Clove

Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands (or Moluccas) in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are available throughout the year due to different harvest seasons in different countries.[2]

Clove
Syzygium aromaticum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-030
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Syzygium
Species:
S. aromaticum
Binomial name
Syzygium aromaticum
(L.) Merrill & Perry
Synonyms[1]
  • Caryophyllus aromaticus L.
  • Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill.
  • Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.
  • Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison

Botanical features

The clove tree is an evergreen that grows up to 8–12 m tall, with large leaves and crimson flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested at 1.5–2.0 cm long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals that form a small central ball.

Uses

ClovesDried
Dried cloves
The flowers of clove tree in Pemba island
Clove tree flowers

Cloves are used in the cuisine of Asian, African, and the Near and Middle East countries, lending flavor to meats, curries, and marinades, as well as fruit such as apples, pears or rhubarb. Cloves may be used to give aromatic and flavor qualities to hot beverages, often combined with other ingredients such as lemon and sugar. They are a common element in spice blends such as pumpkin pie spice and speculoos spices.

In Mexican cuisine, cloves are best known as clavos de olor, and often accompany cumin and cinnamon.[3] They are also used in Peruvian cuisine, in a wide variety of dishes as carapulcra and arroz con leche.

A major component of clove taste is imparted by the chemical eugenol,[4] and the quantity of the spice required is typically small. It pairs well with cinnamon, allspice, vanilla, red wine and basil, as well as onion, citrus peel, star anise, or peppercorns.

Non-culinary uses

The spice is used in a type of cigarette called kretek in Indonesia.[1] Clove cigarettes have been smoked throughout Europe, Asia and the United States. Since 2009, clove cigarettes have been classified as cigars in the US.[5]

Because of the bioactive chemicals of clove, the spice may be used as an ant repellent.[6]

Cloves can be used to make a fragrance pomander when combined with an orange. When given as a gift in Victorian England, such a pomander indicated warmth of feeling.

Orange pomander
Cloves used in an orange as a pomander
Seasonal clove buds drying on Pemba1
Cloves drying in sun

Potential medicinal uses and adverse effects

Though long-used in traditional medicine, there is little evidence that clove oil containing eugenol is effective for toothache pain or other types of pain,[7][8] although one review reported efficacy of eugenol combined with zinc oxide as an analgesic for alveolar osteitis.[9] Studies to determine its effectiveness for fever reduction, as a mosquito repellent, and to prevent premature ejaculation have been inconclusive.[7][8] It remains unproven whether blood sugar levels are reduced by cloves or clove oil.[8] Use of clove for any medicinal purpose has not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and its use may cause adverse effects if taken orally by people with liver disease, blood clotting and immune system disorders, or food allergies.[7]

Traditional medicinal uses

Cloves are used in traditional medicine as the essential oil, which is used as an anodyne (analgesic) mainly for dental emergencies and other disorders.[10] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy.[7]

Adulteration

Clove stalks are slender stems of the inflorescence axis that show opposite decussate branching. Externally, they are brownish, rough, and irregularly wrinkled longitudinally with short fracture and dry, woody texture.

Mother cloves (anthophylli) are the ripe fruits of cloves that are ovoid, brown berries, unilocular and one-seeded. This can be detected by the presence of much starch in the seeds.

Blown cloves are expanded flowers from which both corollae and stamens have been detached.

Exhausted cloves have most or all the oil removed by distillation. They yield no oil and are darker in color.[11]

History

In the third century BCE, Chinese emperors of the Han Dynasty required those who addressed him to chew cloves to freshen their breath,[12] and they had reached the Roman world by the first century CE, where they were described by Pliny the Elder.[13]

The first clearly dated archeological find of a clove is substantially later than the written evidence, with two examples found at a trading port in Sri Lanka, dated to around 900-1100 CE.[14] An earlier reported find, in Syria, dated to around 1700 BCE, is no longer believed to be a clove.[13][14]

Cloves were traded by Omani sailors and merchants trading goods from India to the mainland and Africa during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade.

Until modern times, cloves grew only on a few islands in the Moluccas (historically called the Spice Islands), including Bacan, Makian, Moti, Ternate, and Tidore.[15] In fact, the clove tree that experts believe is the oldest in the world, named Afo, is on Ternate. The tree is between 350 and 400 years old.[16] Tourists are told that seedlings from this very tree were stolen by a Frenchman named Pierre Poivre in 1770, transferred to the Isle de France (Mauritius), and then later to Zanzibar, which was once the world's largest producer of cloves.[16]

Until cloves were grown outside of the Maluku Islands, they were traded like oil, with an enforced limit on exportation.[16] As the Dutch East India Company consolidated its control of the spice trade in the 17th century, they sought to gain a monopoly in cloves as they had in nutmeg. However, "unlike nutmeg and mace, which were limited to the minute Bandas, clove trees grew all over the Moluccas, and the trade in cloves was way beyond the limited policing powers of the corporation."[17]

Chemical compounds

Eugenol acsv
The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves

Eugenol composes 72–90% of the essential oil extracted from cloves and is the compound most responsible for clove aroma.[4] 100% extraction occurs at 80 minutes in pressurized water of 125 °C.[18] Ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction methods provide more rapid extraction rates with lower energy costs.[19]

Other important essential oil constituents of clove oil include acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and vanillin, crategolic acid, tannins such as bicornin,[4][20] gallotannic acid, methyl salicylate (painkiller), the flavonoids eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and eugenitin, triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid, stigmasterol, and campesterol and several sesquiterpenes.[21]

Eugenol is toxic in relatively small quantities; for example, a dose of 5–10 ml has been reported as being a near fatal dose for a two-year-old child.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved June 9, 2011.
  2. ^ Yun, Wonjung (13 August 2018). "[Tridge Market Update] Tight Stocks of Quality Cloves Lead to a Price Surge". Tridge. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  3. ^ Dorenburg, Andrew and Page, Karen. The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2003
  4. ^ a b c Kamatou, G. P.; Vermaak, I.; Viljoen, A. M. (2012). "Eugenol--from the remote Maluku Islands to the international market place: a review of a remarkable and versatile molecule". Molecules. 17 (6): 6953–81. doi:10.3390/molecules17066953. PMC 6268661. PMID 22728369.
  5. ^ "Flavored Tobacco". FDA. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
  6. ^ "Get Rid of Ants 24". getridofanst24. Archived from the original on 2015-04-28.
  7. ^ a b c d "Clove". Drugs.com. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "Clove". MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health. 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  9. ^ Taberner-Vallverdú, M.; Nazir, M.; Sanchez-Garces, M. Á.; Gay-Escoda, C. (2015). "Efficacy of different methods used for dry socket management: A systematic review". Medicina Oral Patología Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 20 (5): e633–e639. doi:10.4317/medoral.20589. PMC 4598935. PMID 26116842.
  10. ^ Balch, Phyllis and Balch, James. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 3rd ed., Avery Publishing, 2000, p. 94
  11. ^ Bisset, N. G. (1994). Herbal drugs and phyotpharmaceuticals, Medpharm. Stuttgart: Scientific Publishers.
  12. ^ Andaya, Leonard Y. (1993). "1: Cultural State Formation in Eastern Indonesia". In Reid, Anthony (ed.). Southeast Asia in the early modern era: trade, power, and belief. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8093-5.
  13. ^ a b Lape, Peter V. (5 November 2010). "Political dynamics and religious change in the late pre-colonial Banda Islands, Eastern Indonesia". World Archaeology. 32 (1): 138–155. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.500.4009. doi:10.1080/004382400409934.
  14. ^ a b Kingwell-Banham, Eleanor. "World's oldest clove? Here's what our find in Sri Lanka says about the early spice trade". The Conversation.
  15. ^ Turner, Jack (2004). Spice: The History of a Temptation. Vintage Books. pp. xxvii–xxviii. ISBN 978-0-375-70705-6.
  16. ^ a b c Worrall, Simon (23 June 2012). "The world's oldest clove tree". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  17. ^ Krondl, Michael. The Taste of Conquest: The Rise and Fall of the Three Great Cities of Spice. New York: Ballantine Books, 2007.
  18. ^ Rovio, S.; Hartonen, K.; Holm, Y.; Hiltunen, R.; Riekkola, M.‐L. (7 February 2000). "Extraction of clove using pressurized hot water". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 14 (6). doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199911/12)14:6<399::AID-FFJ851>3.0.CO;2-A.
  19. ^ Khalil, A.A.; ur Rahman, U.; Khan, M.R.; Sahar, A.; Mehmood, T.; Khan, M. (2017). "Essential oil eugenol: sources, extraction techniques and nutraceutical perspectives". RSC Advances. 7 (52): 32669–32681. doi:10.1039/C7RA04803C.
  20. ^ Li-Ming Bao, Eerdunbayaer; Nozaki, Akiko; Takahashi, Eizo; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Ito, Hideyuki; Hatano, Tsutomu (2012). "Hydrolysable Tannins Isolated from Syzygium aromaticum: Structure of a New C-Glucosidic Ellagitannin and Spectral Features of Tannins with a Tergalloyl Group". Heterocycles. 85 (2): 365–381. doi:10.3987/COM-11-12392.
  21. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble. 2004
  22. ^ Hartnoll, G.; Moore, D.; Douek, D. (1993). "Near fatal ingestion of oil of cloves". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 69 (3): 392–393. doi:10.1136/adc.69.3.392. PMC 1029532. PMID 8215554.

Further reading

Liu, Bin-Bin; Liu, Luo; Liu, Xiao-Long; Geng, Di; Li, Cheng-Fu; Chen, Shao-Mei; Chen, Xue-Mei; Yi, Li-Tao; Liu, Qing (February 2015). "Essential Oil of Syzygium aromaticum Reverses the Deficits of Stress-Induced Behaviors and Hippocampal p-ERK/p-CREB/Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression". Planta Medica. 81 (3): 185–192. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1396150. PMID 25590367. Retrieved 27 April 2015.

Buntline hitch

The buntline hitch is a knot used for attaching a rope to an object. It is formed by passing the working end around an object, then making a clove hitch around the rope's standing part, taking care that the turns of the clove hitch progress towards the object rather than away from it. Secure and easily tied, the buntline hitch will jam when subjected to extreme loads. Given the knot's propensity to jam, it is often made in slipped form.

The buntline hitch, when bent to a yard, makes a more secure knot than two half hitches, but is more liable to jam. It differs from two half hitches in that the second half hitch is inside instead of outside the first one.

Clove Brook

Clove Brook is a 12.0-mile-long (19.3 km) tributary of Papakating Creek in Sussex County, New Jersey in the United States.Clove Brook, previously known as Bastions Brook, Clove Creek, Clove River, and Deep Clove River, rises from north of Colesville and travels in a southeasterly direction, predominantly on the north side of State Route 23, down through the Clove Valley toward Sussex Borough. The brook enters the north end of Clove Acres Lake, passes over the dam, and proceeds through the center of the Borough of Sussex. Leaving the borough, the brook turns south and joins Papakating Creek just north of Lewisburg. The name Bastions Brook was noted as a part of the description of a parcel of land in a deed signed by Peter Decker in the eighteenth century.

Clove Lakes Park

Clove Lakes Park is a public park located in the New York City borough of Staten Island, in the neighborhood of Sunnyside.With valuable ecological assets, Clove Lakes Park has a rich natural history and a few remnants of the past. Chief among them are the park's lakes and ponds, outcroppings of serpentine rocks, and Staten Island's largest living thing, a 119-foot-tall (36 m) tulip tree. Clove Lakes Park is home to many species of indigenous wildlife. Visitors can see fish such as black crappie, brown bullhead, bluegill, emerald shiner, pumpkinseed, largemouth bass, and carp; birds such as red-tailed hawk, belted kingfisher, double-crested cormorant, red-winged blackbird, Canada goose, and mallard: as well as reptiles and amphibians, like the common snapping turtle, eastern painted turtle, red-eared slider, and occasionally even the red-backed salamander. The park is also home to mammals such as eastern gray squirrel, muskrat, eastern cottontail, and eastern chipmunk.

Interstate 278, built in 1964, goes through the cleft inside the park to connect the roadway to major interchanges at the then-newly built Verrazano-Narrows Bridge to the East and the Goethals Bridge to the West. When first proposed, the expressway was to be named the Clove Lake Expressway.

The park is known for its cozy picnic accommodations and boating. Besides strolling down trails and paddling on its bodies of water to appreciate its beauty, visitors can also experience the park as a more modern recreation zone. Several baseball diamonds, a soccer field, basketball court, playgrounds, and football field dot the park's landscape. The Staten Island World War II Veteran's Memorial Ice Skating Rink is an outdoor rink located in what could be called the "active" part of the park, close to its other fields and courts.

The park consists of three lakes; the main one is Clove Lake, which run offs to Martling Lake, and then to Brooks Lake.

Clove Mountain

Clove Mountain is a small mountain in Dutchess County, New York. Its peak elevation is 1400 feet above sea level. It is the site of a Verizon Wireless cell tower, a Dutchess County 911 Radio Repeater, and a fire tower that is no longer in service.

Clove hitch

The clove hitch is a type of knot. Along with the bowline and the sheet bend, it is often considered one of the most important knots and is commonly referred to as a Double Hitch. A clove hitch is two successive half-hitches around an object. It is most effectively used as a crossing knot. It can be used as a binding knot, but is not particularly secure in that role. A clove hitch made around the rope's own standing part is known as either two half-hitches or buntline hitch, depending on whether the turns of the clove hitch progress away from or towards the hitched object.

Although the name clove hitch is given by Falconer in his Dictionary of 1769, the knot is much older, having been tied in ratlines at least as early as the first quarter of the sixteenth century. This is shown in early sculpture and paintings. A round turn is taken with the ratline and then a hitch is added below. The forward end is always the first to be made fast.

The difference between two half hitches and the clove hitch is that the former, after a single turn around a spar, is made fast around its own standing part, while the latter is tied directly around the spar.

Dianthus caryophyllus

Dianthus caryophyllus, commonly known as the carnation or clove pink, is a species of Dianthus. It is probably native to the Mediterranean region but its exact range is unknown due to extensive cultivation for the last 2,000 years. Carnation cultivars with no fragrance are often used by men as boutonnieres or "button holes".

English units

English units are the units of measurement that were used in England up to 1826 (when they were replaced by Imperial units), which evolved as a combination of the Anglo-Saxon and Roman systems of units. Various standards have applied to English units at different times, in different places, and for different applications.

The two main sets of English units were the Winchester Units, in effect from 1495–1587, as reaffirmed by King Henry VII, and the Exchequer Standards, in effect from 1588–1825, as first defined by Queen Elizabeth I.The units were replaced by Imperial Units in 1824 (effective 1 January 1826) by a Weights and Measures Act, which retained many but not all of the unit names and redefined many of the definitions.

Use of the term "English units" can be ambiguous, as in addition to the meaning used in this article, it is sometimes mistakenly used to refer to either: United States customary units, which have somewhat different definitions; or to Imperial units, the previous standard units throughout the British Empire and the Commonwealth.

Eugenol

Eugenol is an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol, a member of the allylbenzene class of chemical compounds. It is a colorless to pale yellow, aromatic oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, basil and bay leaf. It is present in concentrations of 80–90% in clove bud oil and at 82–88% in clove leaf oil. Eugenol has a pleasant, spicy, clove-like scent. The name is derived from Eugenia caryophyllata, the former Linnean nomenclature term for cloves. The current Linnean nomenclature term for cloves is Syzygium aromaticum.

Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and Chinese onion.Garlic is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran, and has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use. It was known to ancient Egyptians, and has been used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine. In Ancient Rome, it was "much used for food among the poor". China produces some 80% of the world supply of garlic.

Kaaterskill Clove

Kaaterskill Clove is a deep gorge, or valley, in New York's eastern Catskill Mountains, lying just west of the village of Palenville and in Haines Falls. The clove was formed by Kaaterskill Creek, a tributary of Catskill Creek rising west of North Mountain, and is estimated by geologists to be as much as 1 million years old. Kaaterskill High Peak and Roundtop Mountain rise to the south of the gorge, while South Mountain is to its north. This makes the gorge as deep as 2,500 feet in places.

Kretek

Kretek are cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco, cloves and other flavors. The word "kretek" itself is an onomatopoetic term for the crackling sound of burning cloves.Partly due to favorable taxation compared to "white" cigarettes, kreteks are by far the most widely smoked form of cigarettes in Indonesia, where they are preferred by about 90% of smokers.

In Indonesia, there are hundreds of kretek manufacturers, including small local makers and major brands. Most of the widely known international brands, including Dji Sam Soe 234, Bentoel, Minak Djinggo, Djarum, Gudang Garam, and Wismilak originate from Indonesia. Nat Sherman of the United States produces cigarettes branded as "A Touch of Clove" but they are not true kreteks since there is clove flavoring infused into small crystals located inside the filter, rather than actual clove spice mixed with the tobacco.

Oil of clove

Oil of clove, also known as clove oil, is an essential oil extracted from the clove plant, Syzygium aromaticum. It has the CAS number 8000-34-8.

Clove is often found in the aromatherapy section of health food stores, and is used in the flavoring of some medicines. Madagascar and Indonesia are the main producers of clove oil.Clove oil has been promoted as having a wide range of health effects, but there is insufficient medical evidence to support general claims for its use as a therapeutic.

Plateau Mountain (New York)

Plateau Mountain is located in the town of Hunter in Greene County, New York, United States.

It is part of the Devil's Path range of the Catskill Mountains.

Plateau has a two-mile-long (3.2 km) summit ridge above 3,500 feet (1,100 m).

The highest point, at least 3,840 feet (1,170 m), is at the southeast end, facing Sugarloaf Mountain to the east across Mink Hollow Notch. It is the 12th-highest peak in the range

Devils Tombstone is located west of Plateau Mountain. The northwest end faces Hunter Mountain to the west across 1,400-foot deep (430 m) Stony Clove Notch.

Plateau Mountain stands within the watershed of the Hudson River, which drains into New York Bay.

It feeds the Hudson by way of Esopus Creek through Stony Clove Creek from its western slopes, and through Beaver Kill from its southeast end.

Its southwest slopes drain into Warner Creek, thence into Stony Clove Creek.

The northeastern slopes of Plateau drain into Schoharie Creek, thence into the Mohawk River, and the Hudson River.

Plateau Mountain is within New York's Catskill State Park.

The Devil's Path hiking trail traverses the summit ridge of Plateau.

A section of the Long Path, a 350-mile (560 km) long-distance hiking trail through southeastern New York, climbs up the ridge from Silver Hollow Notch to the Devil's Path midway along the ridge. The Long Path then follows the Devil's Path east to the slopes of Indian Head Mountain on the Catskill Escarpment.

Snuggle hitch

The snuggle hitch is a modification of the clove hitch, and is stronger and more secure. Owen K. Nuttall of the International Guild of Knot Tyers came up with this unique hitch, and it was first documented in the Guild's Knotting Matters magazine issue of January, 1987.

Generally, hitches are used to attach a line to another rope or spar, pole, etc., and are usually temporary. Thus, they should be relatively easy to untie.

Solo garlic

Solo garlic, also known as single clove garlic, monobulb garlic, single bulb garlic, or pearl garlic, is a type of Allium sativum (garlic). The size of the single clove differs from approximately 25 to 50 mm in diameter. It has the flavour of the garlic clove but is somewhat milder and slightly perfumed. The appearance is somewhat akin to that of a pickling onion, with white skin and often purple stripes. Solo garlic offers the advantage, compared to traditional garlic, of being very quick and easy to peel.

Single clove garlic has been grown at the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains for about 7,000 years. It is not a single variety of garlic, but rather a product of specific planting practices. As a result, single cloved versions of variants such as black garlic are also available.

Southwest Hunter Mountain

Southwest Hunter Mountain (Leavitt Peak) is a subpeak of Hunter Mountain, located in Greene County, New York.

SW Hunter is considered one of the Catskills' High Peaks in its own right, because of its separation from the main summit, and its topographic prominence.

Hunter Mountain is named after John Hunter, who also gave his name to the town of Hunter.

Southwest Hunter is part of the Devil's Path range of the Catskill Mountains.

SW Hunter is flanked to the northeast by the main summit of Hunter Mtn., and to the west faces West Kill Mountain across 800-ft-deep Diamond Notch. It is considered a bushwack, as there are no registered trails leading to its summit. There is, however, a herd path 0.1 miles (160 m) west of Devil's Acre Lean-to marked by a small rock cairn that leads to the summit canister, following the ridge for 3/4 mile and then turning uphill to the peak (This upward turn is easy to miss and is only marked by an arrow scratched onto a nearby rock).

Southwest Hunter stands within the watershed of the Hudson River, which drains into New York Bay.

The north side of SW Hunter drains into the headwaters of the West Kill, thence into Schoharie Creek, the Mohawk River, and the Hudson River.

The southeast slopes of SW Hunter drain into Myrtle Brook, thence into Stony Clove Creek, Esopus Creek, and the Hudson River.

The southwest side of SW Hunter drains into Hollow Brook, thence into Stony Clove Creek.

Hunter Mountain is contained within the Hunter Mountain Wild Forest of New York's Catskill State Park.

This Mountain is unnamed in the GNIS database, there is an effort underway to get the peak named Leavitt Peak in honor Bill & Elinore Leavitt, two of the founders of the Catskill 3500 club.

Stony Clove Creek

Stony Clove Creek is a 10.3-mile-long (16.6 km) creek in the Catskill Mountains in New York. It is a tributary of Esopus Creek, which in turn is a tributary of the Hudson River. It joins the Esopus in the village of Phoenicia, and has two smaller tributaries up north of Phoenicia.

The Stony Clove starts near the Stony Clove Notch in Edgewood in Greene County. It originates at Notch Lake, near the Devil's Tombstone Campsite, and flows through the small villages of Edgewood and Lanesville, entering Ulster County at Chichester.

Early maps and deeds indicate that the Stony Clove flowed into the Warner Bushkill, or alternatively named, the Barber Bushkill, before flowing into the Esopus. Later cartographers have changed the nomenclature of the streams so that the Barber Bushkill or Warner Bushkill flows into the Stony Clove.

It was formed about 10,000 years ago, during the last Ice age. It was formed when the same meltwater that formed the Stony Clove Notch burst through, and flooded a valley. The water, in turn, started running down through an already gouged-out pass, forming a small river.

Ulster and Delaware Railroad

The Ulster and Delaware Railroad (U&D) was a railroad located in the state of New York. It was often advertised as "The Only All-Rail Route to the Catskill Mountains." At its greatest extent, the U&D extended from Kingston Point on the Hudson River, through the Catskill Mountains to its western terminus at Oneonta, passing through the counties of Ulster, Delaware, Schoharie and Otsego.

Water bowline

The water bowline is a type of knot designed for use in wet conditions where other knots may slip or jam.

Although similar in finished appearance to the double bowline, the water bowline is formed with a clove hitch as the loop in the standing part of the rope. This is similar to the double bowline, which puts the running end through a round turn. The additional friction from the clove hitch increases the security of this knot.

The Water Bowline can be tied very quickly by throwing two half hitches over the working end and then running the working end around the standing line and back through both half hitches. This is illustrated in the three pictures below.

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