Co-counselling

Co-counselling (spelled co-counseling in American English) is a grassroots method of personal change based on reciprocal peer counselling. It uses simple methods. Time is shared equally and the essential requirement of the person taking their turn in the role of counsellor is to do their best to listen and give their full attention to the other person. It is not a discussion; the aim is to support the person in the client role to work through their own issues in a mainly self-directed way.

Co-counselling was originally formulated in the early 1950s by the American Harvey Jackins and originated in a schism in the Dianetics movement (itself in part derived from schisms in General Semantics and Cybernetics).[1][2] Jackins founded the Re-evaluation Counseling (RC) Communities, with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States. His son, Tim Jackins, is currently the international leader of Re-evaluation Counseling and its main affiliates.

There are a number of smaller, separate, independent organizations that have resulted from breakaways from, or re-workings of, Re-evaluation Counseling. The principal one of these is Co-Counseling International (CCI).

General description

The main activity in co-counselling involves participants arranging to meet regularly in pairs to give each other peer-to-peer counselling, in turn taking the role of counsellor and client, with equal amounts of time allocated to each. Co-counselling functions by giving people an opportunity to work on whatever issues they choose with the accepting support of another person, with whom they have no actual relationship. The person in the role of counsellor acts as a facilitator to the client, sometimes as a third-party observer and sometimes as a second-party confidant. While co-counselling is sometimes practiced outside a formal organisation, formal co-counselling organisations have developed leadership and support structures, including trainings and retreats.

Safety (in the sense of being very low risk) and the sense that a co-counselling session is a safe space is important to the methods. There are strict rules of confidentiality. In most circumstances, the counsellor may not talk about a client's session without explicit and specific permission by the client. This is stricter than in other practices where practitioners discuss clients with supervisors, colleagues and sometimes with all sorts of other people. The peer relationship makes a considerable contribution to a sense of trust.

The nature of the co-counselling session opens up the possibility for people to get in touch with emotions that they would avoid in any other circumstance. A belief in the value of working with emotions has become a core focus of the approach. Co-counselling training emphasizes methods for accessing and working with emotions, and co-counsellors aim to develop and improve emotional competence through the practice. Evidence as to the actual effectiveness of this method is undemonstrated.

To get involved in co-counselling, it is usually first necessary to complete a Fundamentals course. The training involves learning how to carry out the roles of client and counsellor. Trainers may be counsellors or simply experienced members of the community. It also covers the guidelines or rules affecting co-counselling for the particular organization. Differences in approach mean that each organization normally requires completion of one of its own courses as a prerequisite for membership, even if someone has already completed a course with another organization.

Theoretical framework and assumptions

The original theory of co-counselling centres on the concept of distress patterns.[3] These are patterns of behaviour, that is, behaviour that tends to be repeated in a particular type of circumstance, that are irrational, unhelpful or compulsive. The theory is that these patterns are driven by the accumulated consequences in the mind of (not currently) conscious memories of past events in which the person was unable to express or discharge the emotion appropriate to the event. Co-counselling enables release from the patterns by allowing "emotional discharge" of the past hurt experiences. Such cathartic discharge includes crying, warm perspiration, trembling, yawning, laughing and relaxed, non-repetitive talking. In day-to-day life, these "discharging" actions may be limited by social norms, such as, for example, taboos around crying, which are widespread in many cultures.

Having temporary, undivided, supportive attention from another person often gives rise to strong feelings towards that person; your counsellor often becomes your best friend for life. Sometimes people "fall in love" with each other. This is similar to the phenomenon of transference, particularly when one of the partners is felt to have more authority because, for instance, they are more experienced, are teachers of co-counselling, or have authority roles within the organisation. The organisations differ in the ways that they handle this. The inability to trust and feel in real relationships is sometimes exacerbated by the intimacy of co-counselling relationship, making transference a possibility. But participants are strongly encouraged and supported to counsel through these feelings, often leading to profound changes in their perspectives and abilities around closeness. For the most part, co-counselling relationships become life-long, therapeutic partnerships that enable the participant to have healthier relationships in general.

Therapeutic context

Many co-counsellors take the view, often quite strongly, that co-counselling is not psychotherapy. In the beginning, this was because Re-evaluation Counseling decided not to draw on any discipline of psychotherapy for its theory and practice,[4] although RC did incorporate some ideas from psycho-analysis such as "unconscious promptings" which Jackins adapted and relabeled "restimulation". A similar view is taken by some non-RC co-counsellors who regard psychotherapy as involving specialist techniques used by a therapist on a client and is therefore not peer and the client has little or no control over the process.[5]

Others consider that co-counselling is psychotherapeutic, in that it enables change or therapy to take place in the psyche, soul affect or being of an individual.[6] Co-counselling takes a positive view of the person (i.e. we are all essentially good), considers the mind and body as an integrated whole and acknowledges the value of catharsis; it is regarded as an approach within humanistic psychology, a view that would be rejected by some within RC. [7]

Re-evaluation Counseling

The core organization structure of RC consists of classes and local communities set up by experienced co-counsellors, which are in turn organized by regions and country.

The term "re-evaluation" refers to the client's need to rethink their past distress experiences after the emotional hurt in those experiences have been discharged, and thereby regain ("re-emerge" with) their natural intellectual and emotional capacities. The RC organization and literature do not accept the description of its practice as psychotherapy, maintaining instead that the process of developing distress patterns that dissolve through emotional discharge in the context of appreciative attention is simply a natural process that does not imply either psychopathology on the part of the individual or the need for professional treatment. Re-evaluation Counseling regards other forms of "mainstream counselling" and psychotherapy in general as frequently inadequate attempts to bring about relief from distress using methods that do not focus on discharge and re-emergence.

In RC, the client and counsellor are expected to work co-operatively, participants are expected to provide non-judgmental active listening and to "contradict" the misinformation or other conditions thought to be associated with distress patterns. RC also engages techniques such as "non-permissive" counselling, in which the counsellor intervenes to "interrupt" client patterns without the consent of the client. The structure of RC is one of clearly defined leadership, to encourage clarity in the difficult struggles many people have to achieve breakthroughs against their distresses. RC encourages counsellors to think very hard about all possible ways to assist the client in discharging.

RC approaches the issue of feelings between co-counsellors by having a strict "no-socialising" rule. RC co-counsellors are expected not to socialise or have social or sexual relationships with other co-counsellors unless these relationships pre-dated their becoming co-counsellors. RC specifically rejects the label "transference" for this phenomenon, as this is seen as part of a "symptomatic" method typical in psychology; the original theory of co-counselling (from RC) teaches that the best thing to do in these circumstances is repeatedly counsel on, and "discharge" about, such feelings. In addition, methods of "getting attention out of distress" are available which help with the difficulty of "switching roles" between counsellor and client. When taught correctly, counsellors are soon able to grasp the difference between counselling relationships and those from outside life. However, sometimes there is a marked pull to "socialise" or confuse the boundaries of the co-counselling relationship with other types of relationships. This is one reason why many consider a well-organised community of co-counsellors with clear rules to be essential in the successful practise of co-counselling.

Re-evaluation Counseling places a high importance on the need to understand and adhere to a comprehensive theory about the nature of the universe and of human beings (known in general as the "Benign Reality"), the best ways of assisting the discharge process and of pro-liberation attitudes in co-counselling. RCers believe that, when taken together, these enable the counsellor to keep a clear picture of the client's "re-emergence" and are therefore very effective. People disagreeing with the theoretical perspective are asked to think and discharge on the points at issue before actively challenging such perspectives. The main aim is to provide a safe, stable and supportive atmosphere within which people can client skillfully and also lead "re-emergent lives" where they are not dependent in a therapeutic sense, but instead become more energetic and effective (a state known as "zestfulness" in RC).

Co-Counselling International

Co-Counselling International (CCI) was started in 1974 as a breakaway from Re-evaluation Counseling by John Heron, who was at the time director of the Human Potential Research Project, University of Surrey UK, and Tom Sargent and Dency Sargent from Hartford, Connecticut, United States.[8] Unlike other breakaways from RC, which involved changes of leadership but otherwise continued to practice in similar ways to RC, the CCI break was ideological, and CCI developed in significantly different ways. The differences are in practice, theory and organisation.

In practice, the client in CCI co-counselling is wholly in charge of the session. In other words, client and counsellor do not work co-operatively. The counsellor only intervenes in accordance with one of three levels of "contract"—free attention, normal and intensive—which are defined in CCI's principles. The only requirement of the counsellor is that they give "free attention" (that is, full supportive attention) to the client. The other two contracts constitute invitations to the counsellor to make interventions from within those permitted if they feel it is appropriate. The intensive contract can be similar to the RC way of working, although the counsellor is still not permitted to intervene as flexibly as in RC.

The original theory of co-counselling is taught in the CCI fundamentals training courses, and participants learn techniques for releasing, or "discharging", emotions. However, the theory is not seen as a constraint within CCI, and co-counsellors draw on the whole range of psychotherapeutic theory and methods including analytical, cognitive-behavioural and transpersonal as well as humanistic approaches. The principal constraint is that the client must be able to work self-directedly.

Organisationally, CCI is a peer network with no core structure. Local and national networks have a variety of organisation. Classes and activities are organised by individuals or groups acting self-directedly. John Heron's status within the network has always been as an equal member, although inevitably as a founder member and activist for some 15 years and the person who developed much of the thinking behind CCI, there was a certain amount of transference on him. Heron now lives in New Zealand and is involved with the CCI network there.

CCI approaches the issue of personal relationships between co-counsellors as a matter for raising awareness. CCI co-counsellors may and do have the whole range of personal relationships with other co-counsellors. However, new co-counsellors are encouraged not to develop new non-co-counselling relationships with other co-counsellors until they have more experience and experienced co-counsellors will often have people with whom they only have a co-counselling relationship. Teachers of co-counselling are strongly discouraged from having sexual relationships with people they have taught.

Relations between CCI and RC

The existence of other co-counselling organisations is generally not mentioned in RC, and RC co-counsellors are often not aware of their existence.

Amongst those within RC who know about it, CCI is often seen as an "attack organisation" and was specifically condemned as such in many private and public conversations by Jackins, who claimed that Heron had started it against a specific agreement not to, and in breach of RC guidelines he had previously agreed to. In turn, Heron and many of his supporters claimed that RC was authoritarian and cult-like, and later, that Jackins engaged in sexual abuse of clients. RC supporters parried that CCI fostered a sexually-liberal atmosphere that blurred the boundaries of co-counselling and relationships.

The history of co-counselling including its origins with RC is normally taught on CCI Fundamentals courses.[9] CCI, by its nature, has no corporate opinion about RC, and individual CCI co-counsellors have their own views. Most CCI co-counsellors have a benevolent view toward RC, regarding it as a different, alternative approach to co-counselling. Membership of RC is not a bar to membership of CCI, and a few people manage to do both despite the RC ban.

Other co-counselling initiatives

See also

References

  1. ^ Hubbard, "Terra Incognita: The Mind Archived 2006-02-04 at the Wayback Machine," The Explorers Journal, winter 1949 / spring 1950 (on the bridge between cybernetics and general semantics)
  2. ^ Rich's Home Page - Comparison of Re-evaluation Counseling Terms and concepts with Dianetics
  3. ^ Jackins, Harvey (1965); The human side of human beings; Rational Island, Seattle; ISBN 0-911214-60-7
  4. ^ Jackins, Harvey (1997); The list; Rational Island, Seattle (p4, 1.019)
  5. ^ Pyves, Gretchen (2000); Co-Counseling versus Counseling accessed 2006-11-24
  6. ^ Evison, Rose & Horobin, Richard (1999); Co-Counseling as Therapy; Co-Counseling Phoenix, Pitlochrie; available at [1] accessed 2006-11-24
  7. ^ Jackins, Harvey (1980); The Working Class, the World, and RC accessed 2015-11-27
  8. ^ Heron, John (1998); Co-Counselling; South Pacific Centre for Human Inquiry, Auckland; available at [2]; first edition (1974); Human Potential Research Project, University of Surrey, Guildford
  9. ^ Evison, Rose & Horobin, Richard (1985); How to Change Yourself and Your world; Co-Counselling Phoenix, Pitlochrie; ISBN 1-870224-01-9
  10. ^ Southgate, John & Randall, Rosemary (1989); The Barefoot Psychoanalyst (3rd ed); Gale Centre Publications, Loughton; ISBN 1-870258-06-1
  11. ^ Peerlisteners at the internet archive, 2005

Further reading

  • Jackins, Harvey (1970); Fundamentals of co-counselling manual; Rational Island, Seattle; ISBN 1-58429-073-0
  • Jackins, Harvey (1973); The human situation; Rational Island, Seattle; ISBN 0-911214-04-6
  • Ernst, Sheila & Goodison, Lucy (1981); In Our Own Hands; The Women's Press, London; ISBN 0-7043-3841-6
  • Evison, Rose & Horobin, Richard (1988); Co-counselling in J Rowan & W Dryden (eds) Innovative therapy in Britain; Open University Press, Milton Keynes; ISBN 0-335-09827-4
  • Caroline New, Katie Kauffman (July 2004); Co-Counselling: The Theory and Practice of Re-Evaluation Counselling; Brunner-Routledge; ISBN 1-58391-210-X
  • R.D. Rosen, Psychobabble, 1975, chapter on Jackins and Co-counselling.

External links

Co-Counselling International

Co-Counselling International (CCI) is an international peer network of co-counsellors (spelled co-counseling and co-counselors in US English).

Dianetics

Dianetics (from Greek dia, meaning "through", and nous, meaning "mind") is a set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard. Dianetics is practiced by followers of Scientology, the Nation of Islam (as of 2010), and independent Dianeticist groups.

Dianetics divides the mind into three parts: the conscious "analytical mind", the subconscious "reactive mind", and the somatic mind. The goal of Dianetics is to erase the content of the "reactive mind", which Scientologists believe interferes with a person's ethics, awareness, happiness, and sanity. The Dianetics procedure to achieve this erasure is called "auditing". In auditing, the Dianetic auditor asks a series of questions (or commands) and elicits answers to help a person locate and deal with painful experiences of the past, which Scientologists believe to be the content of the "reactive mind".Practitioners of Dianetics believe that "the basic principle of existence is to survive" and that the basic personality of humans is sincere, intelligent, and good. The drive for goodness and survival is distorted and inhibited by aberrations "ranging from simple neuroses to different psychotic states to various kinds of sociopathic behavior patterns." Hubbard developed Dianetics, claiming that it could eradicate these aberrations.When Hubbard formulated Dianetics, he described it as "a mix of Western technology and Oriental philosophy". He said that Dianetics "forms a bridge between" cybernetics and general semantics (a set of ideas about education originated by Alfred Korzybski, which received much attention in the science fiction world in the 1940s)—a claim denied by scholars of General Semantics, including S. I. Hayakawa, who expressed strong criticism of Dianetics as early as 1951. Hubbard claimed that Dianetics could increase intelligence, eliminate unwanted emotions and alleviate a wide range of illnesses he believed to be psychosomatic. Among the conditions purportedly treated were arthritis, allergies, asthma, some coronary difficulties, eye trouble, ulcers, migraine headaches, "sexual deviation" (which for Hubbard included homosexuality), and even death. Hubbard asserted that "memories of painful physical and emotional experiences accumulate in a specific region of the mind, causing illness and mental problems." He taught that "once these experiences have been purged through cathartic procedures he developed, a person can achieve superior health and intelligence." Hubbard also variously defined Dianetics as "a spiritual healing technology" and "an organized science of thought."Dianetics predates Hubbard's classification of Scientology as an "applied religious philosophy". Early in 1951, he expanded his writings to include teachings related to the soul, or "thetan". Dianetics is practiced by several independent Dianetics-only groups not connected with Scientology, and also Free Zone or Independent Scientologists. The Church of Scientology has prosecuted a number of people in court for unauthorized publication of Scientology and Dianetics copyrighted material.

Discharge

Discharge in the context of a flow may refer to:

Electric discharge:

Discharger, an electrical device that releases stored energy

Battery discharging

Static discharger, a device used on airplanes to maintain use of electrical equipment

Electrostatic discharge, sudden and momentary electric current flows between two objects

Dielectric barrier discharge, the electrical discharge between two electrodes separated by an insulating dielectric barrier

Corona discharge, a type of electric current

Direct-current discharge, a plasma

Gas-discharge lamp, a light bulb that includes a discharge gas

Partial discharge, a temporary breakdown of electrical insulation

Discharge (hydrology), the amount of water flowing through the channel

Groundwater discharge, the volumetric flow rate of groundwater through an aquifer

Effluent released into a river or sea

Discharging method (discrete mathematics) is a proof technique in discrete mathematics

Discharge in the sense of flow of fluids from certain parts of the body:

Menstruation or other vaginal discharge

Nipple discharge, the release of fluid from the nipples of the breasts

Mucopurulent discharge, the emission or secretion of fluid containing mucus and pusDischarge in the context to expel or to "let go" may refer to:

Military discharge, when a member of the armed forces is released from service

Termination of employment, the end of an employee's duration with an employer

Patient discharge, the formal ending of inpatient care

Discharge (sentence), a criminal sentence where no punishment is imposed

The act of firing a gunDischarge in music may refer to:

Discharge (band), British hardcore punk band

Discharge (album), a self-titled album by Discharge released in 2002

"Discharge", a song by Anthrax from Persistence of TimeOther uses of discharge include:

Bankruptcy discharge, the injunction that bars acts to enforce certain debts

In co-counselling, the ways in which pent-up emotional hurt can be released, e.g. via crying, laughter, etc.

Discharge petition, the process of bringing a bill out of committee to the floor for a vote without the cooperation of leadership

Emotional competence

Emotional competence refers to one's ability to express or release one's inner feelings (emotions). It implies an ease around others and determines one's ability to effectively and successfully lead and express. It is described as the essential social skills to recognize, interpret, and respond constructively to emotions in yourself and others.

Enlightenment Intensive

An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s, the format combines the self-enquiry meditation method popularised by Ramana Maharshi with interpersonal communication processes such as the dyad structure of co-counselling in a structure that resembles both a traditional Zen sesshin (meditation retreat) and group psychotherapy. Religious teachings and philosophical concepts are generally avoided.

Harvey Jackins

Carl Harvey Jackins (June 28, 1916 – 12 July 1999) was the founder, leader and principal theorist of Re-evaluation Counseling (or RC).

Humanistic psychology

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism. With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own capabilities and creativity.

This psychological perspective helps the client gain the belief that all people are inherently good. It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and positive human potential. It encourages viewing ourselves as a "whole person" greater than the sum of our parts and encourages self exploration rather than the study of behavior in other people. Humanistic psychology acknowledges spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the psyche. It is linked to the emerging field of transpersonal psychology.Primarily, this type of therapy encourages a self-awareness and mindfulness that helps the client change their state of mind

and behaviour from one set of reactions to a healthier one with more productive self-awareness and thoughtful actions. Essentially, this approach allows the merging of mindfulness and behavioural therapy, with positive social support.

In an article from the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the benefits of humanistic therapy are described as having a "crucial opportunity to lead our troubled culture back to its own healthy path. More than any other therapy, Humanistic-Existential therapy models democracy. It imposes ideologies of others upon the client less than other therapeutic practices. Freedom to choose is maximized. We validate our clients' human potential."In the 20th century, humanistic psychology was referred to as the "third force" in psychology, distinct from earlier, even less humanistic approaches of psychoanalysis and behaviorism. In our post industrial society, humanistic psychology has become more significant; for example, neither psychoanalysis nor behaviorism could have birthed emotional intelligence.

Its principal professional organizations in the US are the Association for Humanistic Psychology and the Society for Humanistic Psychology (Division 32 of the American Psychological Association). In Britain, there is the UK Association for Humanistic Psychology Practitioners.

Index of education articles

This is an index of education articles.

John Heron

John Heron (born 1928) is a pioneer in the creation of a participatory research method in the social sciences, called co-operative inquiry, which was based on his work in 1968-69 on the phenomenology of social encounter, and which has been applied by practitioners in many fields of professional and personal development. He is committed to the process of co-operative inquiry, in whatever field it is applied, as a basic form of relational and participative spiritual practice.

Heron was the founder and director of the Human Potential Research Project, University of Surrey from 1970 to 1977, the first university-based centre for humanistic and transpersonal psychology and education in Europe. He was Assistant Director of the British Postgraduate Medical Federation at the University of London from 1977 to 1985, in charge of an innovative programme of personal and professional development for hospital doctors and GPs, including a co-operative inquiry into whole-person medicine, out of which the British Holistic Medical Association was formed. He was the director of the International Centre for Co-operative Inquiry at Volterra, Tuscany, Italy, from 1990 to 2000, where radical forms of spiritual inquiry were developed. He is co-director of the South Pacific Centre for Human Inquiry at Auckland, New Zealand from 2000 to the present, focussing on long-term co-operative inquiries into charismatic and relational spiritual practices.

Heron is a group facilitator and trainer in the fields of co-counselling (in 1974 he was one of the founders of Co-Counselling International after a split from the Re-evaluation Counseling of Harvey Jackins), co-operative inquiry and new paradigm research, educational and staff development, group facilitation and interactive skills, management development, personal and transpersonal development, professional development in medicine, psychotherapy and the helping professions. He is also a researcher and author.

Heron was a group facilitator on UK TV programmes on the following topics: medical stress (ITV, 1981), racism (BBC2, 1985), AIDS (Channel 4, 1987), Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses (BBC2, 1990), divorce (BBC2, 1991), parents and teenagers (BBC1, 1994).

One of the founders in the UK of each of the following: Association of Humanistic Psychology Practitioners, Co-counselling International, Institute for the Development of Human Potential, New Paradigm Research Group, Research Council for Complementary Medicine.

John Rowan (psychologist)

John Rowan (31 March 1925 – 26 May 2018) was an English author, counsellor, psychotherapist and clinical supervisor, known for being one of the pioneers of humanistic psychology and integrative psychotherapy. He worked in exploring transpersonal psychology, and wrote about the concept of subpersonality.Rowan was a qualified individual and group psychotherapist (UKAHPP and UKCP), a Chartered counseling psychologist (BPS) and was an accredited counsellor (BACP). He worked in private practice in London.He described his therapeutic approach as humanistic, existential, authentic, relational and transpersonal. He was an exponent of the idea of the dialogical self, a later development of subpersonalities theory.

List of psychotherapies

This is an alphabetical list of psychotherapies.

See the main article psychotherapy for a description of what psychotherapy is and how it developed (see also counseling, and the list of counseling topics).

This list contains some approaches that may not call themselves a psychotherapy but have a similar aim, of improving mental health and well being through talk and other means of communication.

In the 20th century, a great number of psychotherapies were created. All of these face continuous change in popularity, methods and effectiveness. Sometimes they are self-administered, either individually, in pairs, small groups or larger groups. However, a professional practitioner will usually use a combination of therapies and approaches, often in a team treatment process that involves reading/talking/reporting to other professional practitioners.

The older established therapies usually have a code of ethics, professional associations, training programs, and so on. The newer and innovative therapies may not yet have established these structures or may not wish to.

Mike Antunovic

Ivan Michael "Mike" Antunovic is a New Zealand criminal defence lawyer. Antunovic is one of New Zealand's most experienced jury trial lawyers, and has appeared in some of New Zealand's most high-profile criminal cases.

National Coalition Building Institute

The National Coalition Building Institute (NCBI) is a nonprofit leadership training organization based in Washington, D.C., United States.

Re-evaluation Counseling

Re-evaluation Counseling (RC) is an organization directed by Re-evaluation Counseling Community Resources, Inc., that practices "co-counseling", a peer-based counseling procedure that aims to help people and bring about social reform. It was founded in the United States by Harvey Jackins in the 1950s and was led by him until his death in 1999. It is now led by his son Tim Jackins. RC teaches co-counseling and holds workshops throughout the world. It is based in Seattle, Washington, USA.

Tim Jackins

Tim (Timothy) Hugh Jackins (born c. 1945) is the International Reference Person (leader) of Re-evaluation Counseling (RC), known officially as the "International Re-evaluation Counseling Communities". Formerly a math teacher and union negotiator at the Mission College, Santa Clara, California, he succeeded his father Harvey Jackins in the role, following the former leader's death in 1999. Jackins is a graduate of Yale University and has a masters from Stanford.

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