Clintonite

Not to be confused with the political term Clintonite
Clintonite
Clintonite-Spinel-235093
Clintonite with spinel on orthoclase matrix from Amity, New York (size: 9.3 x 5.7 x 3.8 cm)
General
CategoryPhyllosilicate mica group
Formula
(repeating unit)
Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3Si)O10(OH)2
Crystal systemMonoclinic
Crystal classPrismatic (2/m)
or domatic (m)
Space groupC2/m or (?)
Unit cella = 5.204 Å,
b = 9.026 Å,
c = 9.812 Å;
β = 100.35°; Z = 2
Identification
ColorColorless, yellow, orange, red-brown, brown, green
Crystal habitTabular pseudohexagonal crystals; foliated or lamellar radiated; massive
TwinningSpiral polysynthetic twinning
CleavagePerfect on {001}
TenacityBrittle
Mohs scale hardness3.5 on {001}, 6 at angle to {001}
LusterVitreous, pearly, submetallic
StreakWhite, slightly yellow-gray
DiaphaneityTransparent to translucent
Specific gravity3.0 - 3.1
Optical propertiesBiaxial (-)
Refractive indexnα = 1.643 - 1.648 nβ = 1.655 - 1.662 nγ = 1.655 - 1.663
Birefringenceδ = 0.012 - 0.015
PleochroismX = colorless, pale orange, red-brown; Y = Z = pale brownish yellow, pale green
2V angleMeasured: 2° to 40°
References[1][2][3][4]

Clintonite is a calcium magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate mineral. It is a member of the margarite group of micas and the subgroup often referred to as the "brittle" micas. Clintonite has the chemical formula: Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3Si)O10(OH)2. Like other micas and chlorites, clintonite is monoclinic in crystal form and has a perfect basal cleavage parallel to the flat surface of the plates or scales. The Mohs hardness of clintonite is 6.5, and the specific gravity is 3.0 to 3.1. It occurs as variably colored, colorless, green, yellow, red, to reddish-brown masses and radial clusters.

The brittle micas differ chemically from the micas in containing less silica and no alkalis, and from the chlorites in containing much less water; in many respects, they are intermediate between the micas and chlorites. Clintonite and its iron-rich variety xanthophyllite are sometimes considered the calcium analogues of the phlogopites.[5]

Typical formation environment is in serpentinized dolomitic limestones and contact metamorphosed skarns. It occurs with talc, spinel, grossular, vesuvianite, clinopyroxene, monticellite, chondrodite, phlogopite, chlorite, quartz, calcite and dolomite.[4]

Clintonite was first described in 1843 for an occurrence in Orange County, New York. It was named for De Witt Clinton (1769–1828).[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mineralienatlas
  2. ^ Webmineral
  3. ^ a b Mindat with location data
  4. ^ a b Handbook of Mineralogy
  5. ^ Alietti, Elisa, et al., Clintonite-1M: Crystal chemistry and its relationships to closely associated Al-rich phlogopite, American Mineralogist, Volume 82, pages 936–945, 1997. [1]
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Despite Clinton's success at attracting Federalist support, Madison was re-elected with 50.4 percent of the popular vote to his opponent's 47.6%, making the 1812 election the closest election up to that point in the popular vote. Clinton won the Federalist bastion of New England as well as three Mid-Atlantic states, but Madison dominated the South and took Pennsylvania. Though Madison won a relatively comfortable victory in the electoral vote, this was the most closely contested election held between 1800 and 1824.

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George Jarvis Brush

George Jarvis Brush (1831–1912) was an American mineralogist and academic administrator who spent most of his career at Yale University in the Sheffield Scientific School.

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In July 2008, several U.S. mainstream media news outlets cited the allegations in relation to Edwards' future political career, as well as in relation to his chances of being selected as a running mate in Barack Obama's 2008 presidential bid. Then, on August 7, 2008, Edwards admitted to ABC News correspondent, Bob Woodruff, that he did have an extended affair with Hunter, but denied that he was the father of Hunter's baby girl. Hunter's sister claimed that Edwards was the father and publicly asked Edwards to take a paternity test to determine whether the child was his.On January 21, 2010, Edwards issued a statement admitting that he was the father of Hunter's child. After the admission from Edwards that he fathered a child with Hunter, Edwards' wife, Elizabeth Edwards, announced a separation from her husband, with an intention to file for divorce. On January 25, 2010, the existence of an explicit sex tape, featuring Edwards and Hunter, was publicly reported.When Edwards first admitted to the affair, he stated that Elizabeth was in remission from breast cancer. However, it became clear that the affair was still ongoing, even after he and his wife made a joint announcement that her cancer had returned and was found to be incurable. Elizabeth Edwards died on December 7, 2010.

List of gemstones by species

This is a list of gemstones, organized by species and type.

List of minerals

This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.

Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety.

Mineral variety names and mineraloids are to be listed after the valid minerals for each letter.

For a complete listing (about 5,000) of all mineral names, see List of minerals (complete).

List of minerals C (complete)

This list includes those recognised minerals beginning with the letter C. The International Mineralogical Association is the international group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date. This list contains a mixture of mineral names that have been approved since 1959 and those mineral names believed to still refer to valid mineral species (these are called "grandfathered" species).

The list is divided into groups:

Introduction • (Main synonyms)

A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • L • M • N • O • P–Q • R • S • T • U–V • W–X • Y–ZThe data was exported from mindat.org on 29 April 2005; updated up to 'IMA2016'.

The minerals are sorted by name, followed by the structural group (rruff.info/ima and ima-cnmnc by mineralienatlas.de) or chemical class (mindat.org and basics), the year of publication (if it's before of an IMA approval procedure), the IMA approval and the Nickel–Strunz code. The first link is to mindat.org, the second link is to webmineral.com, and the third is to the Handbook of Mineralogy (Mineralogical Society of America).

Abbreviations:

D – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).

Q – questionable/ doubtful (IMA/CNMNC, mindat.org or mineralienatlas.de status).

N – published without approval of the IMA/CNMNC, or just not an IMA approved mineral but with some acceptance in the scientific community nowadays.

I – intermediate member of a solid-solution series.

H – hypothetical mineral (synthetic, anthropogenic, etc.)

ch – incomplete description, hypothetical solid solution end member.

Rd – redefinition of ...

"s.p." – special procedure.

group – a name used to designate a group of species, sometimes only a mineral group name.

no – no link available.

IUPAC – chemical name.

Y: 1NNN – year of publication.

Y: old – known before publications were available.

Mica

The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition. The nearly perfect cleavage, which is the most prominent characteristic of mica, is explained by the hexagonal sheet-like arrangement of its atoms.

The word mica is derived from the Latin word mica, meaning a crumb, and probably influenced by micare, to glitter.

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