Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite composed of a microporous arrangement of silica and alumina tetrahedra. It has the complex formula: (Na,K,Ca)2-3Al3(Al,Si)2Si13O36·12H2O. It forms as white to reddish tabular monoclinic tectosilicate crystals with a Mohs hardness of 3.5 to 4 and a specific gravity of 2.1 to 2.2. It commonly occurs as a devitrification product of volcanic glass shards in tuff and as vesicle fillings in basalts, andesites and rhyolites. It was described in 1969 from an occurrence in Owl Canyon, San Bernardino County, California.

It forms a series with heulandite:

  • Clinoptilolite-Ca – heulandite-Ca solid solution series
  • Clinoptilolite-K – heulandite-K solid solution series
  • Clinoptilolite-Na – heulandite-Na solid solution series

Use of clinoptilolite in industry and academia focuses on its ion exchange properties having a strong exchange affinity for ammonium (NH4+). A typical example of this is in its use as an enzyme-based urea sensor.

Research is generally focused around the shores of the Aegean Sea due to the abundance of natural clinoptilolite in easily accessible surface deposits.

The name is derived from the Greek words klino (κλίνω; "oblique"), ptylon (φτερών; "feather"), and lithos (λίθος; "stone").

(repeating unit)
Strunz classification9.GE.05
Crystal systemMonoclinic
Unknown space group
Mohs scale hardness3 12 - 4

See also


  1. ^ Webmineral data
  2. ^ Mindat with location data
Classification of silicate minerals

This list gives an overview of the classification of minerals (silicates) and includes mostly IMA recognized minerals and its groupings. This list complements the alphabetical list on List of minerals (complete) and List of minerals. Rocks, ores, mineral mixtures, non-IMA approved minerals and non-named


Dachiardite-K is a rare zeolite-group mineral with the formula K4(Si20Al4O48)•13H2O. It is the potassium-analogue of dachiardite-Ca and dachiardite-Na, as suggested by the suffix "-K".

Death Busters

The Death Busters (デスバスターズ, Desu Basutāzu) are a group of fictional characters who serve as antagonists in the Sailor Moon manga series written by Naoko Takeuchi. This group comprises the antagonists of the third major story arc, which is called the Infinity in the manga, Sailor Moon S in the first anime adaptation, and Death Busters in Sailor Moon Crystal. They are first introduced in chapter #24 "Infinity 1 – Premonition", originally published in Japan on July 7, 1994. In the Cloverway English adaptation, they are called the "Heart Snatchers".

Originally from the "Tau Ceti Star System" in another dimension, the Death Busters acquire human host bodies to act through with Kaolinite and Professor Tomoe as acting leaders. Based in Mugen Academy (無限学園, Mugen Gakuen, Literally "Infinity Academy"), an elite high school built in the middle of Tokyo's Sankakusu District (三角州区, Sankakusu-ku, Literally "Delta District"), the Death Busters work to gather human souls which would prolong their dying homeworld. Their ultimate goal is the revival of their commander Mistress 9 so they can bring their master Pharaoh 90 to Earth and terraform it into a new home at the cost of the current life forms.


Hectorite is a rare soft, greasy, white clay mineral with a chemical formula of Na0.3(Mg,Li)3Si4O10(OH)2.Hectorite was first described in 1941 and named for an occurrence in the United States near Hector (in San Bernardino County, California, 30 miles east of Barstow.) Hectorite occurs with bentonite as an alteration product of clinoptilolite from volcanic ash and tuff with a high glass content. Hectorite is also found in the beige/brown clay ghassoul, mined in the Atlas Mountains in Morocco.Despite its rarity, it is economically viable as the Hector mine sits over a large deposit of the mineral. Hectorite is mostly used in making cosmetics, but has uses in chemical and other industrial applications, and is a mineral source for refined lithium metal.

Horizon Guyot

Horizon Guyot is a presumably Cretaceous guyot (tablemount) in the Mid-Pacific Mountains, Pacific Ocean. It is an elongated ridge, over 300 kilometres (190 mi) long and 4.3 kilometres (2.7 mi) high, that stretches in a northeast-southwest direction and has two flat tops; it rises to a minimum depth of 1,443 metres (4,730 ft). The Mid-Pacific Mountains lie west of Hawaii and northeast of the Line Islands.

It was probably formed by a hotspot, but the evidence is conflicting. Volcanic activity occurred during the Turonian-Cenomanian eras 100.5–89.8 million years ago and another stage has been dated to have occurred 88–82 million years ago. Between these volcanic episodes, carbonate deposition from lagoonal and reefal environments set in and formed limestone. Volcanic islands developed on Horizon Guyot as well and were colonised by plants.

Horizon Guyot became a seamount during the Coniacian-Campanian period. Since then, pelagic ooze has accumulated on the seamount, forming a thick layer that is further modified by ocean currents and by various organisms that live on the seamount; sediments also underwent landsliding. Ferromanganese crusts were deposited on exposed rocks.

List of IARC Group 3 carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 3: The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.

Further details can be found in the IARC Monographs

List of minerals

This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.

Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety.

Mineral variety names and mineraloids are to be listed after the valid minerals for each letter.

For a complete listing (about 5,000) of all mineral names, see List of minerals (complete).

List of minerals C (complete)

This list includes those recognised minerals beginning with the letter C. The International Mineralogical Association is the international group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date. This list contains a mixture of mineral names that have been approved since 1959 and those mineral names believed to still refer to valid mineral species (these are called "grandfathered" species).

The list is divided into groups:

Introduction • (Main synonyms)

A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • L • M • N • O • P–Q • R • S • T • U–V • W–X • Y–ZThe data was exported from on 29 April 2005; updated up to 'IMA2018'.

The minerals are sorted by name, followed by the structural group ( and ima-cnmnc by, mainly) or chemical class ( and basics), the year of publication (if it's before of an IMA approval procedure), the IMA approval and the Nickel–Strunz code. The first link is to, the second link is to, and the third is to the Handbook of Mineralogy (Mineralogical Society of America).


D – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).

Q – questionable/ doubtful (IMA/CNMNC, or status).

N – published without approval of the IMA/CNMNC, or just not an IMA approved mineral but with some acceptance in the scientific community nowadays.

I – intermediate member of a solid-solution series.

H – hypothetical mineral (synthetic, anthropogenic, suspended approval procedure, etc.)

ch – incomplete description, hypothetical solid solution end member.

Rd – redefinition of ...

"s.p." – special procedure.

group – a name used to designate a group of species, sometimes only a mineral group name.

no – no link available.

IUPAC – chemical name.

Y: 1NNN – year of publication.

Y: old – known before publications were available.


Paulingite or paulingite-K is a rare zeolite mineral that is found in vesicles in the basaltic rocks from the Columbia River near Rock Island Dam, Washington.

Paulingite was named for Linus Carl Pauling (1901–1994), professor of chemistry, California Institute of Technology and accepted by the International Mineralogical Association in 1960.

The early formation in the crystallization sequence and the high water content suggest that paulingite forms from relatively dilute pore fluids. They have a large unit cell of 3.51 nanometers and an isometric crystal system. This is the largest known inorganic unit cell apart from protein structures. Paulingite's characteristic structure can be observed while the remaining water content decomposes. A single crystal X-ray refinement of this chemically different sample material derived three main cation positions, which are inside a so-called paulingite or Calcium (Ca), between 8-rings of neighbouring Barium (Ba), and in the centre of the non-planar 8-rings of the -cage Potassium (K).


Ptilolite may refer to the following zeolite minerals:




Scoria is a highly vesicular, dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown, black or purplish red), and basaltic or andesitic in composition. Scoria is relatively low in density as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles, but in contrast to pumice, all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1, and sinks in water. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts, creating bubbles in the molten rock, some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow, typically near its surface, or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli, blocks and bombs), for instance in Strombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. Chemical analysis of scoria found in Yemen showed that it was mainly composed of volcanic glass with a few zeolites (e.g. clinoptilolite). Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments, and may contain phenocrysts. The word scoria comes from the Greek σκωρία, skōria, rust. A colloquial term for scoria is cinder.

Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a method for producing both inorganic and organic compounds by combustion-like exothermic reactions in solids of different nature. A variant of this method is known as solid state metathesis (SSM). If the reactants, intermediates, and products are all solids, it is known as a solid flame. Since the process occurs at high temperatures, the method is ideally suited for the production of refractory materials with unusual properties, for example: powders, metallic alloys, or ceramics with high purity, corrosion–resistance at high–temperature or super-hardnessity.

The modern SHS process was reported and patented in 1971, although some SHS-like processes were known previously.

Semra Ülkü

Prof. Dr. Semra Ülkü is a Turkish educator and university administrator who served for eight years (1998–2006) as the rector of the İzmir Institute of Technology. She was the second academic to serve in the institution's top position since its founding in 1992.Semra Ülkü received her degrees in chemical engineering from Ankara's Middle East Technical University (B.Sc., 1969, M.Sc., 1971 and Ph.D., 1975). Among her research writings, which have been published in a number of scientific journals, have been:

Evren Altıok; Deniz Bayçın; Oguz Bayraktar; Semra Ülkü (September 2008). "Isolation of polyphenols from the extracts of olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) by adsorption on silk fibroin". Separation and Purification Technology. 62 (2): 342–348. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2008.01.022. hdl:11147/2155.Fehime Cakicioglu-Ozkan; Semra Ulku (January 2005). "The effect of HCl treatment on water vapor adsorption characteristics of clinoptilolite rich natural zeolite". Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 77 (1): 47–53. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2004.08.013. hdl:11147/1997.Ayben Top; Semra Ülkü (October 2004). "Silver, zinc, and copper exchange in a Na-clinoptilolite and resulting effect on antibacterial activity". Applied Clay Science. 27 (1–2): 13–19. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2003.12.002. hdl:11147/4734.Devrim Balköse; Sevgi Ulutan; Fehime Çakıcıoglu Özkan; Sedat Çelebi; Semra Ülkü (September 1998). "Dynamics of water vapor adsorption on humidity-indicating silica gel". Applied Surface Science. 134 (1–4): 39–46. doi:10.1016/S0169-4332(98)00244-X. hdl:11147/4508.Semra Ülkü (1993). Novel Application of Adsorption: Energy Recovery. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis. 80. pp. 685–693. doi:10.1016/S0167-2991(08)63577-6. ISBN 9780444986580.Semra Ülkü; Moghtada Mobedi (1989). Zeolites in Heat Recovery. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis. 49. pp. 511–518. doi:10.1016/S0167-2991(08)61748-6. ISBN 9780444874665.Semra Ülkü (1986). "Adsorption heat pumps". Journal of Heat Recovery Systems. 6 (4): 277–284. doi:10.1016/0198-7593(86)90113-X.


Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts. The term zeolite was originally coined in 1756 by Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who observed that rapidly heating the material, believed to have been stilbite, produced large amounts of steam from water that had been adsorbed by the material. Based on this, he called the material zeolite, from the Greek ζέω (zéō), meaning "to boil" and λίθος (líthos), meaning "stone". The classic reference for the field has been Breck's book Zeolite Molecular Sieves: Structure, Chemistry, And Use.Zeolites occur naturally but are also produced industrially on a large scale. As of December 2018, 245 unique zeolite frameworks have been identified, and over 40 naturally occurring zeolite frameworks are known. Every new zeolite structure that is obtained is examined by the International Zeolite Association Structure Commission and receives a three letter designation.


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