Coach (baseball)

In baseball, a number of coaches assist in the smooth functioning of a team. They are assistants to the manager, who determines the lineup and decides how to substitute players during the game. Beyond the manager, more than a half dozen coaches may assist the manager in running the team. Essentially, baseball coaches are analogous to assistant coaches in other sports, as the baseball manager is to the head coach.

Roles of professional baseball coaches

Connie Mack & Ira Thomas, 1914
Hall of Fame manager Connie Mack wearing a suit instead of a team uniform

Baseball is unique in that the manager and coaches typically all wear numbered uniforms similar to those of the players. Notable exceptions to this were Baseball Hall of Fame manager Connie Mack, who always wore a black suit during his 50 years at the helm of the Philadelphia Athletics, and Burt Shotton, manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the late 1940s, who wore a Dodger 200 cap and a team jacket over street clothes in the dugout. After the widespread adoption of numbered uniforms in the early 1930s, Joe McCarthy, another Hall of Fame manager, wore a full uniform but no number on his back for the remainder of his career (with the New York Yankees, then the Boston Red Sox). Coincidentally, all three men retired during or after the same season — 1950.

Full-time coaches in professional baseball date to 1909, when John McGraw of the New York Giants engaged Arlie Latham and Wilbert Robinson as coaches.[1] By the 1920s, most Major League teams had two full-time coaches, although the manager often doubled as third-base coach and specialists such as pitching coaches were rare. After World War II, most MLB teams listed between three and five coaches on their roster, as managers increasingly ran their teams from the dugout full-time, and appointed pitching and bullpen coaches to assist them and the baseline coaches. Batting and bench coaches came into vogue during the 1960s and later.[1] Because of the proliferation of uniformed coaches in the modern game, by the late 2000s Major League Baseball had restricted the number of uniformed staff to six coaches and one manager during the course of a game.[2] Beginning with the 2013 season, clubs are permitted to employ a seventh uniformed coach, designated the assistant hitting coach, at their own discretion.[3]

Bench coach

The first bench coach in baseball was George Huff, who took that helm for the Illinois Fighting Illini baseball in 1905; at the time, it meant a coach present throughout the season.[4]

More recently, the bench coach is a team's second-in-command. The bench coach serves as an in-game advisor to the manager, offering situational advice, and bouncing ideas back and forth in order to assist the manager in making game decisions.[5] If the manager is ejected, suspended, or unable to attend a game for any reason, the bench coach assumes the position of acting manager. If the manager is fired or resigns during the season, it is usually the bench coach who gets promoted to interim manager. The bench coach's responsibilities also include helping to set up the day's practice and stretching routines before a game, as well as coordinating spring training routines and practices.[6]

Pitching and bullpen coaches

A pitching coach mentors and trains teams' pitchers. He advises the manager on the condition of pitchers and their arms, and serves as an in-game coach for the pitcher currently on the mound. When a manager makes a visit to the mound, he typically is doing so to make a pitching change or to discuss situational defense. However, to talk about mechanics or how to pitch to a particular batter, the pitching coach is the one who will typically visit the mound. The pitching coach is generally a former pitcher. One exception is Dave Duncan, the former pitching coach of the St. Louis Cardinals, who was a catcher. Prior to the early 1950s, pitching coaches were usually former catchers.[7]

The bullpen coach is similar to a pitching coach, but works primarily with relief pitchers in the bullpen. He does not make mound visits, however, as he stays in the bullpen the entire game, working with relievers who are warming up to enter the game. Generally, the bullpen coach is either a former pitcher or catcher.

Offensive coaches: hitting coach and base coaches

A hitting coach, as the name suggests, works with a team's players to improve their hitting techniques and form. He monitors players' swings during the game and over the course of the season, advising them when necessary between at-bats on adjustments to make. He also oversees their performance during practices, cage sessions, and pre-game batting practice. With the advent of technology, hitting coaches are increasingly utilizing video to analyze their hitters along with scouting the opposing pitchers. Video has allowed hitting coaches to clearly illustrate problem areas in the swing, making the adjustment period quicker for the player being analyzed. This process is typically called video analysis.

Brian Snitker
Brian Snitker as third base coach for the Atlanta Braves in 2008.

Two on-field coaches are present when the team is at bat. Stationed in designated coaches' boxes near first and third base, they are appropriately named base coaches—individually, first base coach and third base coach. They assist in the direction of baserunners, help prevent pickoffs, and relay signals sent from the manager in the dugout to runners and batters. While the first base coach is primarily responsible for the batter as to whether he stops at first base or not or for a runner already on first, the third base coach carries more responsibility. His duties include holding or sending runners rounding second and third bases, as well as having to make critical, split-second decisions about whether to try to score a runner on a hit, and accounting for the arm strength of the opposing team's fielder and the speed and position of his baserunner.

Additional coaching responsibilities

The bench coach, third base coach, and first base coach often are assigned additional responsibility for assisting players in specific areas, particularly defense. Common designations include outfield instructor, infield instructor, catching instructor, and baserunning instructor.[8] When a coaching staff is assembled, the selection of the first base coach is frequently made with the purpose of filling a gap in these coaching responsibilities, as the actual in-game duties of a first base coach are relatively light.

Other coaches

Teams may also employ individuals to work with players in other areas or activities. These positions sometimes include the word "coach" in their titles. Individuals holding these positions usually do not dress in uniform during games, as the number of uniformed coaches is restricted by Major League Baseball rules. The most prominent of these positions are the athletic trainer and the strength and conditioning coach. All Major League Baseball teams employ an athletic trainer; most employ a strength and conditioning coach. Other positions include bullpen catcher and batting practice pitcher. Some teams also employ additional coaches without specific responsibilities.

Minor and amateur leagues

In general, Major League Baseball teams will have one person specifically assigned to each coaching position described above. However, minor league and amateur teams typically have coaches fulfill multiple responsibilities. A typical minor league/amateur team coaching structure will have a manager, a pitching coach, and a hitting coach, each of whom also assumes the responsibilities of the first and third base coaches, bullpen coach, etc. In U.S. college baseball, the title "manager" is not used; the person who fills the role of a professional manager is instead called the "head coach".

See also


  1. ^ a b Thorne, John, and Palmer, Pete, eds.., Total Baseball. New York: Warner Books, 1989, page 2,153
  2. ^ The Associated Press, March 30, 2007
  3. ^ Neyer, Rob (January 15, 2013). "Coming to a dugout near you: Interpreters! Assistant hitting coaches!".
  4. ^ Gagnon, Cappy (2004). Notre Dame Baseball Greats: From Anson to Yaz. Arcadia Publishing. p. 47. ISBN 0738532622. Retrieved 2014-10-29. Before the 1905 season, when George Huff took the helm for the University of Illinois, no college had ever employed a bench coach. Before that time (and for another 5-10 years at most colleges), anyone listed as 'coach' was either a professional player hired as the pre-season teacher of baseball, or was the player-coach or captain of the team.
  5. ^ "The Role of the Bench Coach" – The Birdhouse Archived October 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "More than just a side job: For a manager, bench coach is a trusted confidant" – Boston Globe
  7. ^ Zimniuch, Fran (2010). Fireman: The Evolution of the Closer in Baseball. Chicago: Triumph Books. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-60078-312-8.
  8. ^ "The Mets' Next Third Base Coach" NY Daily News
1904 Auburn Tigers football team

The 1904 Auburn Tigers football team represented Auburn University in the 1904 Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association football season.

The team went undefeated, winning all five of its regular season games. It also won two "practice" games against Montgomery and the University of Florida. The Tigers defense was nearly perfect, outscoring opponents 73–11 in regular season play and completing three shut outs (five counting the practice games). This was the first undefeated Auburn team since 1900 and was the fourth time the Tigers went undefeated.

The squad was coached by Mike Donahue in his first year as a head football coach. Donahue coached two separate times at Auburn (1904–1906 and 1908–1922) before moving to LSU. He also served as athletic director, basketball coach, baseball coach, and track coach during his tenure. Donahue still ranks second on Auburn football coaches' all-time career win list and third in winning percentage.

2015 NCAA Division I baseball season

The 2015 NCAA Division I baseball season, play of college baseball in the United States organized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) at the Division I level, began in February 2015. The season progressed through the regular season, many conference tournaments and championship series, and concluded with the 2015 NCAA Division I Baseball Tournament and 2015 College World Series. The College World Series, consisting of the eight remaining teams in the NCAA Tournament and held annually in Omaha, Nebraska at TD Ameritrade Park Omaha, ended on June 24, 2015 with the final game of the best-of-three championship series between Vanderbilt and Virginia, won by Virginia.

Bill Brooks (coach)

William Jasper "Bill" Brooks (October 13, 1922 – November 8, 2010) was an American baseball and basketball coach who is best known for developing the University of North Carolina at Wilmington athletics program from a junior college to a Division I school. Brooks graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from Atlantic Christian College in 1948. In 1951, he was hired by Wilmington College (now UNCW) hired Brooks as their athletic director, basketball coach, baseball coach, and chairman of the health and physical education department. He directed the baseball team to a pair of national junior college baseball championships in 1961 and 1963 and also took the basketball team to the national tournament.In 1975, he was named NAIA National Coach of the Year and was inducted into the National Junior College Baseball Coaches Hall of Fame in 1990. Brooks became the first individual associated with UNC Wilmington to be inducted into the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame in 1991.

Bob Rodgers

Bob Rodgers is a former sportscaster and producer who worked for the New England Sports Network from 1987 to 2004.

Rodgers joined NESN in 1987 as an associate producer. He became an on-camera personality in June 1993; co-hosting SportsDesk with Dawn Mitchell. In 1996 he became the host of the Boston Red Sox pre- and postgame shows. In addition to hosting, Rodgers served as a play-by-play announcer for NESN's coverage of the Pawtucket Red Sox and was the network's play-by-play announcer for the final six weeks of the 2000 Boston Red Sox season.

Rodgers won the station's first EMMY award for the groundbreaking morning show, Sportsdesk. He went on to win 5 more EMMY awards including the 2000 award for Outstanding Play by Play (Pedro Martinez fires a 1-hitter at Tampa Bay) and in 2002 (Derek Lowe's no-hitter).

Rodgers was fired by NESN in March 2004 after he left spring training without permission to coach the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School boys' basketball team in the state tournament.Although Rodgers continues his broadcasting work on a freelance basis, he has worked full-time in education since September 2004 serving as a high school English and communications teacher. In June 2011 he took over as the athletic director at Whitman-Hanson Regional High School in a suburb of Boston. He is the winningest boys basketball coach in the history of the school with more than 200 wins since he took the reins in 2000. Rodgers has also coached basketball at Holbrook, Norwell and Silver Lake.

In addition to coaching basketball, Rodgers also coached high school baseball for many years becoming the youngest division 1 head coach in the state of Massachusetts in 1989 when he was hired to coach Silver Lake. He remained at Silver Lake until 2001. He did not coach baseball again until taking over at Hingham High School in 2009. In his three years at Hingham the Harbormen won 2 league titles. He also finished the 2012 baseball season at Whitman Hanson when a coach resigned during the season.

Bud Metheny Baseball Complex

The Bud Metheny Baseball Complex is a stadium on the campus of Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia, USA. It is primarily used for baseball, and is the home field of the Old Dominion Monarchs baseball team. The Monarchs are members of Conference USA. The ballpark has seating for 2,500 spectators in three sections of raised aluminum bleachers. The stadium complex also includes locker rooms, a concession stand, offices, four batting cages, a picnic area and a fully enclosed press box. The facility replaced the university's football stadium, Foreman Field, as the home of the baseball team.The ballpark is named after former Old Dominion head basketball coach, baseball manager, and athletic director Bud Metheny, who worked for the university from 1948 to 1980 after an eleven-year stint in the New York Yankees organization including a World Series championship in 1943. He compiled a record of 423 wins, 363 losses and 6 ties as manager of the Monarchs. Metheny's jersey number, 3, has been retired by the university and is displayed on the right field wall of the stadium.The stadium opened for the 1983 baseball season, with the first game being a 7–2 Old Dominion win over Millersville University. The complex was not dedicated until April 25, 1984 with a game against the Virginia Tech Hokies. That night's crowd of 2,125 is the highest attendance in stadium history. The ballpark hosted the Sun Belt Conference Baseball Tournament in 1983, 1985, and 1987, and the Colonial Athletic Association Baseball Tournament in 1994. Old Dominion defended home field and won the 1985 Sun Belt and 1994 Colonial championships. The stadium has also hosted multiple Virginia district and state high school baseball tournaments. The Monarchs tied the NCAA record for double plays completed in a single game on May 14, 1985, with 7 during a home game against the Western Kentucky Hilltoppers. There have been eight no-hitters pitched at the stadium, all completed by Monarch pitchers. As of the completion of the 2012 season, Old Dominion has a record of 600 wins and 280 losses at the Bud, for a winning percentage of .682.

The stadium received a new video-LED scoreboard for the 2009 season as part of a partnership between Old Dominion and CBS Collegiate Sports Properties. The facility underwent an additional three million-dollar renovation for the 2011 season that erected a batters' backdrop in center field, locker room refurbishments and a beer garden. Renovations continued before the 2012 season included brick walls added down the foul lines, a clock above the scoreboard, and a custom outfield wall with images of former Monarchs who have played in the major leagues.

Campbell Fighting Camels and Lady Camels

The Campbell Fighting Camels and Campbell Lady Camels represent Campbell University and are the nicknames of the school's 19 teams that compete at the Division I level of the NCAA.

Cañada College

Cañada College is a community college located at 4200 Farm Hill Boulevard in an unincorporated area of San Mateo County, California, near Redwood City and just off Highway 280. It is one of the smallest community colleges in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Delaware State Hornets

The Delaware State Hornets are the sixteen sports teams representing Delaware State University in Dover, Delaware in intercollegiate athletics, including men and women's basketball, cross country, tennis, and track and field; women's-only bowling, softball, and volleyball; and men's-only baseball. The Hornets complete in the NCAA Division I; they have been members of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference since 1970. While most teams play in the MEAC, the women's soccer team competes as an independent, the women's equestrian team plays in the National Collegiate Equestrian Association, and the women's lacrosse team competes in the Atlantic Sun Conference.

The university's Department of Intramural Sports provides a wide variety of quality recreational programs for students, faculty and staff.

Frank Moseley

Frank O'Rear Moseley (April 22, 1911 – July 31, 1979) was an American football player and coach, baseball coach, and college athletics administrator. He served as the head football coach at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University from 1951 to 1960, compiling a record of 54–42–4. His best season at Virginia Tech came in 1954, when his team went 8–0–1. Moselely was also the head baseball coach at the University of Kentucky (1939–1941, 1946, 1948–1950), tallying a mark of 60–55–1. In addition, he served as the athletic director at Virginia tech from 1951 to 1978, during which time he hired Jerry Claiborne, his successor as head football coach. Moseley was born in Montgomery, Alabama and died on July 31, 1979. In 1979, Moseley was inducted into the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame. He was elected to the Virginia Tech Sports Hall of Fame as an inaugural member in 1982.

Furman Paladins

The Furman Paladins are the varsity athletic teams representing Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina, in intercollegiate athletics. The university sponsors twenty teams including football, men and women's lacrosse, basketball, cross country, golf, sailing, soccer, swimming and diving, and tennis; women's-only equestrian, sand volleyball, softball, track and field, and volleyball; and men's-only baseball. The Paladins compete in NCAA Division I and are currently members of the Southern Conference.

Jimmy Conzelman

James Gleason Dunn Conzelman (March 6, 1898 – July 31, 1970) was an American football player and coach, baseball executive, and advertising executive. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1964 and was selected in 1969 as a quarterback on the National Football League 1920s All-Decade Team.

A native of St. Louis, Conzelman played college football for the 1918 Great Lakes Navy Bluejackets team that won the 1919 Rose Bowl. In 1919, he was an All-Missouri Valley Conference quarterback for the Washington University Pikers football team. He then played ten seasons as a quarterback, halfback, placekicker, and coach in the National Football League (NFL) for the Decatur Staleys (1920), Rock Island Independents (1921–1922), Milwaukee Badgers (1922–1924), Detroit Panthers (1925–1926), and Providence Steam Roller (1927–1929). He was also a team owner in Detroit and, as player-coach, led the 1928 Providence Steam Roller team to an NFL championship.

From 1932 to 1939, Conzelman was the head football coach for the Washington University Bears football team, leading the program to Missouri Valley Conference championships in 1934, 1935, and 1939. He served as head coach of the NFL's Chicago Cardinals from 1940 to 1942 and again from 1946 to 1948. He led the Cardinals to an NFL championship in 1947 and Western Division championships in 1947 and 1948. He was also an executive with St. Louis Browns in Major League Baseball from 1943 to 1945.

Madison, Alabama

Madison is a city located primarily in Madison County, near the northern border of the U.S. state of Alabama. Madison extends west into neighboring Limestone County. The city is included in the Huntsville Metropolitan Area, the second-largest in the state, and is also included in the merged Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 42,938. Madison is bordered by Huntsville on all sides.

Manager (baseball)

In baseball, the field manager (commonly referred to as the manager) is the equivalent of a head coach who is responsible for overseeing and making final decisions on all aspects of on-field team strategy, lineup selection, training and instruction. Managers are typically assisted by a staff of assistant coaches whose responsibilities are specialized. Field managers are typically not involved in off-field personnel decisions or long-term club planning, responsibilities that are instead held by a team's general manager.

Morris Gross

Morris H. Gross was a basketball player and coach, baseball coach, and college athletics administrator. He served as the head basketball coach at San Diego State University from 1929 to 1942, compiling a record of 190–85. Smith was also the head baseball coach at San Diego State from 1931 to 1932, tallying a mark of 10–6–1. His 1940–41 basketball squad won the NAIA Men's Basketball Championship. Gross served as an officer in the United States Navy during World War II. In November 1944 he was assigned to coach the Saint Mary's Pre-Flight Air Devils basketball team.

Pat Carney (baseball)

Patrick Joseph "Doc" Carney (August 7, 1876 – January 9, 1953) was a professional baseball player. He played all or part of four seasons in Major League Baseball, from 1901 until 1904, for the Boston Beaneaters, primarily as an outfielder. Carney also pitched for the Beaneaters, pitching in 16 games in 1902, 1903 and 1904, compiling a 4–10 record with an ERA of 4.69.

After his major league career, Carney went on to coach baseball at his alma mater, the College of the Holy Cross, from 1906 until 1909. He also became a general practice medical doctor and practiced in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Paul Elliott

Paul Elliott may refer to:

Paul Elliott (politician) (born 1954), former Australian politician

Paul Elliott (baseball), Australian baseball coach, Baseball at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Paul Elliott (cinematographer), American cinematographer

Paul Elliott (footballer) (born 1964), British football defender

Paul Mark Elliott, British actor

Paul Elliott, English comedian and one of the Chuckle Brothers

Raymond Didier

Raymond "Ray" Ernest Didier (January 17, 1920 – March 9, 1978) was an American football coach, baseball coach and college athletics administrator.

He served as the head football coach at the Southwestern Louisiana Institute—now known as University of Louisiana at Lafayette from 1951 to 1956, tallying a mark of 29–27–2.Didier was also the head baseball coach at Southwestern Louisiana from 1948 to 1956, Louisiana State University from 1957 to 1963 and Nicholls State University from 1964 to 1973, amassing a career college baseball record of 458–311–4. Didier served as the athletic director at Nicholls State from 1963 to 1978.

Ricky Powers

Richard "Ricky" Powers (born November 30, 1970) is a former running back in the National Football League (NFL) for the Cleveland Browns and a former University of Michigan Wolverines football co-captain. In the NFL, he had a brief career with the Browns during their final season before they relocated to become the Baltimore Ravens. His career ended due to being lost in the shuffle when the Browns moved to Baltimore and changed coaching staffs. In college, he set the Michigan football freshman rushing record that stood for fourteen seasons, and as a sophomore was the leading rusher for the team during Desmond Howard's Heisman Trophy-winning season. With the Wolverines, he was a member of three consecutive Big Ten Conference football championship teams. In high school, he was the Parade All-American star running back of the two-time Ohio High School Athletic Association (OHSAA) football championship team at Buchtel High School, where he has returned to coach baseball and football.

Worth County Middle School

Worth County Middle School is a public middle school located in Sylvester, Georgia, United States. The school has 105 staff/faculty members and more than 900 students in grades 6 to 8. Construction of the school began in 1990.

The principal is Paul Zimmer. When Zimmer took over as principal, WCMS was an NI-7 school, but has now made AYP for 3 consecutive years. The school's assistant principals are Cora Brettel, Pam Quimbley, and Steven Rouse. The department heads are Jim McMickin for mathematics, Lisa Underwood for language arts, Jennifer Easom for science, Amy Bozeman for social studies, and Katherine Labonte for connections.

Worth County Middle School's teams have the nickname Rams, just like Worth County High School. Trey Haynes, Jared Sherrard, and Will Knight coach football, and Haynes also coaches boys' basketball. Jimmy Hughes and Kelly McDougald coach baseball. Mitch Mitchell and Diane Dykes coach girls softball, and Tim Hathcock coaches girls' basketball. Mitchell also coaches boys' and girls' soccer.


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