Clodius

Clodius is an alternate form of the Roman nomen Claudius, a patrician gens that was traditionally regarded as Sabine in origin. The alternation of o and au is characteristic of the Sabine dialect. The feminine form is Clodia.

Silver denarius of Clodius Macer 68 CE
Denarius issued for the anti-Neronian rebel Clodius Macer in 68 AD

Republican era

Publius Clodius Pulcher

the Late Republic, the spelling Clodius is most prominently associated with Publius Clodius Pulcher, a popularist politician who gave up his patrician status through an order in order to qualify for the office of tribune of the plebs. Clodius positioned himself as a champion of the urban plebs, supporting free grain for the poor and the right of association in guilds (collegia); because of this individual's ideology, Clodius has often been taken as a more "plebeian" spelling and a gesture of political solidarity. Clodius's two elder brothers, the Appius Claudius Pulcher who was consul in 54 BC and the C. Claudius Pulcher who was praetor in 56 BC, conducted more conventional political careers and are referred to in contemporary sources with the traditional spelling.

The view that Clodius represents a plebeian or politicized form has been questioned by Clodius's chief modern-era biographer. In The Patrician Tribune, W. Jeffrey Tatum points out that the spelling is also associated with Clodius's sisters and that "the political explanation … is almost certainly wrong." A plebeian branch of the gens, the Claudii Marcelli, retained the supposedly patrician spelling, while there is some inscriptional evidence that the -o- form may also have been used on occasion by close male relatives of the "patrician tribune" Clodius. Tatum argues that the use of -o- by the "chic" Clodia Metelli was a fashionable affectation, and that Clodius, whose perhaps inordinately loving relationship with his sister was the subject of much gossip and insinuation, was imitating his stylish sibling. The linguistic variation of o for au was characteristic of the Umbrian language, of which Sabine was a branch. Forms using o were considered archaic or rustic in the 50s BC, and the use of Clodius would have been either a whimsical gesture of pastoral fantasy, or a trendy assertion of antiquarian authenticity.[1]

Other Clodii of the Republic

In addition to Clodius, Clodii from the Republican era include:

Imperial era

Rilievo funerario di p. clodius philonicus, 70-100 dc.
Funerary relief for Publius Clodius Philonicus, 70-100 AD

People using the name Clodius during the period of the Roman Empire include:

Clodii Celsini

The Clodii Celsini continued to practice the traditional religions of antiquity in the face of Christian hegemony through at least the 4th century, when Clodius Celsinus Adelphius (see below) converted.[2] Members of this branch include:

See also

Selected bibliography

  • Tatum, W. Jeffrey. The Patrician Tribune: P. Clodius Pulcher. Studies in the History of Greece and Rome series. University of North Carolina Press, 1999. Limited preview online. Hardcover ISBN 0-8078-2480-1.

References

  1. ^ W. Jeffrey Tatum, The Patrician Tribune: Publius Clodius Pulcher (University of North Caroline Press, 1999), pp. 247–248 online. The idea that the form Clodius announced ethnic identity is suggested also by Gary D. Farney, Ethnic identity and aristocratic competition in Republican Rome (Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 89 online.
  2. ^ Bernice M. Kaczynski, "Faltonia Betitia Proba: A Virgilian Cento in Praise of Christ," in Women Writing Latin (Routledge, 2002), vol. 1, p. 132 online.

Further reading

  • Fezzi, L. Il tribuno Clodio. Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2008. ISBN 88-420-8715-7.
Bona Dea

Bona Dea ([bɔ.na ˈde.a] 'Good Goddess') was a divinity in ancient Roman religion. She was associated with chastity and fertility in Roman women, healing, and the protection of the state and people of Rome. According to Roman literary sources, she was brought from Magna Graecia at some time during the early or middle Republic, and was given her own state cult on the Aventine Hill.

Her rites allowed women the use of strong wine and blood-sacrifice, things otherwise forbidden them by Roman tradition. Men were barred from her mysteries and the possession of her true name. Given that male authors had limited knowledge of her rites and attributes, ancient speculations about her identity abound, among them that she was an aspect of Terra, Ops, Cybele, or Ceres, or a Latin form of the Greek goddess "Damia" (Demeter). Most often, she was identified as the wife, sister, or daughter of the god Faunus, thus an equivalent or aspect of the nature-goddess Fauna, who could prophesy the fates of women.

The goddess had two annual festivals. One was held at her Aventine temple; the other was hosted by the wife of Rome's senior Annual Magistrate for an invited group of elite matrons and female attendants. The latter festival came to scandalous prominence in 62 BC, when the politician Publius Clodius Pulcher was tried for his intrusion on the rites, allegedly bent on the seduction of Julius Caesar's wife, whom Caesar later divorced because "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion". The rites remained a subject of male curiosity and speculation, both religious and prurient.

Bona Dea's cults in the city of Rome were led by the Vestal Virgins, and her provincial cults by virgin or matron priestesses. Surviving statuary shows her as a sedate Roman matron with a cornucopia and a snake. Personal dedications to her are attested among all classes, especially plebeians, freedmen and women, and slaves. Approximately one third of her dedications are from men, some of whom may have been lawfully involved in her cult.

Clodius Albinus

Clodius Albinus (Latin: Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus; c. 150 – 19 February 197) was a Roman usurper who was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) after the murder of Pertinax in 193 (known as the "Year of the Five Emperors"), and who proclaimed himself emperor again in 196, before his final defeat the following year.

Curia Hostilia

The Curia Hostilia was one of the original senate houses or "curia" of the Roman Republic. It is believed to have begun as a temple where the warring tribes laid down their arms during the reign of Romulus (r. c. 771–717 BC). During the early monarchy, the temple was used by senators acting as council to the king. Tullus Hostilius (r. 673–641 BC) is believed to have replaced the original structure after fire destroyed the converted temple. It may have held historic significance as the location of an Etruscan mundus and altar. The Lapis Niger, a series of large black marble slabs, was placed over the altar (known as the Volcanal) where a series of monuments was found opposite the Rostra. This curia was enlarged in 80 BC by Lucius Cornelius Sulla during his renovations of the comitium. The building burned down in 53 BC when the supporters of the murdered Publius Clodius Pulcher used it as a pyre to cremate his body.

First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate was an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 60 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.

Julius Caesar was a prominent politician with the populares faction and was eventually renowned for his conquest of Gaul (58-50 BC). Pompey was considered the greatest military commander of his time and commanded armies in the Third Servile War (73–71 BC) in Italy and the Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) against the Kingdom of Pontus in West Asia. This gave him great prestige and popularity. Crassus was a property speculator, the largest landlord, and the richest man in Rome. Pompey and Crassus had extensive patronage networks. The three men formed an alliance with which they could gather sufficient popular support to counter the stranglehold the Roman Senate had over Roman politics. The Senate had thwarted some bills these men had sponsored. With this alliance they aimed to overcome the senate's resistance to these bills and to have them passed. The alliance had been kept secret until Pompey and Crassus publicly supported a land law proposed by Caesar in 58 BC. According to Goldsworthy, the alliance was "not at heart a union of those with the same political ideals and ambitions", but one where "all [were] seeking personal advantage." The triumvirate lasted from 59 BC until Crassus' death at the Battle of Carrhae, where he was defeated during his campaign against the Parthians in 53 BC, leaving behind an increasingly fractious relationship between Caesar and Pompey as they now had no buffer.A civil war ensued after Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon with his army in northern Italy in 49 BC. The conflict eventually led to Caesar's victory over Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and the latter's assassination in Ptolemaic Egypt where he fled after the battle. In 44 BC Caesar was assassinated in Rome and the following year his heir Octavian (later known as Augustus) formed the Second Triumvirate with Marcus Antonius and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.

Fulvia

Fulvia (Classical Latin: [ˈfʊɫ.wi.a]; c. 83 BC – 40 BC) was an aristocratic Roman woman who lived during the Late Roman Republic. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Though she is more famous for her involvement in Antony's career, many scholars believe that she was politically active with all of her husbands.

Fulvia is remembered in the history of the late Roman Republic for her political ambition and activity. She is most famous for her activities during her third marriage and her involvement in the Perusine War of 41–40 BC. She was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins.

Leges Clodiae

Leges Clodiae ("Clodian Laws") were a series of laws (plebiscites) passed by the Plebeian Council of the Roman Republic under the tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher in 58 BC. Clodius was a member of the patrician family ("gens") Claudius; the alternative spelling of his name is sometimes regarded as a political gesture. With the support of Julius Caesar, who held his first consulship in 59 BC, Clodius had himself adopted into a plebeian family in order to qualify for the office of Tribune of the Plebs, which was not open to patricians. Clodius was famously a bitter opponent of Cicero.

List of presidents and chancellors of the University of Wisconsin–Madison

This is a list of presidents and chancellors of the University of Wisconsin–Madison:

* In 1963, Harrington reorganized the University of Wisconsin by creating one central administration, and separate administrations for each of the individual campuses (Madison, Milwaukee, and University Centers). Harrington remained the president of the central administration, while Robert Clodius became the acting provost of the Madison campus. Later, in 1970, Clodius became the acting president of the central administration until John Weaver took over in 1971.

** In 1971, the University of Wisconsin system was created by merging all four campuses (Madison, Milwaukee, Green Bay, and Parkside) and the Wisconsin State Universities. John Weaver became the first president of the UW system.***First appointed as Provost, then changed to Chancellor in 1965.

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 71

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 71 (P. Oxy. 71) contains two petitions with a fragment of a third, addressed to the praefect and written in Greek. The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. It was discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. The document was written on 28 February 303. Currently it is housed in the British Museum (755) in London. The text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1898.The letter was addressed to Clodius Culcianus, praefect. The first petition was written by Aurelius Demetrius, son of Nilus (priest at Arsinoe). The second petition was written by Aurelia, a widow. The verso side of the papyrus contains a list of buildings and measurements, written in three columns. The measurements of the fragment are 260 by 548 mm.

Parnassius clodius

Parnassius clodius is a high-altitude butterfly which is found in the United States and Canada. It is a member of the snow Apollo genus (Parnassius) of the swallowtail family (Papilionidae).

Pompeia (wife of Caesar)

Pompeia (fl. 1st century BC) was the second wife of Julius Caesar. Her parents were Quintus Pompeius Rufus, a son of a former consul, and Cornelia, the daughter of the Roman dictator Sulla.

Caesar married Pompeia in 67 BC, after he had served as quaestor in Hispania, his first wife Cornelia having died the previous year in giving birth to her son who was stillborn. Caesar was the nephew of Gaius Marius, and Cornelia had been the daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna so that they were related to both the leaders of the losing populares side in the civil war of the 80s BC.

In 63 BC Caesar was elected to the position of the Pontifex Maximus, the chief priest of the Roman state religion, which came with an official residence on the Via Sacra. In 62 BC Pompeia hosted the festival of the Bona Dea ("good goddess"), which no man was permitted to attend, in this house. However a young patrician named Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to gain admittance disguised as a woman, apparently for the purpose of seducing Pompeia. He was caught and prosecuted for sacrilege. Caesar gave no evidence against Clodius at his trial, and he was acquitted. Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia, saying that "my wife ought not even to be under suspicion". This gave rise to a proverb, sometimes expressed: "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion".

Pro Caelio

Pro Caelio is a speech given on April 4, 56 BC, by the famed Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero in defence of Marcus Caelius Rufus, who had once been Cicero's student but more recently was a political rival. Cicero's reasons for defending Caelius are uncertain though various theories have been postulated.

The Pro Caelio is regarded as one of the best examples of Roman oratory known, and has been so regarded throughout history. It is noteworthy as a prime example of Ciceronian oratorical technique.

Caelius was charged with vis (political violence), one of the most serious crimes in Republican Rome. Caelius' prosecutors, Lucius Sempronius Atratinus, Publius Clodius (though it has been suggested that this is Publius Clodius Pulcher, it was more likely a freedman or relative), and Lucius Herennius Balbus, charged him with the following crimes:

Inciting civil disturbances at Naples;

assault on the Alexandrians at Puteoli;

damage to the property of Palla (about which we know little to nothing);

taking gold for the attempted murder of Dio of Alexandria, then attempted poisoning of Clodia; and

the murder of Dio.Caelius spoke first in his own defense, and he asked M. Licinius Crassus to defend him during the trial. Cicero's speech was the last of the defense speeches. Magistrate Gnaeus Domitius presided over the trial.

Pro Milone

The Pro Tito Annio Milone ad iudicem oratio (Pro Milone) is a speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of his friend Titus Annius Milo. Milo was accused of murdering his political enemy Publius Clodius Pulcher on the Via Appia. Cicero wrote the speech after the hearing and so the authenticity of the speech is debated among scholars.

Publius Clodius Pulcher

Publius Clodius Pulcher (c. December 93 BC – 52 BC, on January 18 of the pre-Julian calendar) was a Roman politician. As tribune, he pushed through an ambitious legislative program, including a grain dole, but he is chiefly remembered for his feud with Cicero and Titus Annius Milo, whose bodyguards murdered him on the Appian Way. Clodius was a Roman nobilis of the patrician Claudian gens and a senator. He was known as an eccentric, mercurial and arrogant character. He became a major disruptive force in Roman politics during the First Triumvirate, of Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar (59–53 BCE). He passed numerous laws in the tradition of the populares known as the Leges Clodiae, and has been called "one of the most innovative urban politicians in Western history".

Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus

Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus (died 66 AD), Roman senator, lived in the 1st century AD. Notable for his principled opposition to the emperor Nero and his interest in Stoicism, he was the husband of Arria, who was the daughter of A. Caecina Paetus and the elder Arria, father-in-law of Helvidius Priscus, and a friend and relative by marriage of the poet Persius. Thrasea was the most prominent member of the political faction known today as the Stoic Opposition.

Pupienus

Pupienus (Latin: Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus; born c. 165/170 – 29 July 238), also known as Pupienus Maximus, was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors. The sources for this period are scant, and thus knowledge of the emperor is limited. In most contemporary texts Pupienus is referred to by his cognomen "Maximus" rather than by his second nomen (family name) Pupienus.

Robert Clodius

Robert LeRoy Clodius (March 10, 1921 – April 2, 2014) was an American educator and acting President of University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1970.

Born in Walla Walla, Washington, Clodius went to Whitman College. He then served in the United States Navy during World War II and went to officers school at Northwestern University. He then graduated from University of California, Berkeley. He then taught agricultural economics at University of Wisconsin–Madison and was vice president and then acting president in 1970. He retired in 1990. In 2000, Clodius and his wife moved to Rockford, Illinois where he died.

Titus Annius Milo

Titus Annius Milo Papianus () was a Roman political agitator. The son of Gaius Papius Celsus, he was adopted by his maternal grandfather, Titus Annius Luscus. In 52 BC, he was prosecuted for the murder of Publius Clodius Pulcher. He was unsuccessfully defended by his friend, Marcus Tullius Cicero, in the speech Pro Milone.

Titus Clodius Eprius Marcellus

Titus Clodius Eprius Marcellus (committed suicide AD 79) was a Roman senator, twice consul, best known for his prosecution of the Stoic senator Thrasea Paetus and his bitter quarrel with Helvidius Priscus. Eprius was also notorious for his ability to ingratiate himself with the reigning Emperors – especially Nero and Vespasian – and his hostility to any senatorial opposition, but in the last year of Vespasian, in circumstances that remain obscure, he was accused of treason and committed suicide.

Year of the Five Emperors

The Year of the Five Emperors refers to the year 193 AD, in which the five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor were: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus, and Septimius Severus. This year started a period of civil war when multiple rulers vied for the chance to become Caesar.

The political unrest began with the murder of Emperor Commodus on New Year's Eve 192 AD. Once Commodus was assassinated, Pertinax was named emperor, but immediately aroused opposition in the Praetorian Guard when he attempted to initiate reforms. They then plotted his assassination, and Pertinax was killed while trying to reason with the mutineers. He had only been emperor for three months. Didius Julianus, who purchased the title from the Praetorian Guard, succeeded Pertinax, but was ousted by Septimius Severus and executed on June 1. Severus was declared Caesar by the Senate, but Pescennius Niger was hostile when he declared himself emperor. This started the civil war between Niger and Severus; both gathered troops and fought throughout the territory of the empire. Due to this war, Severus allowed Clodius Albinus, whom he suspected of being a threat, to be co-Caesar so that Severus did not have to preoccupy himself with imperial governance. This move allowed him to concentrate on waging the war against Niger. Most historians count Severus and Albinus as two emperors, though they ruled simultaneously. The Severan dynasty was created out of the chaos of 193 AD.

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