Clusiidae

Clusiidae or "druid flies" is a family of small (~ 3.5 mm), thin, yellow to black acalyptrate flies with a characteristic antenna (The second segment of the antennae has a triangular projection over the third segment when viewed from the outside) and with the wing usually partially infuscated. They have a cylindrical body. The head is round, the vertical plate reaches the anterior margin of the frons and the vibrissae on the head are large. The costa is interrupted near subcosta and the latter developed throughout length. Larvae are found in the bark of trees, the flies on trunks.The larvae are notable for their ability to jump. Males of many species in the subfamily Clusiodinae have been observed while engaged in lekking behaviour. There are hundreds of species in 14 genera found in all the Ecoregions, although most species occur in tropical regions. The type genus is Clusia Haliday, 1838.

Clusiidae
Diptera-Clusiidae-Paraclusia-tigrina-20110910a
Female Clusia tigrina
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
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Superfamily:
Family:
Clusiidae
Subfamilies
  • Clusiinae Frey, 1960
  • Clusiodinae Frey, 1960
  • Sobarocephalinae Lonsdale & Marshall, 2006[1]
Synonyms

Heteroneuridae[1]

Clusia tigrina engaged in lekking behaviour

Genera

  • Subfamily Clusiinae Frey, 1960
  • Subfamily Clusiodinae Frey, 1960
  • Subfamily Sobarocephalinae Lonsdale & Marshall, 2006[1]

Identification

  • Lonsdale, O., Cheung, D.K.B. & Marshall, S.A. 2011. Key to the World genera and North American species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Schizophora). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification No. 14, 3 May 2011, available online at http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/lcm_14/lcm_14.html, doi: 10.3752/cjai.2011.14
  • Przemysław Trojan, 1962 Odiniidae, Clusiidae, Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae in (series) Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski, 28,54/58; Muchowki = Diptera, 54/58 Publisher Warszawa : Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (in Polish)

References

  1. ^ a b c Lonsdale, Owen; Marshall, Stephen A. (2006). "Redefinition of the Clusiinae and Clusiodinae, description of the new subfamily Sobarocephalinae, revision of the genus Chaetoclusia and a description of Procerosoma gen. n. (Diptera: Clusiidae)" (PDF Adobe Acrobat). European Journal of Entomology. Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Entomological Society. 103 (1): 163–182. doi:10.14411/eje.2006.020. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lonsdale, O; Cheung, D.K.B.; Marshall, S.A. (14 May 2011). "Key to the World genera and North American species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Schizophora)". Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  3. ^ a b Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2008). "Synonymy within Clusia and description of the new genus Melanoclusia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiinae)". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Entomological Society of America. 101 (2): 327–330. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2008)101[327:swcado]2.0.co;2.
  4. ^ a b c Stubbs, Allen. E. "An identification guide to British Clusiidae". Proceedings of the Transactions of the British Entomological Natural History Society. British Entomological Natural History Society. 15 (3/4): 89–93.
  5. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). "Revision of the genus Phylloclusia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiinae)". Canadian Entomologist. Entomological Society of Ontario. 138 (6): 778–792. doi:10.4039/n06-049.
  6. ^ McAlpine, D.K. (1960). "A review of the Australian species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Acalyptrata)". Records of the Australian Museum. 25 (4): 63–94. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.25.1960.656.
  7. ^ a b Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). "Redefinition of the genera Clusiodes and Hendelia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiodinae), with a review of Clusiodes". Studia Dipterologica. 14: 117–159.
  8. ^ a b c d e Czerny, P. Leander (1903). "Revision der Heteroneuriden". Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. 22: 61–108.
  9. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2006). "Revision of the New World Craspedochaeta Czerny". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 1391 (1): 1–101. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1291.1.1.
  10. ^ a b Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A.; Fu, J.; Wiegmann, B. (2010). "Phylogenetic analysis of the druid flies (Diptera: Schizophora: Clusiidae) based on morphological and molecular data". Insect Systematics & Evolution. 41 (1): 231–274. doi:10.1163/187631210x500628.
  11. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). "Revision of the New World Heteromeringia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiodinae)". Beiträge zur Entomologie. Deutsche Entomologische Institut. 57 (1): 37–80.
  12. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2008). "Revision of the temperate South American genus Apiochaeta Czerny, 1903, with synonymy of Alloclusia Hendel, 1917 (Diptera: Clusiidae)". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 101: 1–33. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1944.1.1.
  13. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). "Revision of the North American Sobarocephala (Diptera: Clusiidae, Sobarocephalinae)". Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario. Entomological Society of Ontario. 138: 65–106.

External links

Species lists

Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Anthomyzidae

The Anthomyzidae are small, slender, yellow to black flies with narrow and elongated wings, which may have distinct markings. Some species have greatly reduced wings. Fewer than 100 species are known, mostly from Europe. Although they occur in all major regions, they seem to be most varied in the Holarctic region.

Around 20 diverse genera have been placed in the family. Two, Teratomyza and Teratoptera, are now in the Teratomyzidae, and Cyamops and Stenomicra are in the Stenomicridae. Melanthomyza Malloch from Chile should probably not be retained in the family. The remaining genera are very similar to one another.

Asteiidae

Asteiidae is a small but widespread family of acalyptrate flies or Diptera. About 130 species in 10 genera have been described worldwide. They are rarely collected.

Aulacigastridae

Aulacigastridae is a very small family of flies known as sap flies. The family Stenomicridae used to be included within this family, but was moved by Papp in 1984. They are found in all the Ecoregions.

Clusia (fly)

Clusia is a genus of flies in the family Clusiidae. There are about 12 described species in Clusia.

Clusia czernyi

Clusia czernyi is a species of fly in the family Clusiidae.

Clusia lateralis

Clusia lateralis is a species of fly in the family Clusiidae.

Clusia occidentalis

Clusia occidentalis is a species of fly in the family Clusiidae.

Clusiodes

Clusiodes is a genus of flies in the family Clusiidae. There are at least 60 described species in Clusiodes.

Heteromeringia

Heteromeringia is a genus of flies in the family Clusiidae. There are at least 70 described species in Heteromeringia.

Leander Czerny

Leander (Franz) Czerny (4 October 1859, in Modřice, Moravia – 22 November 1944, in Pettenbach (de), Upper Austria) was an Austrian entomologist mainly interested in Diptera.

Czerny, who wrote extensively on Diptera between 1900 and 1939, describing many genera and species, was a major contributor to Erwin Lindner's Die Fliegen der paläarktischen Region ("The Flies of the Palaearctic Region"), the most significant work on the group in the 20th century.

Czerny wrote the sections on the following families:-

Heleomyzidae, Trichoscelidae, Chyromyidae (1927)

Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae, Clusiidae (1928)

Micropezidae (Tylidae), Neridrinae, Platypezidae (as Clythiidae), Dryomyzidae, Neottiophilidae (1930)

Lauxaniidae (Sapromyzidae) (1932)

Musidoridae (Lonchopteridae), Lonchaeidae (1934)

Chamaemyiidae (Ochthiphilidae) (1936)He was also abbot of the Benedictine Kremsmünster Abbey from 1905 to 1929 and collected there as well as in Pettenbach on the Upper Danube. As well as Diptera he collected Lepidoptera. His collections of both are now in the Natural History Museum in Vienna.

Opomyzidae

Opomyzidae is a family of acalyptrate Diptera. They are generally small, slender, yellow, brown or black coloured flies. The larval food plants are grasses, including cereal crops, the adults are mainly found in open habitats. Some species being agricultural pests.

Opomyzoidea

The Opomyzoidea are a superfamily of flies.

Periscelididae

Periscelididae is a family of flies.

Sobarocephala

Sobarocephala is a genus of flies in the family Clusiidae. There are at least 100 described species in Sobarocephala.

Sobarocephala cruciger

Sobarocephala cruciger is a species of fly in the family Clusiidae.

Sobarocephala flaviseta

Sobarocephala flaviseta is a species of fly in the family Clusiidae.

Sobarocephala interrupta

Sobarocephala interrupta is a species of fly in the family Clusiidae.

Sobarocephala latifacies

Sobarocephala latifacies is a species of fly in the family Clusiidae.

Extant Diptera families

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