Not to be confused with the political term Clintonite
Clintonite with spinel on orthoclase matrix from Amity, New York (size: 9.3 x 5.7 x 3.8 cm)
CategoryPhyllosilicate mica group
(repeating unit)
Crystal systemMonoclinic
Crystal classPrismatic (2/m)
or domatic (m)
Space groupC2/m or (?)
Unit cella = 5.204 Å,
b = 9.026 Å,
c = 9.812 Å;
β = 100.35°; Z = 2
ColorColorless, yellow, orange, red-brown, brown, green
Crystal habitTabular pseudohexagonal crystals; foliated or lamellar radiated; massive
TwinningSpiral polysynthetic twinning
CleavagePerfect on {001}
Mohs scale hardness3.5 on {001}, 6 at angle to {001}
LusterVitreous, pearly, submetallic
StreakWhite, slightly yellow-gray
DiaphaneityTransparent to translucent
Specific gravity3.0 - 3.1
Optical propertiesBiaxial (-)
Refractive indexnα = 1.643 - 1.648 nβ = 1.655 - 1.662 nγ = 1.655 - 1.663
Birefringenceδ = 0.012 - 0.015
PleochroismX = colorless, pale orange, red-brown; Y = Z = pale brownish yellow, pale green
2V angleMeasured: 2° to 40°

Clintonite is a calcium magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate mineral. It is a member of the margarite group of micas and the subgroup often referred to as the "brittle" micas. Clintonite has the chemical formula: Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3Si)O10(OH)2. Like other micas and chlorites, clintonite is monoclinic in crystal form and has a perfect basal cleavage parallel to the flat surface of the plates or scales. The Mohs hardness of clintonite is 6.5, and the specific gravity is 3.0 to 3.1. It occurs as variably colored, colorless, green, yellow, red, to reddish-brown masses and radial clusters.

The brittle micas differ chemically from the micas in containing less silica and no alkalis, and from the chlorites in containing much less water; in many respects, they are intermediate between the micas and chlorites. Clintonite and its iron-rich variety xanthophyllite are sometimes considered the calcium analogues of the phlogopites.[5]

Typical formation environment is in serpentinized dolomitic limestones and contact metamorphosed skarns. It occurs with talc, spinel, grossular, vesuvianite, clinopyroxene, monticellite, chondrodite, phlogopite, chlorite, quartz, calcite and dolomite.[4]

Clintonite was first described in 1843 for an occurrence in Orange County, New York. It was named for De Witt Clinton (1769–1828).[3]

See also


  1. ^ Mineralienatlas
  2. ^ Webmineral
  3. ^ a b Mindat with location data
  4. ^ a b Handbook of Mineralogy
  5. ^ Alietti, Elisa, et al., Clintonite-1M: Crystal chemistry and its relationships to closely associated Al-rich phlogopite, American Mineralogist, Volume 82, pages 936–945, 1997. [1]
1812 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1812, the seventh quadrennial American presidential election, was held from Friday, October 30, 1812 to Wednesday, December 2, 1812. Taking place in the shadow of the War of 1812, incumbent Democratic-Republican President James Madison defeated DeWitt Clinton, who drew support from dissident Democratic-Republicans in the North as well as Federalists. It was the first presidential election to be held during a major war involving the United States.Northern Democratic-Republicans had long been dissatisfied by the Southern dominance of their party, and DeWitt Clinton's uncle, Vice President George Clinton, had unsuccessfully challenged Madison for the party's 1808 presidential nomination. While the May 1812 Democratic-Republican congressional nominating caucus re-nominated Madison, the party's New York caucus, also held in May, nominated Clinton for president. After the United States declared war on the United Kingdom in June 1812, Clinton sought to create a coalition of anti-war Democratic-Republicans and Federalists. With Clinton in the race, the Federalist Party declined to formally put forth a nominee, hoping its members would vote for Clinton, but they did not formally endorse him, fearing that an explicit endorsement of Clinton would hurt the party's fortunes in other races. Federalist Jared Ingersoll of Pennsylvania became Clinton's de facto running mate.

Despite Clinton's success at attracting Federalist support, Madison was re-elected with 50.4 percent of the popular vote to his opponent's 47.6%, making the 1812 election the closest election up to that point in the popular vote. Clinton won the Federalist bastion of New England as well as three Mid-Atlantic states, but Madison dominated the South and took Pennsylvania. Though Madison won a relatively comfortable victory in the electoral vote, this was the most closely contested election held between 1800 and 1824.

American Media, Inc.

American Media, Inc. (A.M.I.), is an American publisher of magazines, supermarket tabloids, and books based in New York City. On December 12, 2018, the U.S. Attorney's Office reported that A.M.I. admitted to paying $150,000 to Karen McDougal in concert with a candidate's presidential campaign for the sole purpose of preventing damaging allegations prior to the 2016 election for President of the United States.

Carly Fiorina 2016 presidential campaign

The 2016 presidential campaign of Carly Fiorina was announced in a video message posted on May 4, 2015. Fiorina was formerly chief executive officer of the technology company Hewlett-Packard, and was the Republican nominee for U.S. Senate in California in 2010.Fiorina suspended her campaign for the Republican presidential nomination on February 10, 2016. On April 27, 2016, Ted Cruz announced that Fiorina would be his running mate should he win the nomination. She joined his campaign days before the Indiana Primary, which he lost. Cruz suspended his campaign that evening, effectively ending Fiorina's vice-presidential bid. After the election, however, Fiorina received one electoral vote for vice president from a faithless elector from Texas; the other 37, as pledged, voted for Mike Pence.

George Jarvis Brush

George Jarvis Brush (1831–1912) was an American mineralogist and academic administrator who spent most of his career at Yale University in the Sheffield Scientific School.

John Edwards extramarital affair

John Edwards is a former United States Senator from North Carolina and a Democratic Party vice-presidential and presidential candidate who, in August 2008, admitted to having had an extramarital affair. The affair was initially reported in late-2007 by The National Enquirer (a U.S. supermarket tabloid newspaper), but was given little attention outside the tabloid press and political blogosphere. The Enquirer cited claims from an anonymous source that Edwards had engaged in an affair with Rielle Hunter, a filmmaker hired to work for his presidential campaign, and that Hunter had a child from the relationship. ABC News reported that Andrew Young, a member of Edwards' campaign team, stated that Edwards asked him to "Get a doctor to fake the DNA results ... and to steal a diaper from the baby so he could secretly do a DNA test to find out if this [was] indeed his child."The allegations were initially published in late-2007 and were denied by both Edwards and Hunter. Young claimed paternity of Hunter's daughter, although no father is listed on the child's birth certificate, and Young has subsequently denied it.

In July 2008, several U.S. mainstream media news outlets cited the allegations in relation to Edwards' future political career, as well as in relation to his chances of being selected as a running mate in Barack Obama's 2008 presidential bid. Then, on August 7, 2008, Edwards admitted to ABC News correspondent, Bob Woodruff, that he did have an extended affair with Hunter, but denied that he was the father of Hunter's baby girl. Hunter's sister claimed that Edwards was the father and publicly asked Edwards to take a paternity test to determine whether the child was his.On January 21, 2010, Edwards issued a statement admitting that he was the father of Hunter's child. After the admission from Edwards that he fathered a child with Hunter, Edwards' wife, Elizabeth Edwards, announced a separation from her husband, with an intention to file for divorce. On January 25, 2010, the existence of an explicit sex tape, featuring Edwards and Hunter, was publicly reported.When Edwards first admitted to the affair, he stated that Elizabeth was in remission from breast cancer. However, it became clear that the affair was still ongoing, even after he and his wife made a joint announcement that her cancer had returned and was found to be incurable. Elizabeth Edwards died on December 7, 2010.

List of gemstones by species

This is a list of gemstones, organized by species and type.

List of minerals

This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.

Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety.

Mineral variety names and mineraloids are to be listed after the valid minerals for each letter.

For a complete listing (about 5,000) of all mineral names, see List of minerals (complete).

List of minerals C (complete)

This list includes those recognised minerals beginning with the letter C. The International Mineralogical Association is the international group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date. This list contains a mixture of mineral names that have been approved since 1959 and those mineral names believed to still refer to valid mineral species (these are called "grandfathered" species).

The list is divided into groups:

Introduction • (Main synonyms)

A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • L • M • N • O • P–Q • R • S • T • U–V • W–X • Y–ZThe data was exported from on 29 April 2005; updated up to 'IMA2016'.

The minerals are sorted by name, followed by the structural group ( and ima-cnmnc by or chemical class ( and basics), the year of publication (if it's before of an IMA approval procedure), the IMA approval and the Nickel–Strunz code. The first link is to, the second link is to, and the third is to the Handbook of Mineralogy (Mineralogical Society of America).


D – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).

Q – questionable/ doubtful (IMA/CNMNC, or status).

N – published without approval of the IMA/CNMNC, or just not an IMA approved mineral but with some acceptance in the scientific community nowadays.

I – intermediate member of a solid-solution series.

H – hypothetical mineral (synthetic, anthropogenic, etc.)

ch – incomplete description, hypothetical solid solution end member.

Rd – redefinition of ...

"s.p." – special procedure.

group – a name used to designate a group of species, sometimes only a mineral group name.

no – no link available.

IUPAC – chemical name.

Y: 1NNN – year of publication.

Y: old – known before publications were available.


The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition. The nearly perfect cleavage, which is the most prominent characteristic of mica, is explained by the hexagonal sheet-like arrangement of its atoms.

The word mica is derived from the Latin word mica, meaning a crumb, and probably influenced by micare, to glitter.

Rex Armistead

Rex Armistead (February 23, 1930 – December 24, 2013) was a private detective, Mississippi Highway Patrol officer, and the leading operative for the since disbanded Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission. Later, he was heavily involved as an investigator for the Arkansas Project, a co-ordinated attempt in the 1990s to investigate then U.S. President Bill Clinton. The project was funded by conservative media billionaire Richard Mellon Scaife.

Taylor Marsh

Taylor Marsh (born 1954), the pseudonym for Michelle Marshall, is an author, political analyst, writer and strategist, as well as founder and publisher of the new media blog Marsh lives in the Washington, D.C. area with her husband. Marsh is best known for being a "die hard Clintonite," as the Washington Post described her in a 2008 profile, "For Clinton, A Following Of 'Marshans'." However, Marsh started out skeptical of Hillary Clinton, as the National Journal's Hotline OnCall revealed early in 2007. "" became a central hub for Hillary supporters during the 2008 primary election cycle. It's part of the reason why The New Republic profile of her in 2008, "The Hugh Hefner of Politics," chronicled Marsh's professional career. She's a contributor to The Huffington Post, as well as other new media sites, reporting from the 2008 Democratic Convention for Pajamas Media, covering SEIU events, and the AFSCME Democratic debate during 2007, and has written for many other new media sites.Taylor Marsh was born in Columbia, Missouri, but spent most of her life growing up in St. Louis, raised by her mother after her father died. She came of age during the modern feminist movement, which imprinted politics in her persona. Gloria Steinem, the woman who impressed Marsh as the spokeswoman for the women's liberation movement, represented a new breed of smart, beautiful women who wanted more than what was possible for their mothers and were determined to make it happen.

Taylor competed in the beauty pageant scene to pay for college, starting with Miss Teenage St. Louis and earning the title of "Miss Friendship" in the Miss Teenage America Pageant. Years later, she was crowned Miss Missouri, of 1974 going to the Miss America 1975 pageant. NOW picketed the year she was in the pageant, confronting Marsh one day in front of reporters as she came out of her hotel. One angry National Organization for Women supporter got in her face and asked: "How can you demean yourself like this?" Marsh simply replied: "You want to pay for my college tuition?"

Marsh went to Stephens College in Columbia, Missouri, a liberal arts school, on scholarship, where she performed in the modern dance troupe and as lead dancer in productions, as well as the drama department's "Sweet Charity", in the lead role of "Charity." Marsh graduated with a B.F.A. in three and one-half years.

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