Close-mid front unrounded vowel

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.

For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Close-mid front unrounded vowel
IPA number302
Entity (decimal)e
Unicode (hex)U+0065
Braille⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
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IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] bed [bet] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. The height varies between close-mid [e] and mid [ɛ̝].[2] See Afrikaans phonology
Azerbaijani ge [ɟeˈd͡ʒæ] 'night'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3]
Catalan[4] més [mes] 'more' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Shanghainese[5] [ke̠ʔ˩] 'should' Near-front; realization of /ɛ/, which appears only in open syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/ ([ɪ̞]), which appears only in closed syllables.[5]
Czech Brno accent[6] led [let] 'ice' Corresponds to [ɛ ~ ɛ̠ ~ ɛ̝̈] in standard Czech.[7] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[8][9] hæl [ˈheːˀl] 'heel' Realized as mid [ɛ̝ː] in the conservative variety;[10] most often, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[11] vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [eɪ]. See Dutch phonology
English Australian[12] bed [bed] 'bed' See Australian English phonology
General American[13] may [meː] 'may' Most often a closing diphthong [eɪ].[13]
General Indian[14]
General Pakistani[15] Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
Ulster[19] Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
Some Cardiff speakers[20] square [skweː] 'square' More often open-mid [ɛː].[20]
Estonian[21] keha [ˈkeɦɑ̝ˑ] 'body' See Estonian phonology
Faroese[22] frekur [ˈfɹeː(ʰ)kʊɹ] 'greedy' May be a diphthong [eɛː ~ eəː] instead.[23] See Faroese phonology
French[24][25] beauté [bot̪e] 'beauty' See French phonology
German Standard[26][27] Seele [ˈzeːlə] 'soul' See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[28] Jäger [ˈjeːɡɐ] 'hunter' Outcome of the /ɛː–eː/ merger found universally in Northern Germany, Eastern Germany and Eastern Austria (often even in formal speech) and in some other regions.[28] See Standard German phonology
Southern accents[29] Bett [b̥et] 'bed' Common realization of /ɛ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[29] See Standard German phonology
Swabian accent[29] Contrasts with the open-mid [ɛ].[29] See Standard German phonology
Greek Sfakian[30] Corresponds to mid [] in Modern Standard Greek.[31] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[32] hét [heːt̪] 'seven' Also described as mid [e̞ː].[33] See Hungarian phonology
Italian[34] stelle [ˈs̪t̪elle] 'stars' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[35] kre [ˈkɾe] 'thigh'
Latin Classical [36] spes [speːs] 'hope'
Limburgish Most dialects[37][38][39] leef [leːf] 'dear' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbian[40] měŕ [merʲ] 'measure!' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[40]
Luxembourgish[41] drécken [ˈdʀekən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [ɛ].[41] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian[42][43] le [leː] 'laugh' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian.[42][43] See Norwegian phonology
Persian سه [se] 'three'
Polish[44] dzień [d͡ʑeɲ̟] 'day' Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[45] mesa [ˈmezɐ] 'table' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Muntenian dialects[46] vezi [vezʲ] '(you) see' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[47] шея [ˈʂejə] 'neck' Occurs only before soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Saterland Frisian[48] tään [te̠ːn] 'thin' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/ ([ɪ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ is actually near-close [e̝ː].[48]
Shiwiar[49] Allophone of /a/.[49]
Slovak Dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ[32] dcéra [ˈt͡seːrä] 'daughter' Mid [ɛ̝ː] in Standard Slovak.[32] See Slovak phonology
Sotho[50] ho jwetsa [hʊ̠ʒʷet͡sʼɑ̈] 'to tell' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[50] See Sotho phonology
Swedish Central Standard[51][52] se [s̪eː] 'see' Often diphthongized to [eə̯] (hear the word: [s̪eə̯]). See Swedish phonology
Tahitian vahine [vahine] 'woman'
Upper Sorbian[40][53] wem [ɥem] 'I know' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[40][54] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[56] zied [zied̪] Allophone of /e/ that occurs mostly after /i/. In other environments, the most common realization is central [ɘ].[56]

See also


  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded mid-front vowel /ɛ/".
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  5. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  6. ^ Palková (1999), p. 187.
  7. ^ Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  8. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  10. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  12. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  13. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 487.
  14. ^ Wells (1982), p. 626.
  15. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1010.
  16. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  17. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  18. ^ Deterding (2000), p. ?.
  19. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF).
  20. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  21. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  22. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74–75.
  23. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  24. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  25. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  26. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  27. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  28. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 64–65.
  29. ^ a b c d Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  30. ^ Trudgill (2009), pp. 83–84.
  31. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  32. ^ a b c Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  33. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  34. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  35. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  36. ^ Wheelock's Latin (1956).
  37. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  38. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  39. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  40. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  41. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  42. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), pp. 13-14.
  43. ^ a b Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 4.
  44. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 106.
  45. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  46. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  47. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 44.
  48. ^ a b Peters (2017), p. ?.
  49. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  50. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  51. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  52. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  53. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  54. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  55. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
  56. ^ a b Merrill (2008), pp. 109–110.


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A (named , plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.

In English grammar, "a", and its variant "an", is an indefinite article.

Botolan language

Botolan is a Sambalic language spoken by 32,867 (SIL 2000) Sambal, primarily in the Zambal municipalities of Botolan and Cabangan in the Philippines.

Cardinal vowels

Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages. For instance, the vowel of the English word "feet" can be described with reference to cardinal vowel 1, [i], which is the cardinal vowel closest to it. It is often stated that to be able to use the cardinal vowel system effectively one must undergo training with an expert phonetician, working both on the recognition and the production of the vowels. Daniel Jones wrote "The values of cardinal vowels cannot be learnt from written descriptions; they should be learnt by oral instruction from a teacher who knows them".A cardinal vowel is a vowel sound produced when the tongue is in an extreme position, either front or back, high or low. The current system was systematised by Daniel Jones in the early 20th century, though the idea goes back to earlier phoneticians, notably Ellis and Bell.Cardinal vowels are not vowels of any particular language, but a measuring system. However, some languages contain vowel or vowels that are close to the cardinal vowel(s). An example of such language is Ngwe, which is spoken in Cameroon. It has been cited as a language with a vowel system that has 8 vowels which are rather similar to the 8 primary cardinal vowels (Ladefoged 1971:67).

Three of the cardinal vowels—[i], [ɑ] and [u]—have articulatory definitions. The vowel [i] is produced with the tongue as far forward and as high in the mouth as is possible (without producing friction), with spread lips. The vowel [u] is produced with the tongue as far back and as high in the mouth as is possible, with protruded lips. This sound can be approximated by adopting the posture to whistle a very low note, or to blow out a candle. And [ɑ] is produced with the tongue as low and as far back in the mouth as possible.

The other vowels are 'auditorily equidistant' between these three 'corner vowels', at four degrees of aperture or 'height': close (high tongue position), close-mid, open-mid, and open (low tongue position).

These degrees of aperture plus the front-back distinction define 8 reference points on a mixture of articulatory and auditory criteria. These eight vowels are known as the eight 'primary cardinal vowels', and vowels like these are common in the world's languages.

The lip positions can be reversed with the lip position for the corresponding vowel on the opposite side of the front-back dimension, so that e.g. Cardinal 1 can be produced with rounding somewhat similar to that of Cardinal 8 (though normally compressed rather than protruded); these are known as 'secondary cardinal vowels'. Sounds such as these are claimed to be less common in the world's languages. Other vowel sounds are also recognised on the vowel chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a close-mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned one third of the way from a close vowel to an open vowel.


E (named e , plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is the most commonly used letter in many languages, including Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Latin, Latvian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish.

E with diaeresis (Cyrillic)

E with diaeresis (Ӭ ӭ; italics: Ӭ ӭ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. Its form is derived from the Cyrillic letter E (Э э Э э).

E with diaeresis is used in the alphabet of the Kildin Sami language, where it represents the close-mid front unrounded vowel /e/, following a palatalized (sometimes called "half-palatalized") stop, /nʲ, tʲ, dʲ/. In Moksha, it was used for the near-open front unrounded vowel /æ/, however, in contemporary Moksha it's been replaced by Я or word-initially by Э.

Estonian phonology

This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Estonian language.

Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes also called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels.Near-front vowels are essentially a type of front vowel; no language is known to contrast front and near-front vowels based on backness alone.

Rounded front vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation. This is one reason they are written to the right of unrounded front vowels in the IPA vowel chart.

Mid front unrounded vowel (disambiguation)

Mid front unrounded vowel might refer to:

The exact mid front unrounded vowel [e̞] (also [ɛ̝] or [ᴇ]), between [e] and [ɛ]

The close-mid front unrounded vowel [e]

The open-mid front unrounded vowel [ɛ]

Mlahsô language

Mlaḥsô or Mlahsö (Classical Syriac: ܡܠܚܬܝܐ‎), sometimes referred to as Suryoyo or Surayt, is an extinct or dormant Central Neo-Aramaic language. It was traditionally spoken in eastern Turkey and later also in northeastern Syria by Jacobite Syriac-Assyrians.The Mlaḥsô language (Surayt of Mlaḥsô) is closely related to the Surayt of Turabdin but sufficiently different

to be considered a separate language, with the syntax of the language having retained more features of Classical Syriac than Turoyo. It was spoken in the villages of Mlaḥsô (Turkish: Yünlüce, Kurdish: Mela‎), a village established by two monks from the Tur Abdin mountain range, and in the village of ˁAnşa near Lice, Diyarbakır, Turkey. Aside from their native language, many Mlaḥsô speakers were fluent in Turkish, Arabic, Armenian, Kurdish and Zaza.

Near-close front unrounded vowel

The near-close front unrounded vowel, or near-high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɪ⟩, i.e. a small capital letter i. The International Phonetic Association advises serifs on the symbol's ends. Some sans-serif fonts do meet this typographic specification.

Prior to 1989, there was an alternate symbol for this sound: ⟨ɩ⟩, the use of which is no longer sanctioned by the IPA. Despite that, some modern writings still use it.

Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ɪ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close front unrounded vowel (transcribed [i̽] or [ï̞]), and the current official IPA name of the vowel transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ is near-close near-front unrounded vowel. However, some languages have the close-mid near-front unrounded vowel, a vowel that is somewhat lower than the canonical value of [ɪ], though it still fits the definition of a mid-centralized [i]. It occurs in some dialects of English (such as Californian, General American and modern Received Pronunciation) as well as some other languages (such as Icelandic), and it can be transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ̞⟩ (a lowered ⟨ɪ⟩) in narrow transcription. Certain sources may even use ⟨ɪ⟩ for the close-mid front unrounded vowel, but that is rare. For the close-mid (near-)front unrounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ (or ⟨i⟩), see close-mid front unrounded vowel.

In some other languages (such as Danish, Luxembourgish and Sotho) there is a fully front near-close unrounded vowel (a sound between cardinal [i] and [e]), which can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɪ̟⟩, ⟨i̞⟩ or ⟨e̝⟩.

Sometimes, especially in broad transcription, this vowel is transcribed with a simpler symbol ⟨i⟩, which technically represents the close front unrounded vowel.

SAMPA chart

The following show the typical symbols for consonants and vowels used in SAMPA, an ASCII-based system based on the International Phonetic Alphabet. Note that SAMPA is not a universal system as it varies from language to language.

Table of vowels

This table lists the vowel letters of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Turoyo language

Turoyo (also called Surayt) is a Central Neo-Aramaic language traditionally spoken in southeastern Turkey and northeastern Syria by Assyrian Christians. Most speakers use the Classical Syriac language for literature and worship.

Turoyo speakers are currently mostly members of the Syriac Orthodox Church, but there are also Turoyo-speaking members of the Chaldean Catholic Church, especially from the town of Midyat, and of the Assyrian Church of the East. It is also currently spoken in the Syriac Diaspora, although classified as a vulnerable language.Turoyo is not mutually intelligible with Western Neo-Aramaic having been separated for over a thousand years, while mutual intelligibility with Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is limited.Contrary to what these language names suggest, they are not specific to a particular church, with members of the Assyrian Church of the East and Chaldean Catholic Church speaking Turoyo, and members of the Syriac Orthodox Church speaking Assyrian or Chaldean Neo-Aramaic dialects.


The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA; , /%Eks"s{mp@/) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. It is designed to unify the individual language SAMPA alphabets, and extend SAMPA to cover the entire range of characters in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The result is a SAMPA-inspired remapping of the IPA into 7-bit ASCII.

SAMPA was devised as a hack to work around the inability of text encodings to represent IPA symbols. Later, as Unicode support for IPA symbols became more widespread, the necessity for a separate, computer-readable system for representing the IPA in ASCII decreased. However, X-SAMPA is still useful as the basis for an input method for true IPA.

Ye with tilde

Ye with tilde (Е̃ е̃; italics: Е̃ е̃) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In all its forms it looks exactly like the Latin letter E with tilde (Ẽ ẽ Ẽ ẽ).

Ye with tilde is used in the Khinalug language where it represents a nasalized close-mid front unrounded vowel or open-mid front unrounded vowel /ẽ~ɛ̃/.


Ë, ë (e-diaeresis) is a letter in the Albanian, Kashubian, Emilian-Romagnol and Ladin alphabets. As a variant of the letter e, it also appears in Acehnese, Afrikaans, Dutch, Filipino, French, Luxembourgish, the Abruzzese dialect of the Neapolitan language, and the Ascolano dialect. The letter is also used in Seneca, Taiwanese Hokkien, Turoyo and Uyghur when written in Latin script.

IPA topics

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