Clipperton Island

Clipperton Island (French: Île de Clipperton or French: Île de la Passion; Spanish: Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited 6 km2 (1,500 acres) coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America. It is 10,677 kilometres away from Paris, France, 5,400 km from Papeete, Tahiti, and 1,081 km from Mexico. It is an overseas minor territory of France, under direct authority of the Minister of Overseas France.[1][2]

Clipperton
Native name:
Île de Clipperton, Isla de la Pasión
Clipperton Island with enclosed lagoon, showing depths in metres
Clipperton Island with lagoon, showing depths in metres
Geography
LocationPacific Ocean
Coordinates10°18′N 109°13′W / 10.300°N 109.217°WCoordinates: 10°18′N 109°13′W / 10.300°N 109.217°W
ArchipelagoNone
Area6 km2 (2.3 sq mi)
Highest elevation29 m (95 ft)
Highest pointClipperton Rock
Administration
Minor territoryÎle de Clipperton
Demographics
PopulationNon Applicable (1945)
Additional information
Time zone
Official websiteL’île de Clipperton

Geography

Localisation de l'ile de Clipperton
Location of Clipperton Island
Clipperton is located in Pacific Ocean
Clipperton
Clipperton
Location of Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean
Clipperton Island Area
Land 2 km2 (0.77 sq mi)
Land + Lagoon 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi)
EEZ 431,273 km2 (166,515 sq mi)

The atoll is 1,080 km (671 mi) south-west of Mexico, 2,424 km (1,506 mi) west of Nicaragua, 2,545 km (1,581 mi) west of Costa Rica and 2,260 km (1,404 mi) north-west of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, at 10°18′N 109°13′W / 10.300°N 109.217°W. Clipperton is about 945 km (587 mi; 510 nmi) south-east of Socorro Island in the Revillagigedo Archipelago, which is the nearest land.

It is low-lying and largely barren, with some scattered grasses and a few clumps of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera). Land elevations average 2 m (6.6 ft), though a small volcanic outcrop rising to 29 m (95 ft) on its south-east side is considerably higher and is referred to as "Clipperton Rock".[3] The surrounding reef is exposed at low tide.[4] The presence of this rock means that technically Clipperton is not an atoll but an island with a barrier reef.

Clipperton has had no permanent inhabitants since 1945. It is visited on occasion by fishermen, French Navy patrols, scientific researchers, film crews, and shipwreck survivors. It has become a popular site for transmissions by ham radio operators.[5]

Environment

Lagoon and climate

Clipperton has a ring-shaped atoll which completely encloses a stagnant freshwater lagoon, and is 12 km (7.5 mi) in circumference. The lagoon is devoid of fish, and contains some deep basins with depths of 43 and 72 m (141 and 236 ft), including a spot known as Trou-Sans-Fond, or "the bottomless hole", with acidic water at its base. The water is described as being almost fresh at the surface, and highly eutrophic. Seaweed beds cover approximately 45 percent of the lagoon's surface. The rim averages 150 m (490 ft) in width, reaching 400 m (1,300 ft) in the west and narrows to 45 m (148 ft) in the north-east, where sea waves occasionally spill over into the lagoon.[4]

While some sources have rated the lagoon water as non-potable,[6][7] testimony from the crew of the tuna clipper M/V Monarch, stranded for 23 days in 1962 after their boat sank, indicates otherwise. Their report reveals that the lagoon water, while not tasting very good, was drinkable, though "muddy and dirty". Several of the castaways drank it, with no apparent ill effects.[8]

Survivors of an ill-fated Mexican military colony in 1917 (see below) indicated that they were dependent upon rain for their water supply, catching it in old boats they used for this purpose.[8] Aside from the lagoon and water caught from rain, no other freshwater sources are known to exist.

It has a tropical oceanic climate, with average temperatures of 20–32 °C (68–90 °F). The rainy season occurs from May to October, when it is subject to tropical storms and hurricanes. Surrounding ocean waters are warm, pushed by equatorial and counter-equatorial currents. It has no known natural resources (its guano having been depleted early in the 20th century). Although 115 species of fish have been identified in nearby waters the only economic activity in the area is tuna fishing.

Flora and fauna

Clippertonisland
Coconut palms on Clipperton. The lagoon is visible beyond the trees.

When Snodgrass and Heller visited in 1898, they reported that "no land plant is native to the island".[9] Historical accounts from 1711, 1825 and 1839 show a low grassy or suffrutescent (partially woody) flora. During Sachet's visit in 1958, the vegetation was found to consist of a sparse cover of spiny grass and low thickets, a creeping plant (Ipomoea sp.), and stands of coconut palm. This low-lying herbaceous flora seems to be a pioneer in nature, and most of it is believed to be composed of recently introduced species. Sachet suspected that Heliotropium curassavicum and possibly Portulaca oleracea were native. Coconut palms and pigs were introduced in the 1890s by guano miners. The pigs reduced the crab population, which in turn allowed grassland to gradually cover about 80 percent of the land surface.[10] The elimination of these pigs in 1958—the result of a personal project by Kenneth E. Stager[11]—has caused most of this vegetation to disappear as millions of land crabs (Johngarthia planata) have returned.[12] The result is virtually a sandy desert, with only 674 palms counted by Christian Jost during the "Passion 2001" French mission, and five islets in the lagoon with grass that the terrestrial crabs cannot reach.

Jielbeaumadier crabe de clipperton mjp paris 2014.jpeg
A bright-orange Clipperton crab (Johngarthia planata)

On the north-west side the most abundant plant species are Cenchrus echinatus, Sida rhombifolia, and Corchorus aestuans. These plants compose a shrub cover up to 30 cm in height and are intermixed with Eclipta, Phyllanthus, and Solanum, as well as a taller plant, Brassica juncea. A unique feature is that the vegetation is arranged in parallel rows of species, with dense rows of taller species alternating with lower, more open vegetation. This was assumed to be a result of the phosphate mining method of trench-digging.[4]

The only land animals known to exist are two species of reptiles (Gehyra insulensis, a gecko, and Emoia cyanura, a skink),[13] bright-orange land crabs (Johngarthia planata, sometimes known as the 'Clipperton Crab', although it is also found on other islands in the eastern Pacific), birds, and rats, the rats probably arriving from large fishing boats that were wrecked on the island in 1999 and 2000.[11] Bird species include white terns, masked boobies, sooty terns, brown boobies, brown noddies, black noddies, great frigatebirds, coots, martins (swallows), cuckoos and yellow warblers. Ducks have been reported in the lagoon.[4] The island has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because of the large breeding colony of masked boobies, with 110,000 individual birds recorded.[14] The lagoon harbours millions of isopods, which swimmers say can deliver a painful sting.[15]

A 2005 report by the NOAA's Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla, California, USA indicates that the increased rat presence has led to a decline in both crab and bird populations, causing a corresponding increase in both vegetation and coconut palms. This report urgently recommended eradication of rats so that vegetation might be reduced and the island might return to its "pre-human" state.[11]

History

Discovery and early claims

The island was discovered on Good Friday, 3 April 1711 by Frenchmen Martin de Chassiron and Michel Du Bocage, commanding the French ships La Princesse and La Découverte. It was given the name Île de la Passion (English: Passion Island). They drew up the first map and claimed the island for France. The first scientific expedition took place in 1725 under Frenchman M Bocage, who lived on the island for several months. In 1858, France formally laid claim.[16]

The current name comes from John Clipperton, an English pirate and privateer who fought the Spanish during the early 18th century, and who is said to have passed by the island. Some sources say he used it as a base for his raids on shipping, but there is no documentary evidence.[17]

Other claimants included the United States, whose American Guano Mining Company claimed it under the Guano Islands Act of 1856; Mexico also claimed it due to activities undertaken there as early as 1848–1849. On 17 November 1858 Emperor Napoleon  III annexed it as part of the French colony of Tahiti. This did not settle the ownership question. On 24 November 1897, French naval authorities found three Americans working for the American Guano Company, who had raised the American flag. U.S. authorities denounced their act, assuring the French that they did not intend to assert American sovereignty.[18]

Mexico reasserted its claim late in the 19th century, and on 13 December 1897 sent the gunboat La Demócrata to occupy and annex it. A colony was established, and a series of military governors was posted, the last one being Ramón Arnaud (1906–1916). France insisted on its ownership, and a lengthy diplomatic correspondence between the two nations led to the conclusion of a treaty on March 2, 1909, to seek the arbitration of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, with each nation promising to abide by his determination.[19] His decision was not rendered until 1931.[20]

Guano mining, Mexican colony, and evacuation of 1917

SobrevivientesClipperton
Mexican survivors from Clipperton Island, 1917

The British Pacific Island Company acquired the rights to guano deposits in 1906 and built a mining settlement in conjunction with the Mexican government. That same year, a lighthouse was erected under the orders of President Porfirio Díaz. By 1914 around 100 people—men, women, and children—were living there, resupplied every two months by a ship from Acapulco. With the escalation of fighting in the Mexican Revolution, the regular resupply visits ceased and the inhabitants were left to their own devices.[21]

By 1917 all but one of the male inhabitants had died. Many had perished from scurvy, while others (including Captain Arnaud) died during an attempt to sail after a passing ship to fetch help. Lighthouse keeper Victoriano Álvarez was the last man on the island, together with 15 women and children.[22] Álvarez proclaimed himself "king" and began an orgy of rape and murder, before being killed by Tirza Rendon, who was the recipient of his unwanted attention. Almost immediately after Álvarez's death four women and seven children, the last survivors, were picked up by the US Navy gunship Yorktown on 18 July 1917.[21] No more attempts were made to colonize it, though it was briefly occupied during the 1930s and 1940s.

The story of the Mexican colony has been the subject of several novels, including Ivo Mansmann's Clipperton, Schicksale auf einer vergessenen Insel ("Clipperton, Destinies on a Forgotten Island") in German,[23] Colombian writer Laura Restrepo's La Isla de la Pasión ("Passion Island") in Spanish,[24] and Ana Garcia Bergua's Isla de Bobos ("Island of Fools"), also in Spanish.[25]

Final arbitration of ownership

Mexico and France signed a compromise in 1909, agreeing to submit the dispute over sovereignty over Clipperton Island to binding international arbitration by King Victor Emanuel of Italy. In 1931 Victor Emanuel issued his arbitral decision in the Clipperton Island Case, declaring Clipperton to be a French possession.[18][26][27][28] The French rebuilt the lighthouse and settled a military outpost, which remained for seven years before being abandoned.

Post-World War II developments

The island was abandoned by the end of World War II after being briefly occupied by the US from 1944–45. Since then it has been visited by sports fishermen, patrols of the French Navy, and by Mexican tuna and shark fishermen. There have been infrequent scientific and amateur radio expeditions, and in 1978 Jacques-Yves Cousteau visited with his team of divers and a survivor from the 1917 evacuation to film a television special called Clipperton: The Island that Time Forgot.[29]

It was visited by ornithologist Ken Stager of the Los Angeles County Museum in 1958. Appalled at the depredations visited by feral pigs upon the island's brown booby and masked booby colonies (reduced to 500 and 150 birds, respectively), Stager procured a shotgun and killed all 58 pigs. By 2003, the booby colonies had 25,000 brown boobies and 112,000 masked boobies, the world's second-largest brown booby colony and its largest masked booby colony.[11]

When the independence of Algeria in 1962 threatened French nuclear testing sites in the African nation, the French Ministry of Defence considered Clipperton Island as a possible replacement. This was eventually ruled out due to the hostile climate and remote location. The French explored reopening the lagoon and developing a harbour for trade and tourism during the 1970s but this idea was abandoned. An automatic weather installation was completed on 7 April 1980, with data collected by this station being transmitted by satellite to Brittany.

In 1981, the Academy of Sciences for Overseas Territories recommended that the island have its own economic infrastructure, with an airstrip and a fishing port in the lagoon. This would mean opening up the lagoon by creating a passage in the atoll rim. For this purpose, an agreement was signed with the French government, represented by the High Commissioner for French Polynesia, whereby the island became French state property. In 1986 a meeting took place regarding the establishment of a permanent base for fishing, between the High Commissioner and the survey firm for the development and exploitation of the island (SEDEIC). Taking into account the economic constraints, the distance from markets, and the small size of the atoll, nothing apart from preliminary studies was undertaken. All plans for development were abandoned.

Castaways

In early 1962 the island provided a home to nine crewmen of the sunken tuna clipper MV Monarch, stranded for 23 days from 6 February to 1 March. They reported that the lagoon water was drinkable, though they preferred to drink water from the coconuts they found. Unable to use any of the dilapidated buildings, they constructed a crude shelter from cement bags and tin salvaged from Quonset huts built by the American military 20 years earlier. Wood from the huts was used for firewood, and fish caught off the fringing reef combined with some potatoes and onions they had saved from their sinking vessel to augment the meagre supply of coconuts. The crewmen reported that they tried eating bird's eggs, but found them to be rancid, and they decided after trying to cook a "little black bird" that it did not have enough meat to make the effort worthwhile. Pigs had been eradicated, though the crewmen reported seeing their skeletons around the atoll. The crewmen were eventually discovered by another fishing boat and rescued by the United States Navy destroyer USS Robison.[8]

In 1988, five Mexican fishermen became lost at sea after a storm during their trip along the coast of Costa Rica. They drifted within sight of the island but were unable to reach it.[30] Steven Longbaugh and David Heritage, two American deckhands from a fishing boat based in California, were stranded for three weeks in 1998. They were rescued after rebuilding a survival radio and using distress flares to signal for help.[31]

21st century

Clipperton Waves
Surf on Clipperton Island

The Mexican and French oceanographic expedition SURPACLIP (UNAM Mexico and UNC Nouméa) made extensive studies in 1997. In 2001, French geographer Christian Jost extended the 1997 studies through his French "Passion 2001" expedition, explaining the evolution of the ecosystem, and releasing several papers, a video film, and a website.[32] In 2003 Lance Milbrand[33] stayed for 41 days on a National Geographic Society expedition, recording his adventure in video, photos, and a written diary (see links below).

In 2005, the ecosystem was extensively studied for four months by a scientific mission organized by Jean-Louis Étienne, which made a complete inventory of mineral, plant, and animal species, studied algae as deep as 100 m (330  ft) below sea level, and examined the effects of pollution. A 2008 expedition from the University of Washington's School of Oceanography collected sediment cores from the lagoon to study climate change over the last millennium.[34]

On 21 February 2007, administration was transferred from the High Commissioner of the Republic in French Polynesia to the Minister of Overseas France.[35]

In 2007 a recreational scuba diving expedition explored the reefs surrounding Clipperton and compared the marine life with the reports of the Connie Limbaugh (Scripps) expeditions in 1956 and 1958. Recreational scuba diving expeditions are now made every spring.

During the night of 10 February 2010, the Sichem Osprey, a Maltese chemical tanker, ran aground on its way from the Panama Canal to South Korea. The 170-metre (560 ft) ship contained xylene, a clear, flammable volatile liquid. All 19 crew members were reported safe, and the vessel reported no leaks.[36][37] The vessel was refloated on March 6[38] and returned to service.[39]

In mid-March 2012, the crew from The Clipperton Project [40] noted the widespread presence of refuse, particularly on the northeast shore and around the Rock. Debris including plastic bottles and containers create a potentially harmful environment to its flora and fauna. This trash is common to only two beaches (North East and South West) and the rest of the island is fairly clean. Other refuse has been left over after the occupation by the Americans in 1944–45, the French in 1966–69 and the 2008 scientific expedition.

Amateur radio DX-peditions

The island has long been an attractive destination for amateur radio groups, due to its remoteness, the difficulty of landing, permit requirements, romantic history, and interesting environment. While some radio operation was done ancillary to other expeditions, major DX-peditions include FO0XB (1978), FO0XX (1985), FO0CI (1992), FO0AAA (2000), and TX5C (2008).

One DX-pedition was the Cordell Expedition in March 2013 using the callsign TX5K,[41] organized and led by Robert Schmieder. The project combined radio operations with selected scientific investigations. The team of 24 radio operators made more than 114,000 contacts, breaking the previous record of 75,000. The activity included extensive operation on 6 metres, including EME (Earth–Moon–Earth communication or 'moonbounce') contacts. A notable accomplishment was the use of DXA, a real-time satellite-based online graphic radio log web page that allowed anyone anywhere with a browser to see the radioactivity. Scientific work carried out during the expedition included the first collection and identification of foraminifera, and extensive aerial imaging of the island using kite-borne cameras. The team included two scientists from the French-Polynesian University of Tahiti and a TV crew from the French documentary television series THALASSA.[42]

An April 2015 DX-pedition using callsign TX5P was conducted by Alain Duchauchoy, F6BFH, concurrent with the Passion 2015 scientific expedition to Clipperton Island, and engaging in research of Mexican use of the island during the early 1900s.

Notes

  1. ^ Article 9 — "Loi n° 55-1052 du 6 août 1955 modifiée portant statut des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises et de l'île de Clipperton" [Law No. 55-1052 of 6 August 1955 on the status of French Southern and Antarctic Lands and Clipperton Island]. LegiFrance (in French).
  2. ^ "Décret du 31 janvier 2008 relatif à l'administration de l'île de Clipperton" [31 January 2008 Order Respecting the Administration of Clipperton Island]. LegiFrance (in French).
  3. ^ "Clipperton Island Pictures and History". 2000 DXpedition to Clipperton Island.
  4. ^ a b c d "Eastern Pacific Ocean, southeast of Mexico". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  5. ^ "QSLs and Stories from Previous DXpeditions". 2000 DXpedition to Clipperton Island. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  6. ^ "Clipperton Island". Travel Tips 24. Archived from the original on 2010-01-02.
  7. ^ Lance Milbrand (August 29, 2003). "Clipperton Journal: The Daily Record of Life on a Pacific Atoll". National Geographic News.
  8. ^ a b c Atoll Research Bulletin No. 94 (PDF) (Report). Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. December 15, 1962. pp. 8–10.
  9. ^ Snodgrass & Heller (1902).
  10. ^ Sachet (1962).
  11. ^ a b c d Pitman, Robert L.; Ballance, Lisa T.; Bost, Charly (2005). "Clipperton Island: pigsty, rat hole and booby prize" (PDF). Marine Ornithology. 33 (2): 193–194.
  12. ^ Davie, P. (2015). Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O, eds. "Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860)". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  13. ^ Zug, George R. (2013). Reptiles and Amphibians of the Pacific Islands: A Comprehensive Guide. University of California Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-520-95540-0.
  14. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Clipperton". BirdLife International. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  15. ^ Michael Goode. "1992 Clipperton Island Expedition". 2000 DXpedition to Clipperton Island. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  16. ^ Pike, John. "Clipperton / Ile de la Passion". Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  17. ^ Büch, Boudewijn (2003). Eilanden [Islands] (in Dutch). Netherlands: Singel Pockets. ISBN 978-9-04-133086-4.
  18. ^ a b Emmanuel, V. (1932). "Arbitral Award on the Subject of the Difference Relative to the Sovereignty over Clipperton Island" (PDF). The American Journal of International Law. 26 (2): 390–394. doi:10.2307/2189369. JSTOR 2189369.
  19. ^ "Original treaty between Mexico and France" (PDF). French Foreign Ministry Archives: (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-25.
  20. ^ Dickinson, E. (1933). "The Clipperton Island Case". The American Journal of International Law. 27 (1): 130–133. doi:10.2307/2189797. JSTOR 2189797.
  21. ^ a b "About Clipperton Island". The Clipperton Project. 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-01-17. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  22. ^ Elaine Jobin. "Trip Report and Photos: Clipperton Island – April 10–25, 2010". ElaineJobin.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  23. ^ Mansmann, Ivo (1990). Clipperton : Schicksale auf einer vergessenen Insel : Roman [Clipperton: Destinies on a Forgotten Island: Roman] (in German). Halle: Mitteldeutscher Verlag. ISBN 978-3-35-400709-3.
  24. ^ Restrepo, Laura (1989). La Isla de la Pasión [Passion Island] (in Spanish). Bogotá, Colombia: Planeta. ISBN 978-0-06-081620-9.
  25. ^ Bergua, Ana Garcia (2007). Isla de Bobos [Booby Island] (in Spanish). Mexico City: Planeta Editorial. ISBN 978-9-70-749064-2.
  26. ^ "Affaire de l'île de Clipperton (Mexique contre France)" [Case of Clipperton Island (Mexico v. France)] (PDF). Recueil des Sentences Arbitrales [Reports of International Arbitral Awards] (in French). II. United Nations (published 2006). 28 January 1931. pp. 1105–1111.
  27. ^ John P. Grant & J. Craig Barker, eds. (2009). "Clipperton Island Case". Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195389777.001.0001/acref-9780195389777-e-386 (inactive 2018-06-13). ISBN 978-0-19-538977-7.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  28. ^ William B. Heflin (2000). "Diayou/Senkaku Islands Dispute: Japan and China, Oceans Apart" (PDF). Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal. 1 (18): 11–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  29. ^ Simon Rogerson (July 19, 2006). "Cousteau and the Pit". Dive magazine. Archived from the original on 2009-04-15.
  30. ^ Arias, Ron (1990). Five against the sea: A true story of courage and survival. Viking. ISBN 978-0-67-083092-3.
  31. ^ LaJoie, John. American Maritime Accident Report, 1998
  32. ^ C. Jost (2014). "Bienvenue sur l'île de La Passion...Clipperton!" [Welcome to Passion Island ... Clipperton!] (in French). Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  33. ^ "Lance Milbrand". Milbrand Cinema. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  34. ^ Dan Nelson & Julian Sachs (April 2, 2008). "Clipperton Atoll Expedition – 2008". Retrieved 2012-06-17.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  35. ^ Ben Cahoon. "French Minor Dependencies". World Statesmen.org.
  36. ^ "Re: Probe into Sichem Osprey grounding". Diver.net. 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  37. ^ "Xylene Tanker Runs Aground on Clipperton Island". Reeftools. 2010-02-22. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  38. ^ "Eitzen tanker Sichem Osprey refloated". Lloydslist.com. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  39. ^ "Sichem Osprey". MarineTraffic. 2012-06-13. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  40. ^ "Plastic Surveying and Collection". The Clipperton Project. 2012-03-12. Archived from the original on 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  41. ^ "Clipperton Island — The 2013 Cordell Expedition". TX5K.org.
  42. ^ Robert W. Schmieder (15 June 2013). "Report of the Expedition Leader — The 2013 Cordell Expedition to Clipperton Island" (PDF). cordell.org. Retrieved 2018-01-11.

References

  • Allen, G. R. and D. R. Robertson. 1996. An annotated checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, tropical eastern Pacific. Retrieved (2001) from: <http://www.ots.ac.cr/rbt/revistas/45-2/allen.htm>.
  • Dickinson, Edwin D. The Clipperton Island Case. American Journal of International Law, Vol. 27, No. 1., pp. 130–133.
  • IFRECOR (1998). "State of Coral Reefs in Clipperton Island". Retrieved 2018-01-11 – via ReefBase.
  • Jost, C. and S. Andrefouët, 2006, Review of long term natural and human perturbations and current status of Clipperton Atoll, a remote island of the Eastern Pacific, Pacific Conservation Biology, Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia, 12: 3
  • Jost, C., 2005g, Risques environnementaux et enjeux à Clipperton (Pacifique français). Revue européenne Cybergeo, 314, 01 juillet 2005, cartes et fig., 15 p. https://archive.is/20031121180448/http://193.55.107.45/eurogeo2.htm
  • Jost, C., 2005f, Bibliographie de l'île de Clipperton, île de La Passion (1711–2005). Paris, Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 120–121, juin-déc. 2005, texte et 411 réf., pp. 181–197.
  • Pitman, R. L. and J. R. Jehl, 1998. Geographic variation and reassessment of species limits in the "masked" boobies of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Wilson Bulletin 110:155–170.
  • Sachet, M. H. (March 7, 1962). "Flora and vegetation of Clipperton Island". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 4th. San Francisco: The Academy. 31 (10): 249–307. Retrieved 2018-01-12.
  • Skaggs, Jimmy. 1989. Clipperton. A History of the Island the World Forgot. Walker and Company. New York.
  • Snodgrass, R. E. & Heller, E. (September 30, 1902). "The birds of Clipperton and Cocos Islands". Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galápagos expedition 1898–1899. Vol. IV: 501–520. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  • Tamburini Francesco, La controversia tra Francia e Messico sulla sovranità dell'isola di Clipperton e l'arbitrato di Vittorio Emanuele III (1909–1931), in "Ricordo di Alberto Aquarone, Studi di Storia", Pisa, Edizioni Plus, 2008
  • UNEP/IUCN. 1988. Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 3: Central and Western Pacific. UNEP Regional Seas Directories and Bibliographies. IUCN/UNEP, Gland, Switzerland, Cambridge, UK, and Nairobi, Kenya.

External links

Photo galleries

Visits and expeditions

Acanthurus triostegus

Acanthurus triostegus (convict tang or convict surgeonfish) is a small surgeonfish in family Acanthuridae of the order Perciformes. It is typically about 10 cm (3.9 in) long, but some individuals may grow larger than 20 cm.These tangs are widespread. They are found in the Indo-Pacific except for seas around the Arabian Peninsula, in the Pacific at the Hawaiian Islands, and in the Eastern Pacific they are found in the lower Gulf of California and down to Panama, including the Revillagigedo Islands, Clipperton Island, Cocos Islands, and Galápagos Islands with some reports throughout the Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea.

Administrative divisions of France

The administrative divisions of France are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of French territory. These territories are located in many parts of the world. There are many administrative divisions, which may have political (local government), electoral (districts), or administrative (decentralized services of the state) objectives. All the inhabited territories are represented in the National Assembly, Senate and Economic and Social Council and their citizens have French citizenship.

Central American Pacific Islands

The Central American Pacific Islands is a biogeographical area used in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions. It has the Level 3 code "CPI". It consists of a number of islands off the eastern coast of Central America in the Pacific Ocean: Clipperton Island, Cocos Island and Malpelo Island.Clipperton Island is the most north-westerly, lying off Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Politically it belongs to France. Cocos Island and Malpelo Island lie south of Panama, although Cocos Island belongs to Costa Rica and Malpelo Island to Colombia.

Clarion snake eel

The Clarion snake eel (Myrichthys pantostigmius) is an eel in the family Ophichthidae (worm/snake eels). It was described by David Starr Jordan and Ernest Alexander McGregor in 1898. It is a tropical, marine eel which is known from Mexico, in the eastern central Pacific Ocean. It inhabits shallow waters - at a maximum depth of 20 metres - and is found around rocks and sand. Males can reach a maximum total length of 49.4 centimetres.Due to a lack of known threats and a lack of observed population decline, the IUCN redlist currently lists the Clarion snake eel as Least Concern.

Clathrina passionensis

Clathrina passionensis is a species of calcareous sponge in the genus Clathrina from Clipperton Island.

Clipperton

Clipperton may refer to:

Clipperton Island, an island in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America

Clipperton crab, Johngarthia planata, a species of land crab found on Clipperton Island

Clipperton Fracture Zone, a geological submarine fracture zone of the Pacific Ocean

John Clipperton (1676–1722), English buccaneer, namesake of Clipperton Island

Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse

The Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse is a multilateral Council of Europe treaty whereby states agree to criminalise certain forms of sexual abuse against children. It is the first international treaty that addresses child sexual abuse that occurs within the home or family.

Fodiator rostratus

Fodiator rostratus is a species of flying fish in the genus Fodiator. It reaches a maximum length of 1.9 cm (0.7 in) and is endemic to the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California in the Gulf of California to Peru, including Clipperton Island and the Galapagos Islands.

Galapagos shark

The Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis) is a species of requiem shark, in the family Carcharhinidae, found worldwide. This species favors clear reef environments around oceanic islands, where it is often the most abundant shark species. A large species that often reaches 3.0 m (9.8 ft), the Galapagos reef shark has a typical fusiform "reef shark" shape and is very difficult to distinguish from the dusky shark (C. obscurus) and the grey reef shark (C. amblyrhynchos). An identifying character of this species is its tall first dorsal fin, which has a slightly rounded tip and originates over the rear tips of the pectoral fins.

Galapagos sharks are active predators often encountered in large groups. They feed mainly on bottom-dwelling bony fishes and cephalopods; larger individuals have a much more varied diet, consuming other sharks, marine iguanas, sea lions, and even garbage. As in other requiem sharks, reproduction is viviparous, with females bearing litters of 4–16 pups every 2 to 3 years. The juveniles tend to remain in shallow water to avoid predation by the adults. Galapagos sharks are bold and have behaved aggressively towards humans, and are thus regarded as dangerous. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed this species as near threatened, as it has a slow reproductive rate and there is heavy fishing pressure across its range.

John Clipperton

John Clipperton (1676 – June 1722) was an English privateer who fought against the Spanish in the 18th century. He was involved in two buccaneering expeditions to the South Pacific—the first led by William Dampier in 1703, and the second under his own command in 1719. He used Clipperton Island in the eastern Pacific Ocean as a base for his raids.

Johngarthia planata

Johngarthia planata, sometimes known as the Clipperton crab, is a bright orange species of land crab that lives on Clipperton Island in the eastern Pacific; on Malpelo Island, west of Colombia; and on Socorro Island in the Revillagigedo Islands off Mexico, 900 km north of Clipperton. It is omnivorous and feeds on seaweed (algae), vegetation and sometimes carrion.

The introduction of pigs on Clipperton Island by guano miners in the 1890s reduced the crab population: this in turn allowed grassland to gradually cover about 80 percent of the land surface. The elimination of these pigs in 1958 — as the result of a personal project by Kenneth E. Stager — has caused most of this vegetation to disappear, resulting in the return of millions of J. planata. A 2005 report by the NOAA's Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla, California, USA indicates that the increased rat presence has led to a decline in the crab population, causing a corresponding increase in both vegetation and coconut palms. This report urgently recommended eradication of rats so that vegetation might be reduced and the island might return to its "pre-human" state.

Kenneth E. Stager

Kenneth E. Stager (January 28, 1915 in Uniontown, Pennsylvania – May 13, 2009 in West Los Angeles) was an American ornithologist who served as a curator at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.In 1958, Stager visited Clipperton Island and saw that the breeding colonies of brown boobies and masked boobies were being devastated by feral pigs that had been introduced to the island by earlier travelers. To protect the booby populations, Stager personally shot and killed every pig on the island, for a total of 58; the booby populations subsequently recovered.However, according to the book "Clipperton" by Jimmy M. Skaggs, Stager's expedition arrived outside the nesting season, and apparently did not take into account the seasonal variations in seabird populations present on the island. With no personal experience or scientific measurements, they relied merely upon earlier, non-scientific accounts citing "millions of birds" and the current paucity of resident specimens to arrive at the opinion that the bird population had been devastated by the feral pigs.

Stager's actions served to inspire the ecological group Island Conservation, which focuses on removing introduced species from islands.

List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean

The Paleobiology Database lists no known fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The database also records no fossiliferous stratigraphic units within several regions of the Caribbean like the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Nueva Esparta.

List of islands of France

This is a list of islands of France, including both metropolitan France and French overseas islands.

Nazca booby

The Nazca booby (Sula granti) is a colonial seabird in the family Sulidae, native to the eastern Pacific.

Ramón Arnaud

Captain Ramón Arnaud Vignon (1877–1915) was an officer in the Mexican Army and the last Mexican governor of Clipperton Island.

Terra nullius

Terra nullius (, plural terrae nullius) is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land", and is a principle sometimes used in international law to describe territory that may be acquired by a state's occupation of it.

Thalassoma robertsoni

Thalassoma robertsoni is a species of wrasse only known to occur in the waters around Clipperton Island. It occurs at depths from 3 to 50 m (9.8 to 164.0 ft) on the outer reef slope and shows a preference for strong wave action . This species can reach 7.8 cm (3.1 in) in standard length.

Time in France

Metropolitan France uses Central European Time (heure d'Europe centrale, HEC: UTC+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (heure d'été d'Europe centrale: UTC+02:00). Daylight saving time is observed in Metropolitan France from the last Sunday in March (02:00 CET) to the last Sunday in October (03:00 CEST). With its overseas territories, France uses 12 different time zones, more than any other country in the world.

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