship (NATO reporting name Dazhou (大舟, meaning Great Ark) class) is a type of coastal submarine rescue ship developed by China for the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). A development designated as Type 946A is also in service with PLAN.

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