Coahuila (Spanish pronunciation: [koaˈwila] (listen)), formally Coahuila de Zaragoza (American Spanish: [koaˈwila ðe saɾaˈɣosa] (listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Coahuila borders the Mexican states of Nuevo León to the east, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí to the south, and Durango and Chihuahua to the west. To the north, Coahuila accounts for a 512 kilometres (318 mi) stretch of the Mexico–United States border, adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas along the course of the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte). With an area of 151,563 square kilometres (58,519 sq mi), it is the nation's third-largest state. It comprises 38 municipalities (municipios). In 2010, Coahuila's population is 2,748,391 inhabitants.
The five largest cities in Coahuila are the state capital city of Saltillo; the second largest is Torreón (largest metropolitan area in Coahuila and 9th largest in Mexico), third largest is Monclova (a former state capital), fourth largest is Ciudad Acuña, and fifth largest is Piedras Negras.
|Estado Libre y Soberano|
de Coahuila de Zaragoza
(Español: Himno Coahuilense)
State of Coahuila within Mexico
|Admission||May 7, 1824|
|• Governor||Miguel Riquelme Solís|
|• Senators||Armando Guadiana Tijerina |
Eva Eugenia Galaz Caletti
Verónica Martínez García
|• Total||151,595 km2 (58,531 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,710 m (12,170 ft)|
|• Density||19/km2 (50/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||26th|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
25 - 27
|ISO 3166 code||MX-COA|
|HDI||0.799 High Ranked 7th of 32|
|GDP||US$ 21,556.31 mil[b]|
|Website||Official Web Site|
|^ a. Joined to the federation under the name of Coahuila y Texas also recognized as Coahuila y Tejas.|
^ b. The state's GDP was 275,920,781 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to 21,556,311.01 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).
The name Coahuila derives from native terms for the region, and has been known by variations such as Cuagüila and Cuauila. Some historians believe that this means “flying serpent”, “place of many trees”, or “place where serpents creep”. The official name of the state is Coahuila de Zaragoza, in honor of General Ignacio Zaragoza.
The Spanish explored the north of Mexico some decades after their victory in Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztecs. Such exploration was delayed because the northern climate was harsher and there was no gold. The first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Minas de la Trinidad in 1577. Saltillo was settled in 1586, to form part of the province of Nueva Vizcaya of the Vice-royalty of New Spain. Later it became one of the first provinces of Nueva Extremadura to be explored by Europeans. Among the 16th century settlers of Saltillo and other communities in Nueva Vizcaya were Tlaxcalans, who founded an independent community bordering Saltillo, called San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala.
"Coahuila and Texas" was one of the constituent states of the newly independent United Mexican States under their 1824 Constitution, and included Texas, Coahuila and Nuevo León. Later in the same year Nuevo León was detached, but Texas remained a part of the state until 1836, when it seceded to form the Republic of Texas. Monclova was the capital of the state from 1833 to 1835.
In 1840 Coahuila briefly became a member of the short lived Republic of the Rio Grande.
On April 4, 2004, the border city of Piedras Negras was flooded. More than 30 people died and more than 4,000 lost their homes. In 2007 Coahuila became the first state in Mexico to offer civil unions (Pacto Civil de Solidaridad) to same-sex couples.
The Sierra Madre Oriental runs northwest to southeast through the State, and the higher elevations are home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. The northernmost fingers of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Sierra del Burro and the Sierra del Carmen, reach to the border with the United States at the Rio Grande.
East of the range, the land slopes gently toward the Rio Grande, and is drained by several rivers, including the Salado and its tributary, the Sabinas River. The Tamaulipan mezquital, a dry shrubland ecoregion, occupies the eastern portion of the State, and extends across the Rio Grande into southern Texas.
The portion of the State west of the Sierra Madre Oriental lies on the Mexican Plateau, and is part of the Chihuahuan Desert. The Bolsón de Mapimí is a large endorheic basin which covers much of the western portion of the State and extends into adjacent portions of Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas. The Nazas River, which flows east from Durango, and the Aguanaval River, which flows north from Zacatecas, empty into lakes in the Bolsón. Torreón, the most populous city in the State, lies on the Nazas in the irrigated Laguna Region, the (Comarca Lagunera), which straddles the border of Coahuila and Durango.
Coahuila contains two biosphere reserves. Maderas del Carmen lies on the northern border of the State, and includes sections of the Chihuahuan desert and sky islands of pine-oak forest in the Sierra del Carmen. The springs, lakes, and wetlands of Cuatro Ciénegas lie west of Monclova on the west slope of the Sierra Madre.
Coahuila is largely arid or semi-arid, but the rivers of the State support extensive irrigated agriculture, particularly cotton. The Parras district in the southern part of the State produces wines and brandies. The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre produce timber.
|Flora and fauna of Coahuila|
|Ursus americanus||Felis concolor||Tamiasciurus||Cynomys ludovicianus||Aquila chrysaetos|
|Meleagris gallopavo||Crotalus molossus||Antilocapra americana||Odocoileus virginianus||Didelphis virginiana|
|Acer grandidentatum||Opuntia ficus-indica||Echinocactus grusonii||Cylindropuntia imbricata||Pinus ponderosa|
The last population census run across Mexico in the year 2015, reports Coahuila de Zaragoza as having 2,954,915 inhabitants, which, considering its size, means that the state has a very low density, in fact as low as only 15 persons per square kilometer.
Coahuila's population is mainly made up of Criollos along with Mestizos. Fewer than 7,500 natives reside in Coahuila, or merely 0.3% of the total population. The rest of the population is composed of Americans, Canadian, and Japanese communities.
The rest of the demographic particulars in the state are very similar to national averages, such as a high life expectancy (reaching 75 years of age) and a Catholic majority.
Basic public education in Coahuila is mainly managed by the state's Secretary of Education, but federal-sustained schools are also very common. There are also a lot of private schools in the main cities of the state.
Some of the most recognized universities in Coahuila include:
A private university part of the Jesuit University System with a campus in Torreón and a university extension center in Saltillo.
The most recognized public technological university of La Laguna Region located in the city of Torreón.
It is the most known technological university in Mexico with two campuses: one in Saltillo and another one in Torreón.
It is considered the best public university of the states and it has campuses and schools all across Coahuila.
About 95% of Mexico's coal reserves are found in Coahuila, which is the country's top mining state.
Torreón has Met-Mex Peñoles, a mining company. The city is the world's largest silver producer and Mexico's largest gold producer. It also has Lala, a dairy products company, which produces 40% of Mexico's milk consumption.
As of 2005, Coahuila's economy represents 3.5% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or US$22,874 million. Coahuila's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 221,273 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. Foreign direct investment in Coahuila was US$143.1 million for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Coahuila is approximately 190 pesos per day.
On the other hand, Coahuila is the Mexican state with the highest level of public debt in the nation.
Coahuila is subdivided into five regions and 38 municipalities (municipios).
This list is incomplete
Allende is a city in the Mexican state of Coahuila.
The city serves as the administrative centre for the surrounding municipality of Allende.Candelaria Cave
Cueva de la Candelaria (Candelaria Cave) is an archaeological site located in the Coahuila State (México). It is a cave that was used as cemetery by nomad visitors. Early site research was made in 1953 and there was a later season in 1954. As a result of these investigations, many materials were recovered and are kept by Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH).
Cueva de la Candelaria findings are interesting by the large amount of textiles found on this site. They constitute a source of important information about nomad Aridoamerica cultures. According to the researchers, the tissues style is very similar to baskets fabrication, but lack of stone tools artifacts such as the atlatl makes difficult the identification of Cueva de la Candelaria occupants.
State history mentions on a smaller scale to nomadic groups that inhabited this wide southern Aridoamerica region, these groups were generically called Chichimeca, but also have their specific names, such as the coahuiltecos, huachichiles, irritilas and Tobosos.Little is known about them, historical sources hardly speak of their customs, languages or dialects, or traditions, although some vestiges left for posterity are already known. Archaeological evidence displayed in caves show these were used as houses, as well as burial with tools, clothing and gifts have been discovered. Most popular sites are the Cueva de la Candelaria, La Espantosa y La Chuparrosa.The Cueva de la Candelaria occupants used to bury their dead in packages containing not only the body but body ornaments made of natural fibre, leather, shells, and feathers, as well as other pieces of clothing and footwear. Everything is wrapped in a Cotton or cassava woven blanket, and tied with twine. Most of the packages of Cueva de la Candelaria were found incomplete, that were opened perhaps by looters.Chihuahuan Desert
The Chihuahuan Desert (Spanish: Desierto de Chihuahua) is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It occupies much of West Texas, parts of the middle and lower Rio Grande Valley and the lower Pecos Valley in New Mexico, and a portion of southeastern Arizona, as well as the central and northern portions of the Mexican Plateau. It is bordered on the west by the extensive Sierra Madre Occidental range, along with northwestern lowlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental range. On the Mexican side, it covers a large portion of the state of Chihuahua, along with portions of Coahuila, north-eastern Durango, the extreme northern part of Zacatecas, and small western portions of Nuevo León. With an area of about 362,000 km2 (139,769 sq mi), it is the third largest desert of the Western Hemisphere and the second largest in North America, after the Great Basin Desert.Ciudad Acuña
Ciudad Acuña, also known simply as Acuña, (originally Garza Galán, later Villa Acuña) is a city located in the Mexican state of Coahuila, at
29°19′27″N 100°55′54″W and a mean height above sea level of 271 meters. It stands on the Rio Grande (locally known as the Río Bravo), which at this point marks the U.S.-Mexico border, and offers two border crossings via Lake Amistad Dam International Crossing and Del Río-Ciudad Acuña International Bridge with the neighbouring city of Del Rio in the U.S. state of Texas. It serves as the municipal seat of the surrounding municipality of Acuña. The 2017 estimate city population was 201,778 whereas the municipality's population was 214,616. The city is the fourth-largest in the state of Coahuila and the fastest-growing city in Mexico. The area is served by the Ciudad Acuña International Airport.
The Del Rio-Ciudad Acuña Metropolitan Area (DR-CA) is the seventh-largest binational metropolitan area along the United States-Mexican border. The city of Del Rio is situated in the U.S. state of Texas on the north side of the Rio Grande and Ciudad Acuña is located in the Mexican state of Coahuila south of the river. This metropolitan area is also known as "Tierra de la Amistad".
The Del Rio Micropolitan Area's population was 55,000 people in 2015, and the Ciudad Acuña Metropolitan Area's population was 225,000 people in 2015.
The 2015 population of Greater Del Rio-Ciudad Acuña Binational Metropolitan Area is 280,000.Coahuila meteorite
The Coahuila meteorite is a hexahedrite iron meteorite found in Coahuila, Mexico. The large number of fragments has led to many synonyms and many authors think that more than one meteorite is represented by the fragments. Only fragments found in Coahuila, that are hexahedrites and fall into the IIAB group should be called Coahuila meteorite.The mineral Daubréelite was first described in this meteorite.Coahuila y Tejas
Coahuila y Tejas (Coahuila and Texas) was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution.It had two capitals: first Saltillo (1822–1825) for petition of Miguel Ramos Arizpe, that changing the capital for dispute of political groups, but Monclova recovered primacy because it was the colonial capital since 1689; this action provoked a struggle between the residents of Saltillo and Monclova in 1838–1840, but the political actions of Santa Anna convinced the monclovitas to accept the final change of political powers to Saltillo. In the case of Tejas its territory was organized for administrative purposes, with the state being divided into three districts: Béxar, comprising the area covered by Texas; Monclova, comprising northern Coahuila; and Río Grande Saltillo, comprising southern Coahuila.
The state remained in existence until the adoption of the 1835 "Constitutional Bases", whereby the federal republic was converted into a unitary one, and the nation's states (estados) were turned into departments (departamentos). The State of Coahuila and Texas was split in two and became the Department of Coahuila and the Department of Texas.
Both Coahuila and Texas seceded from Mexico because of Antonio López de Santa Anna's attempts to centralize the government. Texas eventually became the independent Republic of Texas, which in 1845 became a state of the United States of America. Coahuila joined with Nuevo León and Tamaulipas, to form the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande.Coahuilan box turtle
The Coahuilan box turtle (Terrapene coahuila), also known commonly as the aquatic box turtle, is an endangered species of turtle in the family Emydidae. Unlike the other members of the genus Terrapene, this turtle spends roughly 90% of its time in water.It is a close relative to the common box turtle (T. carolina). Researchers have therefore suggested that it developed from a nonaquatic species in order to survive in the desert springs of Cuatro Ciénegas.List of states of Mexico
The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States. There are 31 states and one federal entity in Mexico. Mexico City is a federal entity with a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state, but is not a state itself.The states are further divided into municipalities.List of television stations in Coahuila
The following is a list of all IFT-licensed over-the-air television stations broadcasting in the Mexican state of Coahuila. There are 41 television stations in Coahuila which are affiliated to at least one Televisa, TV Azteca, Multimedios, or Canal Once network.Mexican League
The Mexican Baseball League (Spanish: Liga Mexicana de Béisbol or LMB) is a professional baseball league based in Mexico. It is the oldest running professional league in Mexico. It is a class Triple-A league in organized Minor League Baseball (MiLB), one grade below Major League Baseball (MLB). Unlike the other two Triple-A circuits, the International League and the Pacific Coast League, Mexican League teams are not affiliated with major league teams. One team, Tecolotes de los Dos Laredos, splits games between Mexico and the United States.
The league has a total of 16 teams organized in two divisions, North and South. Teams play 114 games each season. Five teams in each division advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the Serie del Rey, a best-of-seven championship series between the two division champions. The Mexican League has two minor leagues of its own, the Liga Norte de México and Mexican Academy League.
Though founded in 1925, the league did not join the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues (Minor League Baseball) until the 1950s, when it was designated a Double-A league. Some member teams entered player development contracts with teams in the National League at that time. Triple-A classification was granted in 1967.Monclova
Monclova (Spanish pronunciation: [moŋˈkloβa]), is a city and seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. According to the 2015 census there were 231,107 inhabitants in the city. Its metropolitan area has 381,432 inhabitants and has a population density of 29.88 inhabitants per square kilometers. Monclova is the third largest city and metropolitan area in the state in terms of population, after Torreón and Saltillo.
The city accounts for the highest production of steel of Mexico and Latin America, hence its nickname "The Steel Capital".
Today Monclova has one of the highest commercial, industrial and financial developments, and it is currently one of the cities with the lowest poverty rates in Mexico. Its metropolitan area is among the 10 most competitive urban areas in the country, and it also has the highest labor productivity.Municipalities of Coahuila
Coahuila is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 38 municipalities. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, Coahuila is the 16th most populous state with 2,954,915 inhabitants and the third largest by land area spanning 151,846.16 square kilometres (58,628.13 sq mi).Municipalities in Coahuila are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.The largest municipality by population is the state capital Saltillo, with 807,537 residents, while the smallest is Abasolo with 1,015 residents. The largest municipality by land area in Coahuila and the third largest in Mexico is Ocampo, which spans 26,064.30 km2 (10,063.48 sq mi), and the smallest is Allende which spans 252.01 km2 (97.30 sq mi). The first municipality to incorporate was Monclova on August 12, 1689 and the newest municipality is Francisco I. Madero, which incorporated December 2, 1936.Parras
Parras de la Fuente (pronounced [ˈparaz ðe la ˈfwente] (listen)) is a city located in the southern part of the Mexican state of Coahuila. The city serves as the municipal seat of the surrounding Parras Municipality, which has an area of 9,271.7 km2 (3,579.8 sq mi).
At the census of 2010, the population was 45,423. There are a large number of factories that produce denim, including a Dickies factory, and Parras is also a wine-making place. This region is the oldest wine-making in the Americas.Piedras Negras, Coahuila
Piedras Negras (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpjeðɾas neɣɾas] (listen)) is a city and seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name in the Mexican state of Coahuila. It stands at the northeastern edge of Coahuila on the U.S.-Mexico border, across the Rio Grande from Eagle Pass in the U.S. state of Texas. In the 2015 census the city had a population of 163,595 inhabitants, while the metropolitan area had a population of 245,155 inhabitants. The Piedras Negras and the Eagle Pass areas are connected by the Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras International Bridge, Camino Real International Bridge, and the Eagle Pass Union Pacific International Railroad Bridge.
In Spanish Piedras Negras translates to "black stones" – a reference to coal deposits in the area. Across the river, coal was formerly mined on the US side at Dolchburg, near Eagle Pass. This mine closed around 1905, after a fire. Mexico currently operates two large coal-fired power plants named "José López Portillo" and "Carbón 2" located 30 miles (48 km) south of Piedras Negras. These two coal-fired power plants are currently operated by MICARE, which engages with the mining and distribution of coal.Radio Coahuila
Radio Coahuila is the state radio network of the Mexican state of Coahuila, broadcasting on 16 transmitters in the state. Radio Coahuila's studios are located in the capital city of Saltillo, in a state office building on Periférico Luis Echeverría, alongside the Saltillo transmitter.Saltillo
Saltillo (American Spanish: [salˈtiʝo] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. As of the 2015 census, Saltillo had a population of 807,537 people, while the population of the metropolitan area was 923,636 inhabitants, making Saltillo the largest city and the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Coahuila and the 19th most populated metropolitan area in the country.Saltillo is one of the most industrialized areas of the country and has one of the largest automotive clusters in Mexico, with plants such as Grupo Industrial Saltillo, General Motors, Fiat Group, Chrysler, Daimler, Freightliner, Delphi, Plastic Omnium, Magna, and Nemak been installed in the region. In 2013, the FDi Intelligence Magazine placed the capital of Coahuila as the best medium-sized city with the best economic potential to invest in Latin America.
The first union between two people of the same sex in Latin America was made in Saltillo. This happened on January 2007, when two women united through the Civil Pact of Solidarity,San Pedro, Coahuila
San Pedro (formally: San Pedro de las Colonias) is a city located in the southwestern part of the state of Coahuila in Mexico. San Pedro lies east-northeast of the city of Torreón and serves as the seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name.
In the 2005 INEGI Census the city had a population of 43,447 inhabitants, while the municipality had a population of 93,377. The municipality has a large area of 9,942.7 km² (3,838.9 sq mi), which includes many smaller outlying communities, the largest of which is the town of Concordia (La Rosita).Torreón
Torreón (Spanish pronunciation: [toreˈon] (listen)) is a city and seat of Torreón Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. As of 2015, the city's population was 679,288. The metropolitan population as of 2015 was 1,497,734, making it the ninth-biggest metropolitan area in the country and the largest metropolitan area in state of Coahuila, as well as one of Mexico's most important economic and industrial centers. The cities of Torreón, Gómez Palacio, Lerdo, Matamoros, Francisco I. Madero, San Pedro, Bermejillo, and Tlahualilo form the area of La Laguna or the Comarca Lagunera, a basin within the Chihuahuan Desert.
The area was originally a center for ranching. With irrigation the city became an important center for farming and the processing of cotton. In the middle of the 20th century, it became an industrial city. The city has industries in textiles, clothing and metals processing. Some important industries and companies have business here, like Peñoles, Motores John Deere, Grupo Lala, Yura Corporation, as well as stores like Soriana, Cimaco, and Extra. There are also several shopping malls in the city, including Galerias Laguna, Plaza Cuatro Caminos and InterMall.
Torreón is served by Francisco Sarabia International Airport, an airport with flights to several cities in Mexico and the United States.USS Barber (DE-161)
USS Barber (DE-161/APD-57), a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of brother Malcolm, Randolph, and Leroy Barber who were all killed aboard the USS Oklahoma on 7 December 1941. The ship was laid down in April 1943 and launched one month later, but because the Barber brothers' mother was not available on the day of launching, the ship was christened at the same time that she was commissioned in October 1943. After a year of service in the Atlantic escorting convoys and helping to sink German submarine U-488, Barber was converted to a Charles Lawrence-class high speed transport and assigned the new hull code of APD-57. After her conversion was complete in January 1945, Barber sailed for duty in the Pacific. After earning three battle stars for her wartime service, Barber was decommissioned in March 1946 and placed in reserve.
After 22 years of inactivity, Barber was struck from the Naval Vessel Register in November 1968, and transferred to the Mexican Navy the following February as ARM Coahuila (B07). In 1994, she was renamed ARM Vincente Guerrero after former Mexican president Vincente Guerrero. The ship was later restored to her original Mexican name of Coahuila with a new pennant number of E21, before she was stricken from the rolls of the Mexican Navy in July 2001. Her ultimate fate is unreported in secondary sources.