Coalition of the Gulf War

Under United Nations Security Council Resolution 678, a coalition of 35 countries, led by the United States, fought Iraq in the Gulf War from 1990–1991.

Coalition by number of military personnel

Multinational group of fighter jets during Operation Desert Shield.JPEG
Multinational group (Qatari, French, U.S., and Canadian Air Forces) of fighter jets during Operation Desert Shield
Tornado F3 RSAF Feb1991.jpeg
A Royal Saudi Air Force Tornado F3 during Operation Desert Storm.
Various Arabic Troops during Operation Desert Storm
Coalition troops from Egypt, France, Oman, Syria, and Kuwait stand for review during Operation Desert Storm.
List of Coalition forces by number of military personnel
Country Number of Personnel Comments / Major Events
 United States 697,000[1] Operation Desert Shield
Operation Desert Storm
Battle of Khafji
Battle of 73 Easting
Battle of Al Busayyah
Battle of Phase Line Bullet
Battle of Medina Ridge
Battle of Wadi Al-Batin
Battle of Norfolk
 Saudi Arabia 60,000 – 100,000 Operation Desert Shield
Battle of Khafji
Operation Desert Storm
 United Kingdom 53,462[2] Operation Granby. 16 ships, 58 aircraft, 1st Armd Div HQ, 7th Armd Bde, 4th Armd Bde[3]
 Egypt 20,000 Operation Desert Storm
 France 18,000 Opération Daguet. LTG Michel Roquejoeoffre: 20,000 troops, 14 ships, 1 CV, more than 75 aircraft, 350 tanks, & 6th Armored Division. [3]
 Syria 14,500 Operation Desert Storm
 Morocco 13,000 Security Personnel
 Kuwait 9,900 Invasion of Kuwait
Operation Desert Storm
 Oman 6,300 Operation Desert Storm
 Pakistan 4,900 – 5,500 Backup team
 Canada 4,600 Operation Friction
 United Arab Emirates 4,300 Operation Desert Storm
 Qatar 2,600 Battle of Khafji
 Bangladesh 2,300[4] (Operation Moru-prantar) Security Personnel including 2 field Ambulance teams
 Italy 1,950 (Operazione Locusta) Deployed 8 Panavia Tornado strike attack aircraft, Naval deployment (Operazione Golfo 2)
 Australia 700 Australian contribution to the 1991 Gulf War. Australia contributed at least 1 guided missile frigate, 1 destroyer, 1 supply ship.[3]
 Netherlands 700 Naval deployment; Air Force deployments of Surface-to-Air Missiles to Turkey and Israel
 Niger 600 Patroller group. At least 480 troops guarding shrines in Mecca and Medina.[3]
 Sweden 525[5] Field hospital
 Argentina 500 Navy / Air Force
 Senegal 500 Base Guards
 Spain 500 on the field / 3,000 off the coast Engineers
 Bahrain 400 Base Guards
 Belgium 400 Base Engineers
 Poland 319 Operation Simoom
Naval & medical deployment
 South Korea 314 Medical & transportation support
 Norway 280 Naval vessel & Field hospital + intelligence information
 Czechoslovakia 200 Operation Desert Shield
Operation Desert Storm
Czechoslovakia in the Gulf War
 Greece 200 Hellenic Air Force Pilots and ground support staff
 Philippines 200 Medical personnel
 Denmark 100 HDMS Olfert Fischer (Niels Juel Class Korvet)
 New Zealand 100 2 C-130 Hercules transporter aircraft[6]
 Afghanistan 300 300 Mujaheddin joining coalition on Feb 11, 1991
 Argentina 450 2 frigates and 450 troops[3]
 Belgium 2 minesweepers, 1 squadron of fighters to Turkey[3]
 Czechoslovakia 200-man chemical defense unit & 150 medical personnel [3]
 Denmark 1 corvette [3]
 Germany 1 squadron of fighters to Turkey [4]
 Greece 1 frigate in Red Sea [3]
 Honduras 150 Washington Post Jan, 15, 1991: 150 troops sent, may send 350 more.[3]
 Italy 4 ships, 8 Tornado fighters, 1 squadron of fighters to Turkey[3]
 Senegal 500[3]
 Spain 2 corvettes and 1 destroyer patrolling near Bab al Mandeb[3]
 Hungary 40 Medical team[7]

Coalition by Divisions

Army Central Command

Marine Central Command

Joint Forces Command East

Joint Forces Command North

Commanders of Coalition

Bangladesh

  • Zubayr Siddiqui

Czechoslovakia

  • Ján Való

Egypt

France

Italy

  • Mario Arpino

Saudi Arabia

Syria

United Kingdom

United States

Coalition by Equipment

United States

Tanks

Armored Vehicles

  • M2A2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle)
  • M3A2 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle)
  • AAVP7A1 Assault Amphibian Vehicle Personnel (USMC)
  • LAV-25 Light Armored Vehicle (USMC)
  • LAV-AT Light Armored Vehicle (Anti-Tank) (USMC)
  • M113A2/A3 APC (Armored Personnel Carrier)
  • M901A1 ITV (Improved TOW Vehicle)
  • M93 Fox Nuclear-Biological-Chemical (NBC) Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle

Self-Propelled Artillery/Mortars/Rockets

  • LAV-M Light Armored Vehicle (Mortar) (USMC)
  • M106A2 Self-Propelled Mortar Carrier
  • M109A2/A3/A4 155 mm SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer)
  • M110A2 8 inch SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer)
  • M270 MLRS Multiple Launch Rocket System

Anti-Aircraft

Artillery & Mortars

Engineering & Recovery Vehicles

Command Vehicles

  • M577A2 ACP (Armored Command Post) Carrier
  • AACV7A1 (Assault Amphibian Vehicle Command) (USMC)
  • LAV-25C2 Light Armored Vehicle (Command & Control) (USMC)
  • M981 FISTV (Fire Support Team Vehicle)

Other Vehicles

Helicopters

Aircraft

Aircraft Carriers

Battleships

Submarines

Amphibious Assault Ships

Guided Missile Cruisers

Destroyer Tenders

Destroyers

Guided Missile Destroyers

Frigates

Amphibious Transport Docks

Ammunition Ships

Dock Landing Ships

Tank Landing Ships

Fast Sealift Ships

  • SL-7 Type (USS Algol, USNS Bellatrix, USS Denebola, USS Pollux, USNS Altair, USS Regulus, USS Capella)

Fleet Oilers

  • Neosho Class (USS Neosho, USS Hassayampa, USS Ponchatoula)
  • Cimarron Class (USS Platte)
  • Henry J. Kaiser Class (USS Joshua Humphreys, USNS Andrew J. Higgins, USS Walter S. Diehl)

Combat Stores Ships

Fast Combat Support Ships

Replenishment Oiler Ships

  • Wichita Class (USS Kansas City, USS Kalamazoo)

Minesweepers

Repair Ships

  • Vulcan Class (USS Vulcan, USS Jason)

Rescue & Salvage Ships

  • Edenton Class (USS Beaufort)

Sealift Ships

  • Wright Class (USS Wright, USS Curtiss)

Hospital Ships

Amphibious Cargo Ships

  • Charleston Class USS Durham, USS Mobile)

Mine Countermeasure Ships

Survey Ships

  • Chauvenet Class (USS Chauvenet)

Light Water Craft

United Kingdom

Tanks

Armoured Vehicles

Self-Propelled Artillery/Mortars/Rockets

  • FV432(M) Trojan SPMC (Self-Propelled Mortar Carrier)
  • M109 155 mm SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer) M109A2
  • M110 8 inch SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer) M110A2
  • MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System)

Anti-Aircraft

  • Rapier Field Standard B2 Stationary SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher
  • Tracked Rapier TR1 Mobile SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher
  • Javelin LML (Lightweight Multiple Launcher) SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher

Artillery & Mortars

Engineering & Recovery Vehicles

  • FV4205 Chieftain AVLB (Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge)
  • FV180 CET (Combat Engineer Tractor)
  • FV434 ARV (Armoured Recovery Vehicle)
  • FV512 Warrior MCRV (Mechanised Combat Repair Vehicle)
  • FV513 Warrior MRV(R) (Mechanised Recovery Vehicle (Repair))
  • CRARRV (Challenger Armoured Repair and Recovery Vehicle)

Command Vehicles

Other Vehicles

Aircraft

Frigates

Destroyers

Submarines

Fleet Support Tankers

Fast Fleet Tankers

Stores Ships

Mine Countermeasure Vessels

  • Hunt Class (HMS Ledbury, HMS Cattistock, HMS Dulverton, HMS Bicester, HMS Atherstone, HMS Hurworth)

Fleet Repair Ships

Primary Casualty Reception Vessels

Saudi Arabia

Tanks

Armoured Vehicles

Self-Propelled Artillery/Mortars/Rockets

  • M109A2 155 mm SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer)
  • AMX-GCT 155 mm SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer)
  • ASTROS-II MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System)
  • M106A2 Self-Propelled Mortar Carrier
  • Cadillac Gage V-150 Commando (Mortar 81 mm)
  • Cadillac Gage V-150 Commando (Mortar 90 mm)

Artillery & Mortars

Anti-Aircraft

  • M163 VADS Vulcan Air Defence System
  • AMX-30SA Shahine Self-Propelled SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher
  • AMX-30SA SPAAA (Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery)
  • MIM-23 Improved Hawk SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher
  • Shahine Stationary SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher
  • Bofors 40 mm L/70 AAA (Anti-Aircraft Artillery)
  • Oerlikon-Buhrle Twin 35 mm GDF AAA (Anti-Aircraft Artillery)

Other Vehicles

Helicopters

Aircraft

Frigates

Corvettes

Patrol Ships

  • Al Sadiq-class (As-Siddiq, Al-Farouq, Abdul-Aziz, Faisal, Khalid, Amr, Tariq, Ouqbah, Abu Obadiah)

Replenishment Ships

Kuwait

Tanks

  • M-84AB MBT (Main Battle Tank)

Armoured Vehicles

  • BMP-2 IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle)
  • M113A1 APC (Armored Personnel Carrier)

Helicopters

Aircraft

France

Tanks

Armoured Vehicles

Artillery & Mortars

  • TR-F1 155 mm Towed Howitzer
  • MO-81-61C 81 mm Mortar
  • MO-120-RT-61 120 mm Mortar

Anti-Aircraft

  • GIAT 20 mm 53T2 Towed AAA (Anti-Aircraft Artillery)
  • Mistral SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher

Other Vehicles

  • Peugeot P4 4WD
  • VLRA (Vehicle de Liaison et Reconnaissance de L'Armee) Truck
  • GIAT VAB (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé)
  • GIAT VAB-PC (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé) (Command)
  • GIAT VAB-VCAC/HOT (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé) ATGM (Anti-Tank Guided Missile) Launching Vehicle
  • GIAT VAB-VTM (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé) Mortar Tractor

Helicopters

Aircraft

Aircraft Carriers

Amphibious Transport Docks

Cruisers

Destroyers

Corvettes

Replenishment Ships

Qatar

Tanks

  • AMX-30S MBT (Main Battle Tank)

Italy

Fighter jets

Destroyers

Frigates

Replenishment Ships

Poland

Hospital ship

  • ORP Wodnik

Salvage ship

  • ORP Piast

Czechoslovakia

Other vehicles

  • Tatra T-815 (Heavy truck)
  • UAZ-4629 (All-terrain vehicle mounted with chemical reconnaissance probes)
  • ARS-12M (De-contamination truck based on Praga V3S)
  • POP (Mobile field medical truck based on Praga V3S)

Canada

Destroyers

Fighter Aircraft

Transport Aircraft

Helicopters

Patrol, Surveillance Aircraft

Supply/Replenishment Ship

Argentina[9]

Destroyers

Frigates

Amphibious Cargo Ships

Helicopters

Transport Aircraft

Australia

Destroyers

Frigates

Replenishment Ships

Transport Aircraft

Notes and references

  1. ^ Hyams, K. C., K. Hanson, F. S. Wignall, J. Escamilla, and E. C. Oldfield, 3rd. "The Impact of Infectious Diseases on the Health of U.S. Troops Deployed to the Persian Gulf During Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm." Reprinted with permission of Clinical Infectious Diseases. Force Health Protection & Readiness Policy & Programs, 20 June 1995. Web. 9 June 2014.
  2. ^ "1990/1991 Gulf Conflict" retrieved 25 March 2011 "Ministry of Defence"
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Desert Shield and Desert Storm: A Chronology and Troop List for the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf Crisis" (PDF). apps.dtic.mil. 1991-03-25. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  4. ^ a b Hossain, Ishtiaq (April 1997). "Bangladesh and the Gulf War: Response of a Small State". Pakistan Horizon. Pakistan Institute of International Affairs. 50 (2): 42. JSTOR 41393571.
  5. ^ http://www.mil.se/sv/i-varlden/Utlandsstyrkan/Truppinsatser/Kuwait/ Field hospital deployed as part of Operation Granby (in Swedish)
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-05-22. Retrieved 2010-01-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Royal New Zealand Air Force website
  7. ^ Lieutenant Colonel Joseph P. Englehardt. "DESERT SHIELD AND DESERT STORM A CHRONOLOGY AND TROOP LIST FOR THE 1990-1991 PERSIAN GULF CRISIS" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center.
  8. ^ OP SCALPEL War Journal
  9. ^ La Armada Argentina en el Golfo
  10. ^ El TC-91, un avión con mucha historia
  11. ^ A 12 AÑOS DEL BOEING UNAG-1 EN LA GUERRA DEL GOLFO I Archived 2011-03-05 at the Wayback Machine
439 Combat Support Squadron

439 Combat Support Squadron (French: 439e Escadron de soutien au combat) is a squadron of the Royal Canadian Air Force, based in Bagotville, Quebec.

It was formed as No. 123 (Army Co-operation) Squadron in early 1942 for army training operations in eastern Canada during World War II, being renumbered No. 439 Squadron RCAF in late 1943 when it transferred to England. The squadron briefly flew the Hawker Hurricane before receiving the Hawker Typhoon, flying ground attack missions with the Second Tactical Air Force in support of Allied advances in northwestern Europe from mid-1944 to the end of the war in May 1945.

Disbanded shortly after the end of the Second World War, the squadron was reformed in 1951, operating the Canadair Sabre from England and France until 1963, when it was disbanded. It was quickly reformed as 439 Reconnaissance/Attack Squadron, operating the CF-104 Starfighter. Moved to Germany in 1967, it underwent several redesignations before assuming a ground attack mission at CFB Baden–Soellingen as 439 Tactical Fighter Squadron. After converting to the CF-18 Hornet in the mid-1980s, the squadron participated in the Gulf War. It assumed its current title in 1993, operating the Bell CH-146 Griffon helicopter.

7th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 7th Armoured Brigade was an armoured brigade formation of the British Army. The brigade is also known as the 'Desert Rats', a nickname formerly held by the 7th Armoured Division, of which the brigade formed a part of during the Second World War until late 1941.

ARA Rosales (P-42)

ARA Rosales (P-42) is the second ship of the MEKO 140A16 Espora class of six corvettes built for the Argentine Navy. The ship is the fourth ship to bear the name of Colonel (Navy) Leonardo Rosales, who fought in the Argentine Navy during Argentina's war of independence and the Cisplatine War.

The Argentine Navy struggles to meet maintenance and training requirements because of financial problems and import restrictions. The operational status of Rosales is not clear, as of November 2012 she was waiting for spares.

Alliance

An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alliance are called allies. Alliances form in many settings, including political alliances, military alliances, and business alliances. When the term is used in the context of war or armed struggle, such associations may also be called allied powers, especially when discussing World War I or World War II.

A formal military alliance is not required for being perceived as an ally—co-belligerence, fighting alongside someone, is enough. According to this usage, allies become so not when concluding an alliance treaty but when struck by war.

When spelled with a capital "A", "Allies" usually denotes the countries who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I (the Allies of World War I), or those who fought against the Axis Powers in World War II (the Allies of World War II). The term has also been used by the United States Army to describe the countries that gave assistance to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.More recently, the term "Allied forces" has also been used to describe the coalition of the Gulf War, as opposed to forces the Multi-National Forces in Iraq which are commonly referred to as "Coalition forces" or, as by the George W. Bush administration, "the coalition of the willing".

The Allied Powers in World War I (also known as the Entente Powers) were initially the United Kingdom, France, the Russian Empire, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro and Japan, joined later by Italy, Portugal, Romania, the United States, Greece and Brazil. Some, such as the Russian Empire, withdrew from the war before the armistice due to revolution or defeat.

Bangladesh Air Force

The Bangladesh Air Force (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ বিমান বাহিনী, Bangladesh Biman Bahini, reporting name: BAF), is the aerial warfare branch of the Bangladesh Armed Forces, primarily tasked with the air defence of Bangladesh territory and providing air support to the Bangladesh Army and Navy. Additionally, the service has a territorial role of providing strategic air transport and logistics capability for the country.

Since its establishment on 28 September 1971, the Air Force has been involved in various combat and humanitarian operations, from the Bangladesh Liberation War in which it was born, to supporting international efforts including the Coalition of the Gulf War and United Nations peacekeeping missions.

Battle of Kuwait International Airport

The Battle of Kuwait International Airport occurred on February 27, 1991 during the 1st Gulf War. It was a tank battle between the United States (as part of the Coalition of the Gulf War) and Iraq. Despite being a very large battle it is often overlooked compared to the other battles which took place during the war. No less than elements of 18 divisions total participated in this battle. U.S. Army Special Forces units and multiple Iraqi Commando units were also in theatre. In reality the battle took place over a span of three days despite the primary battle at Kuwait International Airport lasting only one day. Much of the combat actually took place en route to the airport. The battle featured the "Reveille Engagement" which went on to become the biggest and fastest tank battle in United States Marine Corps' entire history.

Coalition

The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a coming together to achieve a goal.

Colombia–Malaysia relations

Colombia–Malaysia relations (Spanish: Relaciones Colombia-Malasia; Malay: Hubungan Colombia–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن كولومبيا–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between the countries of the Republic of Colombia and Malaysia. Colombia maintains an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, while the embassy of Malaysia in Lima, Peru is accredited to Colombia.

Czechoslovakia in the Gulf War

Czechoslovakia sent a force of 200 to take part in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm as part of the Coalition of the Gulf War. This operation was the sole military operation carried out by Czechoslovakia during the democratic period prior to its breakup in 1993. It was also the first armed conflict Czechoslovak troops took part in since World War II. The unit deployed to Saudi Arabia specialized in chemical defense and decontamination, a major concern in the Gulf War due to Saddam Hussein's use of mustard and nerve agents in the Iran–Iraq War. Czechoslovak forces were equipped with UAZ-469 all terrain vehicles equipped with chemical detection gear, Tatra T-815 transporters, and a variety of trucks designed for decontamination. The two platoons were headed by Colonel Ján Való. In the wake of the Gulf War, investigations were carried out by the Czech and Slovak government into claims of Gulf War Syndrome amongst returned veterans. Czechoslovak forces recorded the release of toxins such as sarin in Iraqi territory, that were attributed to as the causes of the syndrome.After the start of the war, about 40 Czechoslovak citizens were detained in Iraq. On 4 December 1990 unofficial Czechoslovak delegation called Mise dobré vůle (in English Mission of good faith) departed to Iraq to negotiate the release of detainees. The mission, designated as unofficial, but led by former defense minister Miroslav Vacek, was successful and returned on 11 December 1990 with 38 detainees. According to a mission member Michael Kocáb, the negotiation was complicated also because of strict statements of some Czechoslovak politicians about Iraq, like the speech of Václav Havel during his 1990 visit in Israel.

Gulf War air campaign

The air campaign of the Gulf War, also known as the 1991 bombing of Iraq, was an extensive aerial bombing campaign from 17 January 1991 to 23 February 1991. The Coalition of the Gulf War flew over 100,000 sorties, dropping 88,500 tons of bombs, widely destroying military and civilian infrastructure. The air campaign was commanded by USAF Lieutenant General Chuck Horner, who briefly served as Commander-in-Chief – Forward of U.S. Central Command while General Schwarzkopf was still in the United States. The British air commanders were Air Vice-Marshal Andrew Wilson (to 17 November 1990) and Air Vice-Marshal Bill Wratten (from 17 November). The air campaign had largely finished by 23 February 1991 when the coalition invasion of Kuwait took place.

The initial strikes were carried out by Tomahawk cruise missiles launched from warships situated in the Persian Gulf, by F-117A Nighthawk stealth bombers with an armament of laser-guided smart bombs, and by F-4G Wild Weasel aircraft armed with HARM anti-radar missiles. These first attacks allowed F-14, F-15, F-16, and F/A-18 fighter bombers to gain air superiority over Iraq and then continue to drop TGM-guided and laser-guided bombs.

Armed with a GAU-8 rotary cannon and heat-seeking or optically guided Maverick missiles, A-10 Thunderbolts bombed and destroyed Iraqi armored forces, supporting the advance of US ground troops. Marine Corps close air support AV-8B Harriers employed their 25mm rotary cannon, Mavericks, Cluster munitions, and Napalm against the Iraqi dug-in forces to pave the way forward for the Marines breaching Saddam’s defenses. The AH-64 Apache and AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters fired laser-guided Hellfire missiles and TOW missiles which were guided to tanks by ground observers or by scout helicopters, such as the OH-58D Kiowa. The Coalition air fleet also made use of the E-3A Airborne Warning and Control Systems and of a fleet of B-52 bombers.The Coalition aerial strike-force comprised over 2,250 combat aircraft (including 1,800 US aircraft) and fought against an Iraqi force of 934 combat aircraft of which 550 were operational: Soviet-built MiG-29, MiG-25, MiG-23, MiG-21, Su-22, Su-24, Su-25 and French-made Mirage F1 fighters.

Hannibal

Hannibal Barca (; Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒, ḤNBʿL BRQ; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a general and statesman from Ancient Carthage who is widely considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was a leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War (264–241 BC). His younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, and he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair; all also commanded Carthaginian armies.

Hannibal lived during a period of great tension in the western Mediterranean Basin, triggered by the emergence of the Roman Republic as a great power after it had established its supremacy over Italy. Although Rome had won the First Punic War, revanchism prevailed in Carthage, symbolised by the alleged pledge that Hannibal made to his father to never be a friend of Rome. The Second Punic War broke out in 218 after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. He then made his famous military exploit of carrying war to Italy by crossing the Alps with his African elephants. In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae. He distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's respective strengths and weaknesses, and to plan battles accordingly. Hannibal's well-planned strategies allowed him to conquer several Italian cities allied to Rome. Hannibal occupied most of southern Italy for 15 years, but could not win a decisive victory, as the Romans led by Fabius Maximus avoided confrontation with him, instead waging a war of attrition. A counter-invasion of North Africa led by Scipio Africanus forced him to return to Carthage. Scipio had studied Hannibal's tactics and brilliantly devised some of his own, and he finally defeated Rome's nemesis at the Battle of Zama, having previously driven Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal out of the Iberian Peninsula.

After the war, Hannibal successfully ran for the office of sufet. He enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome; however, those reforms were unpopular with members of the Carthaginian aristocracy and in Rome, and he fled into voluntary exile. During this time, he lived at the Seleucid court, where he acted as military advisor to Antiochus III the Great in his war against Rome. Antiochus met defeat at the Battle of Magnesia and was forced to accept Rome's terms, and Hannibal fled again, making a stop in the Kingdom of Armenia. His flight ended in the court of Bithynia, where he achieved an outstanding naval victory against a fleet from Pergamon. He was afterwards betrayed to the Romans and committed suicide by poisoning himself.

Hannibal is often regarded as one of the greatest military strategists in history and one of the greatest generals of Mediterranean antiquity, together with Philip of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, and Scipio Africanus. Plutarch states that Scipio supposedly asked Hannibal "who the greatest general was", to which Hannibal replied "either Alexander or Pyrrhus, then himself". Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge called Hannibal the "father of strategy", because Roman armies adopted elements of his military tactics into their own strategic arsenal. Hannibal has been cited by various subsequent military leaders, such as Napoleon Bonaparte, as an inspiration and the greatest strategist of all time.

Interventionism (politics)

Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society. The most common applications of the term are for economic interventionism (a state's intervention in its own economy), and foreign interventionism (a state's intervention in the affairs of another nation as part of its foreign policy).

Invasion of Kuwait

The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a two-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring State of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country. This invasion and Iraq's subsequent refusal to withdraw from Kuwait by a deadline mandated by the United Nations led to military intervention by a United Nations-authorized coalition of forces led by the United States. These events came to be known as the first Gulf War and resulted in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat.

In early 1990 Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion. Some feel there were several reasons for the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay the more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed to finance the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwaiti high petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq. The invasion started on 2 August 1990, and within two days most of the Kuwait Armed Forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or fell back to neighbouring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Iraq set up a puppet government known as the "Republic of Kuwait" to rule over Kuwait and then annexed it outright, when Saddam Hussein announced a few days later that it was the 19th province of Iraq.

Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire. Iraq wanted to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state, and was worried that the 1979 Iranian Revolution would lead Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Ba'athist government. The war also followed a long history of border disputes, and Iraq planned to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province and the east bank of the Arvand Rud (Shatt al-Arab).

Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's post-revolutionary chaos, it made limited progress and was quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive until near the end of the war. There were a number of proxy forces—most notably the People's Mujahedin of Iran siding with Iraq and the Iraqi Kurdish militias of the KDP and PUK siding with Iran. The United States, Soviet Union, France, and most Arab countries provided political support for Iraq, while Iran was largely isolated. After eight years, war-weariness, economic problems, decreased morale, repeated Iranian military failures, recent Iraqi successes, Iraqi use of weapons of mass destruction and lack of international sympathy, and increased U.S.–Iran military tension all led to a ceasefire brokered by the United Nations.

The conflict has been compared to World War I in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across fortified defensive lines, manned machine guns posts, bayonet charges, Iranian human wave attacks, extensive use of chemical weapons by Iraq, and, later, deliberate attacks on civilian targets. A special feature of the war can be seen in the Iranian cult of the martyr which had been developed in the years before the revolution. The discourses on martyrdom formulated in the Iranian Shiite context lead to the tactics of "human wave attacks" and thus had a lasting impact on the dynamics of the war. An estimated 500,000 Iraqi and Iranian soldiers died, in addition to a smaller number of civilians. The end of the war resulted in neither reparations nor border changes.

List of wars involving Poland

This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.

This list does not include peacekeeping operations (such as UNPROFOR, UNTAES or UNMOP), humanitarian missions or training missions supported by the Polish Armed Forces.

The list gives the name, the date, the Polish allies and enemies, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

Polish victory

Polish defeat

Another result (e.g., a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result unknown or indecisive)

Ongoing conflict

Military history of Italy

The military history of Italy chronicles a vast time period, lasting from the overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC, through the Roman Empire, Italian unification, and into the modern day. The Italian peninsula has been a centre of military conflict throughout European history: because of this, Italy has a long military tradition. Today Italy is the 8th country by Military Strength Index.

Multi-National Force – Iraq

The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.

The MNF-I replaced the previous force, Combined Joint Task Force 7, on 15 May 2004, and was later itself reorganized into its successor, United States Forces – Iraq, on 1 January 2010. The Force was significantly reinforced during the Iraq War troop surge of 2007. As of May 2011, all non-U.S. coalition members had withdrawn from Iraq, with the U.S. military withdrawing from the country on December 18, 2011, thus, bringing about an end to the Iraq War.Also in Iraq, since August 2003, is the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, which does humanitarian work and has a number of guards and military observers. The U.N. Assistance Mission in Iraq was not a part of the MNF-I, but a separate entity. The NATO Training Mission – Iraq, was in Iraq from 2004 to December 2011, where it trained the Iraqi Army and the Iraqi police forces.

Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660.Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field (releasing and repatriating them in an orderly manner after hostilities), demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or even conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs.

War reserve stock

A war reserve stock (WRS), also known as pre-positioned stocks, is a collection of warfighting material held in reserve in pre-positioned storage to be used if needed in wartime. They may be located strategically depending on where it is believed they will be needed. In addition to military equipment, a war reserve stock may include raw materials that might become scarce during wartime. According to this definition, storage such as the Strategic Petroleum Reserve may be considered a war stock.

Background
Invasion of Kuwait
Coalition intervention
Battles
Aftermath
Memorials
Military technology

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