Climate of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom straddles the higher mid-latitudes between 49° and 61° N on the western seaboard of Europe. Since the UK is always in or close to the path of the polar front jet stream, frequent changes in pressure and unsettled weather are typical. Many types of weather can be experienced in a single day. In general the climate of the UK is cool and often cloudy, and high temperatures are infrequent.

The climate in the United Kingdom is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Köppen climate classification system, a classification it shares with most of north-west Europe.[1] Regional climates are influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and latitude. Northern Ireland, Wales and western parts of England and Scotland, being closest to the Atlantic Ocean, are generally the mildest, wettest and windiest regions of the UK, and temperature ranges here are seldom extreme. Eastern areas are drier, cooler, and less windy, and also experience the greatest daily and seasonal temperature variations. Northern areas are generally cooler and wetter, and have slightly larger temperature ranges than southern areas.

The UK is mostly under the influence of the maritime polar air mass from the north-west. Northern Ireland and the west of Scotland are the most exposed to the maritime polar air mass which brings cool moist air; the east of Scotland and north-east England are more exposed to the continental polar air mass which brings cold dry air. The south and south-east of England are the least exposed to polar air masses from the north-west, and on occasion see continental tropical air masses from the south, which bring warm dry air in the summer. On average, the temperature ranges from 18-25 degrees.

If the air masses are strong enough in their respective areas during the summer, there can sometimes be a large difference in temperature between the far north of Scotland (including its islands) and the south-east of England – often a difference of 10–15 °C (18-27 °F) but sometimes as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more. In the height of summer the Northern Isles can have temperatures around 15 °C (59 °F), while the areas around London reach 36 °C (97 °F).

England

England generally has higher maximum and minimum temperatures than the other areas of the UK, though Wales has higher minima from November to February, and Northern Ireland has higher maxima from December to February. England is also sunnier throughout the year, but unlike Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland, the sunniest month is July, with an average of 193.5 hours. It rains on fewer days in every month throughout the year than the rest of the UK, and rainfall totals are less in every month, with the driest month, May, averaging 58.4 mm (2.30 in).[2] The climate of south-west England displays a seasonal temperature variation, although it is less extreme than most of the United Kingdom. Gales are less common in England compared to Scotland; however on some occasions there can be strong winds, and rarely, the remains of Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. Some events such as the Great Storm of 1987 occurred near to the UK and caused damage in England. The prevailing wind direction for England is from the south-west.

The highest temperature recorded in England occurred on 10 August 2003 in Faversham, Kent. The lowest temperature ever recorded in England occurred on 10 January 1982 in Newport, Shropshire.

Absolute temperature ranges
Month Maximum temperatures Minimum temperatures
°C °F Location and date °C °F Location and date
January 17.6 63.7
  • Eynsford, Kent (27 Jan 2003)
−26.1 −15.0
  • Newport, Shropshire (10 Jan 1982)
February 21.2 70.2
  • Kew Gardens, London (26 Feb 2019)[12]
−20.6 −5.1
  • Woburn, Bedfordshire (25 Feb 1947)
March 25.6 78.1
  • Mepal, Cambridgeshire (29 Mar 1968)
−21.1 −6.0
  • Houghall, County Durham (4 Mar 1947)
April 29.4 84.9
  • Camden Square, London (16 Apr 1949)
−15.0 5.0
  • Newton Rigg, Cumbria (2 Apr 1917)
May 32.8 91.0
  • Camden Square, London (22 May 1922)
  • Horsham, West Sussex (29 May 1944)
  • Tunbridge Wells, Kent (29 May 1944)
  • Regent's Park, London (29 May 1944)
−9.4 15.1
  • Lynford, Norfolk (4 May 1941)
  • Lynford, Norfolk (11 May 1941)
June 35.6 96.1
  • Camden Square, London (29 Jun 1957)
  • Southampton (28 Jun 1976)
−5.6 21.9
  • Santon Downham, Norfolk (1 Jun 1962)
  • Santon Downham, Norfolk (3 Jun 1962)
July 36.7 98.1
  • Heathrow, London (1 Jul 2015)
−1.7 28.9
  • Kielder Castle, Northumberland (17 Jul 1965)
August 38.5 101.3
  • Brogdale, Faversham, Kent (10 Aug 2003)
−2.0 28.4
  • Kielder Castle, Northumberland (14 Aug 1994)
September 35.6 96.1
  • Bawtry, Hesley Hall, South Yorkshire (2 Sep 1906)
−5.6 21.9
  • Santon Downham, Norfolk (30 Sep 1969)
  • Grendon Underwood, Buckinghamshire (30 Sep 1969)
October 29.9 85.8
  • Gravesend, Kent (1 Oct 2011)
−10.6 12.9
  • Wark, Northumberland (17 Oct 1993)
November 21.1 70.0
  • Chelmsford & Clacton & Galleywood & Halstead & Writtle, Essex (5 Nov 1938)
  • Cambridge, Cambridgeshire (5 Nov 1938)
  • Mildenhall, Sussex (5 Nov 1938)
  • Tottenham, London (5 Nov 1938)
−15.5 4.1
  • Wycliffe Hall, North Yorkshire (24 Nov 1993)
December 17.7 63.9
  • Chivenor, Devon (2 Dec 1985)
  • Penkridge, Staffordshire (11 Dec 1994)
−25.2 −13.4
  • Shawbury, Shropshire (13 Dec 1981)

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is warmer than Scotland throughout the year. Maximum temperatures are milder than in Wales from December to April, and milder than in England from December to February, but Northern Ireland is cooler during the rest of the year. Sunshine totals in every month are more than those of Scotland, but less than those of the rest of Great Britain. Northern Ireland is drier and has fewer rainy days than Scotland throughout the year, except in May, when it rains on more days. Northern Ireland is also drier than Wales in every month, yet it rains on more days. The rainiest month is January, when 17.8 days have more than 1 mm (0.04 in) of rain on average.[13]

Below is a list of record temperatures for Northern Ireland, according to the UK Met Office.[14]

Absolute temperature ranges
Month Maximum temperatures Minimum temperatures
°C °F Location and date °C °F Location and date
January 16.4 61.5
  • Knockarevan, County Fermanagh (26 Jan 2003)
−17.5 0.5
  • Magherally, County Down (1 Jan 1979)
February 17.8 64.0
  • Bryansford, County Down (13 Feb 1998)[12]
−15.0 5.0
  • Armagh, County Armagh (7 Feb 1895)
March 21.8 71.2
  • Armagh, County Armagh (29 Mar 1965)
−14.8 5.4
  • Katesbridge, County Down (2 Mar 2001)
April 24.5 76.1
  • Boom Hall, County Londonderry (26 Apr 1984)
−8.5 16.7
  • Killylane, County Antrim (10 Apr 1998)
May 28.0 82.4
  • Knockarevan, County Fermanagh (31 May 1947)
−6.5 20.3
  • Moydamlaght, Conty Londonderry (7 May 1982)
June 30.8 87.4
  • Knockarevan, County Fermanagh (30 Jun 1976)
−2.4 27.7
  • Lough Navar Forest, County Fermanagh (4 Jun 1991)
July 30.8 87.4
  • Shaw's Bridge, Belfast, County Antrim (12 Jul 1983)
−1.1 30.0
  • Lislap Forest, County Tyrone (17 Jul 1971)
August 30.6 87.1
  • Tandragee Ballylisk, County Armagh (2 Aug 1995)
−1.9 28.6
  • Katesbridge, County Down (24 Aug 2014)
September 27.6 81.7
  • Armagh, County Armagh (1 Sep 1906)
−3.6 25.5
  • Katesbridge, County Down (29 Sep 2018)
October 24.1 75.4
  • Strabane, County Tyrone (10 Oct 1969)
−7.2 19.0
  • Lough Navar Forest, County Fermanagh (18 Oct 1993)
November 18.5 65.3
  • Murlough, County Down (3 Nov 1979)
  • Murlough, County Down (1 Nov 2007)
  • Murlough, County Down (10 Nov 2015)
−12.2 10.0
  • Lisburn, County Antrim (15 Nov 1919)
December 16.7 62.1
  • Ballykelly, County Londonderry (2 Dec 1948)
−18.7 −1.7
  • Castlederg, County Tyrone (24 Dec 2010)

Scotland

Scotland is generally cool compared to the rest of the UK, and the climate at altitude merges into Cfc on the Köppen system, with average minimum temperatures in January of −0.2 °C (31.6 °F). The Central Lowlands have higher temperatures during the summer than any other part of Scotland, and have also broken some records for the whole of the UK. Aviemore is considered one of the coldest inhabited places, with its inland location and an altitude of about 210 metres. The wettest month in Scotland is January; most months are wetter than other parts of the UK, except for the late spring to early autumn months.

Scotland 1971-2000[15]
Climate chart (explanation)
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11
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6
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Aberdeen
Climate chart (explanation)
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6
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Meteo France [16]
Edinburgh
Climate chart (explanation)
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67
 
 
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47
 
 
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40
 
 
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14
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61
 
 
17
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65
 
 
19
11
 
 
60
 
 
19
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63
 
 
16
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75
 
 
13
6
 
 
62
 
 
9
3
 
 
60
 
 
7
1
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Met Office [17]
Glasgow
Climate chart (explanation)
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148
 
 
7
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7
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9
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63
 
 
11
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67
 
 
14
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66
 
 
16
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73
 
 
19
12
 
 
92
 
 
19
11
 
 
112
 
 
16
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143
 
 
12
6
 
 
126
 
 
9
4
 
 
135
 
 
7
1
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Met Office [18]
Lerwick
Climate chart (explanation)
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142
 
 
5
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120
 
 
5
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6
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70
 
 
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10
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12
7
 
 
66
 
 
14
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83
 
 
14
10
 
 
106
 
 
12
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141
 
 
10
6
 
 
146
 
 
7
4
 
 
142
 
 
6
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Met Office [19]

Wales

Wales has warmer temperatures throughout the year than Northern Ireland and Scotland and has milder winter minima than England, but cooler winter maxima than Northern Ireland. Wales is wetter throughout the year than Northern Ireland and England, but has fewer rainy days than Northern Ireland; meaning that rainfall tends to be more intense. Wales is also drier than Scotland in every month apart from May, June and December, and there are fewer days with rain than in Scotland. Sunshine totals throughout the year are more than that of Scotland and Northern Ireland, but less than that of neighbouring England. May is the sunniest month, averaging 186.8 hours.[20]

Wales 1971-2000[20]
Climate chart (explanation)
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158
 
 
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114
 
 
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9
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11
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15
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17
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106
 
 
19
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16
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13
7
 
 
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9
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173
 
 
7
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Seasons

Spring

Spring is the period from March to May. Spring is generally a calm, cool season, particularly because the Atlantic has lost much of its heat throughout the autumn and winter. As the sun rises higher in the sky and the days get longer, temperatures slowly rise, but the solar effect is mitigated somewhat by the effect of the cool ocean waters and westerly winds that blow across them.

There is a fair chance of snow earlier in the season when temperatures are colder; often in March. Some of the country's heaviest snowfalls of recent years have happened in the first half of March, and snow showers can occur infrequently until mid-April. They have been known to develop as late as mid-May over some areas of the country, such as in 2013 when snow was recorded on 14 May over parts of Staffordshire, Herefordshire and Wales. Snow was also recorded at lower levels in early June 1975. More recently, there was a disruptive snow event between 26 and 29 April 2016 across much of Northern England and Scotland, which was unusually the only significant snow event of the winter 2015/16. Snow, frost and ice can be disruptive and damaging to flowering plants, particularly later in the spring.

Early spring can be quite cold, and occasionally the lowest temperature of the winter can occur in March, as it did at Heathrow Airport on 5 March 2001, 4 March 2006 and 8 March 2011. Temperatures below freezing are not unusual in March, even in the south of the UK. On the other hand, high temperatures above 30 °C are generally rare, but can occur on occasion; most recently on 25 May 2012. It was even hotter on 27 May 2005, when 31.9 °C was recorded in London. Rarely, the hottest day of the year can be in spring. As stated below, 27 May was the hottest day of the year in 2012 in most parts of the UK. In Aberdaron, the hottest day of 2011 was very early on in the year on 21 April. Temperatures in March seldom reach 20 °C, as they did in 1990, 1993, 2012 and 2017, and this temperature is usually reached for the first time in April or May. Throughout spring, there can be large temperature swings between day and night. On 9 April 2017, night-time temperatures fell to just 3 °C at Northolt, but 25 °C was reached in the afternoon. Warmth in spring depends almost entirely on the strength of the sun, and can trigger thunderstorms and downpours.

Mean temperatures in Spring are markedly influenced by latitude. Most of Scotland and the mountains of Wales and northern England are the coolest areas of the UK, with average temperatures ranging from −0.6 to 5.8 °C (30.9 to 42.4 °F).[21] The southern half of England experiences the warmest spring temperatures of between 8.8 and 10.3 °C (47.8 and 50.5 °F).[21]

Summer

Summer lasts from June to August and is the warmest and usually the sunniest season. There can be wide local variations in rainfall totals due to localised thundershowers. These thundershowers mainly occur in southern, eastern, and central England and are less frequent and severe in the north and west.[22] Climatic differences at this time of year are more influenced by latitude and proximity to the ocean. Temperatures are the highest in southern and central areas and lowest in the north. Hot weather above 27 °C in most places and in most years occurs on multiple days per year, but more frequently in London and south-east England where temperatures can exceed 30 °C and less so in parts of Scotland.[23] The record maximum is 38.5 °C (101.3 °F), recorded in Faversham, Kent on 10 August 2003.[24] Heatwaves and occasional droughts occur in Britain such as in the summers of 2003, 2006 and recently in 2018 when forest fires broke out in parts of England.

Autumn

Autumn in the United Kingdom lasts from September to November.[25] The season may be a little more unsettled; as cool polar air moves southwards, it can meet warm air from the tropics and produce an area of disturbance along which the country lies. This can combine with the warm ocean due to heating throughout the spring and summer, to produce some unsettled weather. In addition, the land may become colder than the ocean, resulting in significant amounts of condensation and rain-bearing clouds.

Atlantic depressions at this time can become intense, and winds of hurricane force (greater than 119 km/h or 74 mph) can be recorded. Western areas, closest to the Atlantic, experience these severe conditions more often than eastern areas. Autumn, particularly the latter part, is often the stormiest time of the year. One particularly intense depression was the Great Storm of 1987. A very severe storm also affected the UK on 27 October 2002. At Mumbles Head near Swansea, a maximum sustained wind speed of over 123 km/h was recorded: equivalent to a Category 1 hurricane.[26] The autumn of 2013 was also littered with severe storms, including the St. Jude's Storm on 28 October 2013.

Autumn can sometimes be a cold season - in recent years, very low temperatures and heavy snowfall have been recorded during November 1985, November 1993 and November 2010. There was a new record low of -18.0 °C in Wales on 28 November 2010. At Northolt, in Greater London, the coldest temperature of the year 2016 was set on 30 November. Snow also fell rather widely across the UK on 28–29 October 2008, causing traffic problems where it settled on the M4. Even further south, low temperatures can be recorded, with temperatures well below freezing as far south as Heathrow Airport on 29–31 October 1997, with a lower temperature than any recorded at this station in March, November or December 1997 and even the following January 1998; only on 2 and 4 February 1998 were lower temperatures recorded here that winter. The first frost of the winter usually occurs between October and December; frost is quite unusual in September, when the surrounding ocean is at or near its warmest, except on high ground. It is not particularly unusual for September to be warmer than June, as it was in 1999.[27]

However, the United Kingdom sometimes experiences an "Indian summer", when temperatures, particularly by night, can be very mild and rarely fall below 10 °C (50 °F). Such events are aided by the surrounding Atlantic Ocean and seas being at their warmest, keeping the country in warm air, despite the relatively weak sun. Examples of this were in 1985, 1999, 2005, 2006, 2011[28] and 2016 when September saw above average temperatures which felt more like a continuation of summer than autumn. Autumns since 2000 have generally been very mild, with notable extremes of precipitation; the UK has seen some of its wettest and driest autumns since the millennium. 2011 and 2016 were notable as many areas of the country recorded their highest temperatures of the year in September and October (for example, 28.2 °C at Hawarden on 1 October, 26.3 °C at St. Athan on 2 October 2011 and the UK's highest temperature of 2016 on 13 September with 34.4 °C at Gravesend).[29] On 13 October 2018, temperatures reached 26.5 °C at Donna Nook in Lincolnshire, the latest in the year such a high temperature had been recorded.[30] Temperatures on the night of 12–13 October were also just under 20 °C in London.

Coastal areas in the southern half of England have on average the warmest autumns, with mean temperatures of 10.7 to 13.0 °C (51.3 to 55.4 °F).[31] Mountainous areas of Wales and northern England, and almost all of Scotland, experience mean temperatures between 1.7 and 7.5 °C (35.1 and 45.5 °F).[31]

UK zonemap
Hardiness zones in the British Isles. Based on the USDA system and used to indicate growing conditions for plants.

Winter

Winter in the UK is defined as lasting from December to February. The season is generally cool, wet, windy, and cloudy. Temperatures at night rarely drop below −10 °C (14 °F) and in the day rarely rise above 15 °C (59 °F). Precipitation can be plentiful throughout the season, though snow is relatively infrequent despite the country's high latitude: often the only areas with significant snowfall are the Scottish Highlands and the Pennines, where at higher elevations a colder climate determines the vegetation, mainly temperate coniferous forest, although deforestation has severely decreased the forest area. For a majority of the UK, snow is frequent in winter time yet is usually light and doesn't last long, apart from the higher altitudes, where snow can lie for 1–5 months or even beyond 6 months.[32]

Towards the later part of the season the weather usually stabilises with less wind, less precipitation and lower temperatures. This change is particularly pronounced near the coasts, mainly because the Atlantic Ocean is often at its coldest at this time after being cooled throughout the autumn and the winter. The early part of winter however is often unsettled and stormy; often the wettest and windiest time of the year.

Saddle and sgurr na sgine 06-07 086
Snow cover on The Saddle in the Scottish Highlands

Snow falls intermittently and mainly affects northern and eastern areas, high ground in Wales and especially the mountains of Scotland, where there is often enough snow lying to permit skiing at some of the five Scottish ski resorts. These resorts usually operate between December and April, depending on the snowfall. Frequently in the mountains potent depressions may move in from the north in the form of "polar lows", introducing heavy snow and often blizzard-like conditions to parts of the United Kingdom, particularly Scotland. Blizzards have become rarer in the 21st century, although much of England was affected by one on 30 January 2003. During periods of light winds and high pressure, frost and fog can become a problem and can pose a major hazard to drivers.

Mean winter temperatures in the UK are most influenced by proximity to the sea. The coldest areas are the mountains of Wales and northern England, and inland areas of Scotland, averaging −3.6 to 2.3 °C (25.5 to 36.1 °F).[33] Coastal areas, particularly those in the south and west, experience the mildest winters, on average 5 to 8.7 °C (41.0 to 47.7 °F).[33] Hardiness zones in the UK are high, ranging from zone 7 in the Scottish Highlands, the Pennines and Snowdonia, to zone 10 on the Isles of Scilly. Most of the UK lies in zones 8 or 9.[34] In zone 7, the average lowest temperature each year is between −17.7 and −12.3 °C (0.1 and 9.9 °F), and in zone 10, this figure is between −1.1 and 4.4 °C (30.0 and 39.9 °F).[35]

Snow falls in the UK almost every year, but in small quantities. The UK can suffer extreme winters like 1684, 1740, 1795 (when London had its record lowest temperature of −21.1 °C (−6.0 °F)), 1947 and 1963. In 1962 it snowed on Boxing Day, and snow lasted in most areas until 6 March, with blizzards through February, which had significant and documented effects on the FA Cup - Wrexham were forced to play on sand for one tie. In recent times snow has generally become rarer, but the UK can still get heavy falls, such as in 1978-79, 1981–82, 1986-87 and 1990-91. The winter of 2008/09 produced the heaviest snowfall since 1991 between 1 and 3 February, and the winter of 2009-10 was even more severe, with many parts of the United Kingdom having the coldest and snowiest winters since 1978/79; temperatures plummeted to −22.3 °C (−8.1 °F) at Altnaharra, Sutherland – close to the −22.9 °C (−9.2 °F) recorded in Antarctica in the same period. The lowest temperature ever recorded in the UK was −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F), on 10 January 1982 and 11 February 1895 in Braemar, Scotland and on 30 December 1995 in Altnaharra. December 2010 was the coldest December in 120 years; the CET (Central England Temperature) was -0.7 °C; it was the coldest month since February 1986, and the coldest December since 1890. Many places had heavy snowfall and extreme cold, temperatures regularly fell below −10.0 °C (14.0 °F)) across many areas. However, the cold subsided after Christmas Day, 2010. November 2010 saw an extremely severe cold snap, with lows of −18.0 °C (−0.4 °F)) in Llysdinam on 28 November. The month saw temperatures below average, despite what was actually a very mild first half. Spring 2013 was also cold: March 2013 was the coldest month of the winter (and indeed 2013 as a whole), which is quite striking given that December 2012, January and February 2013 were all also below average in terms of temperature. The following winter was the opposite: in many places, only on 11 and 12 January was any snow recorded (some places having no snow at all), and the entire country was battered by a series of severe depressions and storms. The St Jude's Day storm first affected the UK on 26 October 2013, and many places saw no respite until a high swept across the country on 2 March 2014. Some places in the Somerset Levels remained under water for most of the winter and well into spring. Record-equalling gusts of 142 mph were recorded off the north coast of Scotland on 5 December 2013, with notably severe storms also recorded on 2 November 2013, 24 December 2013, 3 January 2014 and 14 February 2014.

In the 1990s and 2000s, most of the winters were milder and usually wetter than average, with below-freezing daytime temperatures a rare occurrence. In fact, the winter of 1995/1996 was the only one which was defined as below average in terms of the UK as a whole, although February 1991 saw heavy snowfall and January 1997 was cold in the South. The winters of 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11, however, had below or well below average temperatures, with large snowfall amounts widespread and very low temperatures; this was the first series of three consecutive cold winters in the UK since the 1960s. The winter of 2012/13 was very cold too, although the peak of the cold was in March.[36] The winter of 2014/2015 was an oddity: it was generally quiet and sunny. December 2014 and January 2015 were a little milder than the average; February 2015 was close to normal. The winter of 2016/17 was very nearly a very cold winter owing to the presence and position of high pressure, although ultimately only November 2016 was cold widely as a whole. Early December 2016 was cool and January 2017 was cold in the south-east, with much of the rest of England and Wales near the 1961-1990 average. At Northolt, the average daily minimum for January 2017 was below freezing for the first time since December 2010. The winter of 2017/18 was then much colder than average too. However, mild temperatures prevailed during winter 2018/19.[37]

December 2015 was the wettest calendar month ever recorded in the United Kingdom, and January 2016 the second wettest. In these months, some northern and western parts had 2 to 4 times as much rainfall as normal.[38] December 2015 was also the warmest December averaged over the whole UK, and the CET had the warmest December on record. (CET was 9.7 °C, this is warmer than even any March[39]). Most areas of southern England had average monthly temperatures 5-6 °C above normal. Some plants flowered that would normally do so in the spring.[40] Hardly any stations in Wales and Southern England recorded any air frosts, and temperatures were often comparable to those of April or May. The maximum recorded temperature was 17.2 °C at Teignmouth in Devon and Plockton and Achnagart in the Highlands of Scotland on the 16th. The lowest daily mean temperature during December 2015 at Heathrow Airport was 8.2 °C (on 9 December), comparable to the average daily high for the calendar month. However, December 2015 did not break any national records for high temperatures, just failing to reach the maximum England temperature of 17.7 °C recorded on 2 December 1985 in Chivenor, Devon and on 11 December 1994 in Penkridge, Staffordshire.[41] Despite the warmth, it was the dullest December since 1989.[42]

Sunshine and cloud

Newbury and surroundings
A sunny spring day

The average total annual sunshine in the United Kingdom is 1339.7 hours, which is just under 30% of the maximum possible (The maximum hours of sunshine possible in one year is approximately 4476 hours).[43] Generally the United Kingdom sees frequent cloudy skies due to its high latitude and oceanic controlled climate. The lowest sunshine hours are found in northern parts of the country and the highest in the southern parts and southern coast of England. The counties of Dorset, Hampshire, Sussex and Kent are the sunniest areas, which have annual average totals of around 1,750 hours of sunshine per year.[44] Northern, western and mountainous areas are generally the cloudiest areas of the UK, with some mountainous areas receiving fewer than 1,000 hours of sunshine a year.[44]

Plymouth hoe from mountbatten 2
An overcast day in Plymouth, south-west England

Valley areas such as the South Wales Valleys, due to their north-south orientation, receive less sunshine than lowland areas because the mountains on either side of the valley obscure the sun in the early morning and late evening. This is noticeable in winter where there are only a few hours of sunshine. The mountains of Wales, northern England and Scotland can be especially cloudy with extensive mist and fog. Near the coast, sea fog may develop in the spring and early summer. Radiation fog may develop over inland areas of Great Britain and can persist for hours or even days in the winter and can pose a major hazard for drivers and aircraft.

On occasions blocking anticyclones (high pressure systems) may move over the United Kingdom, which can persist for weeks or even months. The subsided, dry air often results in clear skies and few clouds, bringing frosty nights in winter and warm days in the summer.

Average hours of sunshine in winter range from 38–108 hours in some mountainous areas and western Scotland, up to 217 hours in the south and east of England;[45] while average hours of sunshine in summer range from 294–420 hours in northern Scotland and Northern Ireland, to 600–760 hours in southern English coastal counties.[46] The most sunshine recorded in one month was 383.9 hours at Eastbourne (East Sussex) in July 1911.[44]

Atlantic Ocean

One of the greatest influences on the climate of the UK is the Atlantic Ocean and especially the Gulf Stream, which carries warm water up from lower latitudes and modifies the high latitude air masses that pass across the UK. This thermohaline circulation has a powerful moderating and warming effect on the country's climate. This warm water current warms the climate to such a great extent that if the current did not exist then temperatures in winter would be about 10 °C (18 °F) lower than they are today and similar to eastern Russia or Canada near the same latitude. The current allows England to have vineyards at the same latitude that Canada has polar bears. These warm ocean currents also bring substantial amounts of humidity which contributes to the notoriously wet climate that western parts of the UK experience.

Winds

The high latitude and proximity to a large ocean to the west means that the United Kingdom experiences strong winds. The prevailing wind is from the south-west, but it may blow from any direction for sustained periods of time. Winds are strongest near westerly facing coasts and exposed headlands.

Gales — which are defined as winds with speeds of 51 to 101 km/h (32 to 63 mph)— are strongly associated with the passage of deep depressions across the country. The Hebrides experience on average 35 days of gale a year (a day where there are gale-force winds) while inland areas in England and Wales receive fewer than 5 days of gale a year.[44] Areas of high elevation tend to have higher wind speeds than low elevations, and Great Dun Fell in Cumbria (at 857 m or 2,812 ft) averaged 114 days of gale a year during the period 1963 to 1976. The highest gust recorded at a low level in England was 191 km/h (119 mph) at Gwennap Head in Cornwall on 15 December 1979,[44] and a 115 mph gust was also recorded at Shoreham-By-Sea on 16 October 1987. A disputed 122 mph gust was recorded on 16 October 1987 at Gorleston in Norfolk during the Great Storm of 1987. In Scotland, Fraserburgh in Aberdeenshire recorded 229 km/h (142 mph) on 13 February 1989, which was equalled during Cyclone Xaver on 5 December 2013. Wales' highest wind speed gust of 200 km/h (124 mph) was set at Rhoose, Vale of Glamorgan on 28 October 1989. Especially potent storm systems typically affect the UK during autumn and winter, with the winters of 1989/1990 and 2013/2014 particularly notable for the frequency and potency of storm systems.

An unofficial gust of 194 mph was recorded on the Shetland Isles during the New Year's Day Storm on 1 January 1992, and an equal unofficial 194 mph wind gust is claimed to have been set in the Cairngorm Mountains on 19 December 2008.[47]

Barometric pressure plays a role in storm systems. For the United Kingdom, record figures for barometric pressure recordings are:[48]

Highest - 1053.6mb (Aberdeen, 31 January 1902)

Lowest - 925.6mb (Ochtertyre, 26 January 1884)

Notably a low pressure storm system affected the UK with a central pressure of 914.0mb on 10 January 1993, however this figure is not recorded over the UK but out in the Atlantic, despite the system affecting the UK.

Rainfall

Rainfall amounts can vary greatly across the United Kingdom: generally the further west and the higher the elevation, the greater the rainfall. The mountains of Wales, Scotland, the Pennines in Northern England and the moors of South West England are the wettest parts of the country, and in some of these places as much as 4,577 millimetres (180.2 in) of rain can fall annually,[49] making these locations some of the wettest in Europe. The wettest spot in the United Kingdom is Crib Goch, in Snowdonia, which has averaged 4,473 millimetres (176.1 in) rain a year over the past 30 years.[50][51] Most rainfall in the United Kingdom comes from North Atlantic depressions which roll into the country throughout the year from the west or southwest and are particularly frequent and intense in the autumn and winter. They can on occasions bring prolonged periods of heavy rain, and flooding is quite common.

Parts of England are dry in global terms, which is contrary to the stereotypical view—London receives just below 650 millimetres (25.6 in) per annum,[52] which is less than Rome, Sydney, or New York City. In East Anglia it typically rains on about 113 days per year.[53] Most of the south, south-east and East Anglia receive less than 700 millimetres (27.6 in) of rain per year.[44] The English counties of Essex, Cambridgeshire - as well as parts of North Yorkshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire, Suffolk and Norfolk - are amongst the driest in the UK, with an average annual rainfall of around 600 millimetres (23.6 in). This is due to a mild rainshadow effect, due to mountainous parts of the South West, Wales and Cumbria blocking the moist airflow across the country to the east. In some years rainfall totals in Essex and South Suffolk can be below 450 millimetres (17.7 in) (especially areas around Colchester, Clacton and Ipswich) - less than the average annual rainfall in Jerusalem, Beirut and even some semi-arid parts of the world. The rainy reputation of Britain originates from the frequent cool, cloudy and drizzley conditions rather than overall rainfall amounts.

Parts of the United Kingdom have had drought problems in recent years, particularly in 2004-2006 and more recently in 2018. Fires broke out in some areas, even across the normally damp higher ground of north-west England and Wales. The landscape in much of England and east Wales became very parched, even near the coast; water restrictions were in place in some areas.

July 2006 was the hottest month on record for the United Kingdom and much of Europe,[54] however England has had warmer spells of 31 days which did not coincide with a calendar month—in 1976 and 1995. The impact of droughts is increased because the driest parts of England also have the highest population density, and therefore the highest water consumption. The drought in 2006 was eased when in the period from October 2006 to January 2007, which had well above average rainfall.

December 2015 was the wettest month ever recorded in the United Kingdom.[55] The average rainfall for the month was almost doubled.[56]

Temperature

Generally the United Kingdom has cool to mild winters and warm summers with moderate variation in temperature throughout the year. In England the average annual temperature varies from 8.5 °C (47.3 °F) in the north to 11 °C (51.8 °F) in the south, but over the higher ground this can be several degrees lower.[44] This small variation in temperature is to a large extent due to the moderating effect the Atlantic Ocean has—water has a much greater specific heat capacity than air and tends to heat and cool slowly throughout the year. This has a warming influence on coastal areas in winter and a cooling influence in summer.

The ocean is at its coldest in February or early March, thus around coastal areas February is often the coldest month, but inland there is little to choose between February and January as the coldest.[44] Temperatures tend to drop lowest on late winter nights inland, in the presence of high pressure, clear skies, light winds and when there is snow on the ground. On occasions, cold polar or continental air can be drawn in over the United Kingdom to bring very cold weather.

The floors of inland valleys away from warming influence of the sea can be particularly cold as cold, dense air drains into them. A temperature of −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) was recorded under such conditions at Edgmond in Shropshire on 10 January 1982, the coldest temperature recorded in England and Wales. The following day the coldest maximum temperature in England, at −11.3 °C (11.7 °F), was recorded at the same site.[44]

On average the warmest winter temperatures occur on the south and west coasts, however, warm temperatures occasionally occur due to a foehn wind warming up downwind after the crossing the mountains. Temperatures in these areas can rise to 15 °C (59 °F) in winter on rare occasions[57] This is a particularly notable event in northern Scotland, mainly Aberdeenshire, where these high temperatures can occur in midwinter when the sun only reaches about 10° above the horizon.

July is on average the warmest month, and the highest temperatures tend to occur away from the Atlantic in southern, eastern and central England, where summer temperatures can rise above 30 °C (86 °F). It soared to 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in Faversham, Kent on 10 August 2003: the highest temperature ever recorded in the United Kingdom.[58]

Absolute temperature ranges
Country Maximum temperatures Minimum temperatures
°C °F Location and date °C °F Location and date
England 38.5 101.3
  • Faversham, Kent on 10 August 2003
−26.1 −15.0
  • Edgmond, near Newport, Shropshire on 10 January 1982
Wales 35.2 95.4
  • Hawarden Bridge, Flintshire on 2 August 1990
−23.3 −9.9
  • Rhayader, Radnorshire on 21 January 1940
Scotland 32.9 91.2
  • Greycook, Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003
−27.2 −17.0
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire on 11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982
  • Altnaharra, Sutherland on 30 December 1995
Northern Ireland 30.8 87.4
  • Knockarevan, near Belleek, County Fermanagh on 30 June 1976
  • Belfast on 12 July 1983
−18.6 −1.5
  • Castlederg, County Tyrone on 23 December 2010

Severe weather

While the United Kingdom is not particularly noted for extreme weather, it does sometimes occur, and events such as floods and drought may be experienced. The summer of 1976, for example, experienced temperatures as high as 35 °C (95 °F), and it was so dry the country suffered drought and water shortages.[59]

Extended periods of extreme weather, such as the droughts of 1975–1976, summer 2006, and spring 2012, the long hot summers of 1911, 1976, 2003 and 2006, and the winters of 1946–1947, 1962–1963, 2009–2010, and 2010–2011 are often caused by blocking anti-cyclones which can persist for several days, weeks, or even months. In winter they can bring long periods of cold dry weather and in summer long periods of hot dry weather.

Gordon 2006 track
Hurricane Gordon's path

There have also been occurrences of severe flash floods caused by intense rainfall; the most severe was the Lynmouth disaster of 1952 in which 34 people died and 38 houses and buildings were completely destroyed. In the summer of 2004, a severe flash flood devastated the town of Boscastle in Cornwall. However, the worst floods in the United Kingdom in modern times occurred in the North Sea flood of 1953. A powerful storm from the Atlantic moved around Scotland and down the east coast of England. As it moved south it produced a storm surge which was magnified as the North Sea became narrower further south. By the time the storm affected south-east England and the Netherlands, the surge had reached the height of 3.6 metres (12 ft). Over 300 people were killed by the floods in eastern England.

Thunderstorms are most common in southern and eastern England, and least common in the north and west.[60] In London, thunderstorms occur on average 14–19 days a year, while in most of Northern Ireland and the west of Scotland thunderstorms occur on around 3 days a year.[60] Occasionally, thunderstorms can be severe and produce large hailstones as seen in Ottery St Mary, Devon in October 2008, where drifts reached 1.8 metres (5 ft 11 in).[61]

Strong winds occur mainly in the autumn and winter months associated with low pressure systems and Scotland experiences hurricane-force winds in most winters. The Gale of January 1976, Great Storm of 1987 (23 fatalities) and the Burns' Day storm of 1990 (97 fatalities) are particularly severe examples; Scotland saw winds of 142 mph during Cyclone Xaver in 2013.[62]

The most rain recorded to fall on a single day was 279 mm at Martinstown (Dorset) on 18 July 1955,[44] but also 243 mm fell at Bruton, Somerset on 28 June 1917.[63] Heavy rain also fell between 20 and 25 June in 2007; some areas experienced a month's rainfall in one day. Four people died in the flooding and over £1.5 billion of damage to businesses and properties was caused.

Tropical cyclones themselves do not affect the UK due to the seas being too cold – they need temperatures above 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) to remain active. The waters near the UK, the Atlantic Ocean, only have temperatures of 2 to 18 °C (36 to 64 °F),[64] so any tropical cyclone that does come anywhere near the UK has said to have undergone a process called extratropical transition. This now means it is an extratropical cyclone, which the UK frequently experiences. The Great Storm of 1987 was a very deep depression which formed in the Bay of Biscay, which also contained the remnants of Hurricane Floyd.[65] Hurricane Lili of 1996 and Hurricane Gordon of 2006 both crossed the UK as strong extratropical cyclones with tropical storm-force winds, causing transport closures, power-cuts and flooding in Northern Ireland, Scotland and South West England. In 2011, the remnants of Hurricane Katia passed over northwestern Scotland with winds near 70 mph (110 km/h).

Tornadoes

It is internationally recognised that the United Kingdom has a higher incidence of tornadoes, measured by unit area of land, than any other country in the world. Dr T. Theodore Fujita (inventor of the Fujita scale), an American meteorologist, was the first to recognise the UK as the top site for tornadoes in 1973.[66][67] The United Kingdom has at least 33 tornadoes per year,[68] more than any other country in the world relative to its land area.[69] Although most tornadoes are weak, there are occasional destructive events, for example, the Birmingham tornado of 2005 and the London tornado of 2006. Both registered F2 on the Fujita scale and both caused significant damage and injury. The largest ever recorded was thought to have been an F4, again in London in 1091. The most deadly occurred on 28 December 1879. All 74 lives were lost when a passenger train plunged from the Tay Bridge (Tayside) into the Tay Estuary, when the middle section of the bridge collapsed. Although the bridge was poorly constructed and had already been weakened in earlier gales (including the pre-existing winds at the time of the tragedy), the ultimate failure is believed to have been caused by two or three waterspouts which were sighted close to the bridge immediately before the accident.[70] A tornado also developed in London on 3 July 2007.

Nintchdbpict000003669438
Birmingham tornado July 2005

The UK also holds the title for the highest known 'outbreak' of tornadoes outside of the United States. The largest tornado outbreak in Britain is also the largest tornado outbreak known anywhere in Europe. On 23 November 1981, 105 tornadoes were spawned by a cold front in the space of 5.25 hours. Excepting Derbyshire, every county in a triangular area from Gwynedd to Humberside to Essex was hit by at least one tornado, while Norfolk was hit by at least 13. Very fortunately most tornadoes were short-lived and also weak (the strongest was around T5 on the TORRO Tornado Scale) and no deaths occurred.[70]

Southern England between the Isle of Wight and Beachy Head has been recognised as a 'hotspot' for tornadoes and waterspouts.[71] The area (known as 'The Isle of Wight and South Coast Anomaly') has seen significant activity and is thought to be due to the shedding of vortices, downwind of the Isle of Wight, under certain weather conditions.[71]

Climate history

The climate of the United Kingdom has not always been the way it is today. During some periods it was much warmer and in others it was much colder. The last glacial period was a period of extreme cold weather that lasted for tens of thousands of years and ended about 10,000 years ago. During this period the temperature was so low that much of the surrounding ocean froze and a great ice sheet extended over all of the United Kingdom except the south of England (connected to mainland Europe via the dry English Channel) and southern coastal areas of Wales.

The cold period from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries is known as the Little Ice Age.

The temperature records in England are continuous back to the mid 17th century. The Central England temperature (CET) record is the oldest in the world, and is a compound source of cross-correlated records from several locations in central England. Precipitation records date back to the eighteenth century and the modern England and Wales Precipitation series begins in 1766.

A detailed narrative account of the weather of every year from 1913 to 1942, with photographs of plants taken on the same day in each of those years, may be found in Willis (1944).[72]

As with many parts of the world, over the last century the United Kingdom has reported a warming trend in temperatures. While some of this may be due to a recovery from the cooler period of climate mid 20th century (particularly the 1960s) the last 20 years has nonetheless seen an unprecedented level of warm weather.

The averages shown below have been calculated using month CET data from 1659, using periods of 30 years as the WMO advises.[73]

Current data

Below is the data for 2019. It is compared with the all series mean (1659-2018), the average the Met Office uses (1961-1990) and the most recent average (1981-2010).[86][87] These averages are shown below.

Below is the data for 2019.[91]

Month Mean temperature Deviation from 1961-1990 Deviation from 1981-2010 Deviation from 1659-2018
January 4.0 °C (39.2 °F) +0.1 °C (0.18 °F) −0.4 °C (−0.72 °F) +0.7 °C (1.3 °F)
February 6.7 °C (44.1 °F) +2.9 °C (5.2 °F) +2.3 °C (4.1 °F) +2.8 °C (5.0 °F)
March 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) +2.1 °C (3.8 °F) +1.2 °C (2.2 °F) +2.5 °C (4.5 °F)
April 9.1 °C (48.4 °F) +1.2 °C (2.2 °F) +0.6 °C (1.1 °F) +1.2 °C (2.2 °F)
May 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) −0.1 °C (−0.18 °F) −0.5 °C (−0.90 °F) −0.1 °C (−0.18 °F)
June 14.2 °C (57.6 °F) 0.0 °C (0 °F) −0.3 °C (−0.54 °F) −0.1 °C (−0.18 °F)
July
August
September
October
November
December

Monthly temperature extremes

Overall

Absolute temperature ranges
Month Maximum temperatures Minimum temperatures
°C °F Location and date °C °F Location and date
January 18.3 64.9
  • Aber, Gwynedd (27 Jan 1958)
  • Aber, Gwynedd (10 Jan 1971)
  • Aboyne, Aberdeenshire (26 Jan 2003)
  • Inchmarlo, Kincardineshire (26 Jan 2003)
−27.2 −17.0
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (10 Jan 1982)
February 21.2 70.2
  • Kew Gardens, London (26 Feb 2019)[12]
−27.2 −17.0
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (11 Feb 1895)
March 25.6 78.1
  • Mepal, Cambridgeshire (29 Mar 1968)
−22.8 −9.0
  • Logie Coldstone, Aberdeenshire (14 Mar 1958)
April 29.4 84.9
  • Camden Square, London (16 Apr 1949)
−15.0 5.0
  • Newton Rigg, Cumbria (2 Apr 1917)
May 32.8 91.0
  • Camden Square, London (22 May 1922)
  • Horsham, West Sussex (29 May 1944)
  • Tunbridge Wells, Kent (29 May 1944)
  • Regent's Park, London (29 May 1944)
−9.4 15.1
  • Lynford, Norfolk (4 May 1941)
  • Lynford, Norfolk (11 May 1941)
  • Fort Augustus, Highland (15 May 1941)
June 35.6 96.1
  • Camden Square, London (29 Jun 1957)
  • Southampton (28 Jun 1976)
−5.6 21.9
  • Dalwhinnie, Highland (9 Jun 1955)
  • Santon Downham, Norfolk (1 Jun 1962)
  • Santon Downham, Norfolk (3 Jun 1962)
July 36.7 98.1
  • Heathrow, London (1 Jul 2015)
−2.5 27.5
  • Lagganlia, Highland (15 Jul 1977)
August 38.5 101.3
  • Brogdale, Faversham, Kent (10 Aug 2003)
−4.5 23.9
  • Lagganlia, Highland (21 Aug 1973)
September 35.6 96.1
  • Bawtry, Hesley Hall, South Yorkshire (2 Sep 1906)
−6.7 19.9
  • Dalwhinnie, Highland (26 Sep 1942)
October 29.9 85.8
  • Gravesend, Kent (1 Oct 2011)
−11.7 10.9
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (25 Oct 1859)
  • Dalwhinnie, Highland (28 Oct 1948)
November 22.4 72.3
  • Trawsgoed, Ceredigion (1 Nov 2015)
−23.3 −9.9
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (14 Nov 1919)
December 18.3 64.9
  • Achnashellach, Highland (2 Dec 1948)
−27.2 −17.0
  • Altnaharra, Highland (30 Dec 1995)

A disputed temperature of 42 °C was set at an airfield in Wisley, Surrey on 18 July 2006. It has been suggested that the reading for this temperature should in fact have been 32 °C. It is worth noting that the Met Office expected temperatures to surpass the August 2003 record during the July 2006 heatwave, and it is still speculated that both heatwaves did set higher temperatures than those officially recorded.

Maximum Temperatures

Below is a list of the highest and lowest daily maximum temperatures recorded in the UK. This is in accordance with the met office, hence readings from the Cairn Gorm station are not on this list.[14]

Absolute temperature ranges
Month Maximum temperatures Minimum temperatures
°C °F Location and date °C °F Location and date
January 18.3 64.9
  • Aber, Gwynedd (27 Jan 1958)
  • Aber, Gwynedd (10 Jan 1971)
  • Aboyne, Aberdeenshire (26 Jan 2003)
  • Inchmarlo, Kincardineshire (26 Jan 2003)
−19.1 −2.4
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (10 Jan 1982)[93][14]
February 21.2 70.2
  • Kew Gardens, London (26 Feb 2019)[12]
−10.0 14.0
  • Princetown, Devon (1 Feb 1956)
March 25.6 78.1
  • Mepal, Cambridgeshire (29 Mar 1968)
−4.7 23.5
  • Tredegar, Blaenau Gwent (1 Mar 2018)
April 29.4 84.9
  • Camden Square, London (16 Apr 1949)
−1.1 30.0
  • Macclesfield, Cheshire (1 Apr 1917)
May 32.8 91.0
  • Camden Square, London (22 May 1922)
  • Horsham, West Sussex (29 May 1944)
  • Tunbridge Wells, Kent (29 May 1944)
  • Regent's Park, London (29 May 1944)
1.6 34.9
  • Knockanrock, Highland (1 May 1979)
June 35.6 96.1
  • Camden Square, London (29 Jun 1957)
  • Southampton (28 Jun 1976)
5.1 41.2
  • Nunraw Abbey, East Lothian (2 Jun 1975)
July 36.7 98.1
  • Heathrow, London (1 Jul 2015)
7.5 45.5
  • Clashnoir, Banffshire (5 Jul 1978)
August 38.5 101.3
  • Brogdale, Faversham, Kent (10 Aug 2003)
8.9 48.0
  • Ampleforth, North Yorkshire (27 Aug 1919)
  • Bradford, West Yorkshire (28 Aug 1919)
  • Newton Rigg, Cumbria (28 Aug 1919)
  • Lerwick, Shetland (18 Aug 1964)
September 35.6 96.1
  • Bawtry, Hesley Hall, South Yorkshire (2 Sep 1906)
4.4 39.9
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (29 Sep 1915)
October 29.9 85.8
  • Gravesend, Kent (1 Oct 2011)
0.4 32.7
  • Glenmore Lodge, Inverness-shire (17 Oct 1973)
November 22.4 72.3
  • Trawsgoed, Ceredigion (1 Nov 2015)
−11.1 12.0
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (14 Nov 1919)
December 18.3 64.9
  • Achnashellach, Highland (2 Dec 1948)
−15.9 3.4
  • Fyvie Castle, Aberdeenshire (29 Dec 1995)
  • Altnaharra, Highland (22 Dec 2010) [94]

Minimum Temperatures

Below is a list of the highest and lowest daily minimum temperatures recorded in the UK. This is in accordance with the met office, hence readings from the Cairn Gorm station are not on this list.[14]

Absolute temperature ranges
Month Maximum temperatures Minimum temperatures
°C °F Location and date °C °F Location and date
January 13.1 55.6
  • Magilligan, County Londonderry (25 Jan 2016)
−27.2 −17.0
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (10 Jan 1982)
February 13.9 57.0
  • Achnagart, Highland (23 Feb 2019)
−27.2 −17.0
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (11 Feb 1895)
March 14.2 57.6
  • Arthog, Gwynedd (18 Mar 1990)
−22.8 −9.0
  • Logie Coldstone, Aberdeenshire (14 Mar 1958)
April 15.9 60.6
  • Kenley Airfield, Greater London (19 Apr 2018)
−15.0 5.0
  • Newton Rigg, Cumbria (2 Apr 1917)
May 18.9 66.0
  • Folkstone, Kent (31 May 1947)
−9.4 15.1
  • Lynford, Norfolk (4 May 1941)
  • Lynford, Norfolk (11 May 1941)
  • Fort Augustus, Highland (15 May 1941)
June 22.7 72.9
  • Ventnor Park, Isle of White (22 Jun 1976)
−5.6 21.9
  • Dalwhinnie, Highland (9 Jun 1955)
  • Santon Downham, Norfolk (1 Jun 1962)
  • Santon Downham, Norfolk (3 Jun 1962)
July 23.3 73.9
  • St James's Park, London (29 Jul 1948)
−2.5 27.5
  • Lagganlia, Highland (15 Jul 1977)
August 23.9 75.0
  • Brighton, East Sussex (3 Aug 1990)
−4.5 23.9
  • Lagganlia, Highland (21 Aug 1973)
September 21.7 71.1
  • St James's Park, London (5 Sep 1949)
−6.7 19.9
  • Dalwhinnie, Highland (26 Sep 1942)
October 19.4 66.9
  • Aber, Gwynedd (1 Oct 1985)
−11.7 10.9
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (25 Oct 1859)
  • Dalwhinnie, Highland (28 Oct 1948)
November 15.9 60.6
  • Eastbourne, East Sussex (3 Nov 2005)
−23.3 −9.9
  • Braemar, Aberdeenshire (14 Nov 1919)
December 15.0 59.0
  • Hawarden, Flintshire (12 Dec 1994)
−27.2 −17.0
  • Altnaharra, Highland (30 Dec 1995)

Climate change

Central estimates produced by the Met Office predict average annual temperature to increase by 2 °C (4 °F) and the warmest summer day to increase by 3 °C (6 °F) by the 2050s. Average winter rainfall is also likely to increase and most areas will see a slight decrease in annual rainfall.[95]

According to the Met Office, in the UK, the decade from 2000-2009 was the warmest since instrumental record dating started in 1850.[96]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In accordance with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recommendations, the Met Office maintains long-term averages of the UK climate, based on standard 30-year periods. The latest 30-year period is for1981-2010.

References

  1. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. (direct: Final Revised Paper)
  2. ^ a b "England averages". Met Office. 2012. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Manchester 1981-2010 Averages". Met Office. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Birmingham 1971–2000 & Extremes". KNMI. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  5. ^ "Birmingham 1961–1990 & Extremes". NOAA. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  6. ^ "Manchester Ringway 1961-1990". NOAA. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  7. ^ "Manchester ringway extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  8. ^ "Manchester ringway 1981-2010 mean extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  9. ^ "Average snowfall over the UK". Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  10. ^ "Shanklin Climatic Averages 1981-2010". Met Office. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  11. ^ "Hurn Climatic Averages 1981–2010". Met Office. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  12. ^ a b c d "UK beats winter temperature record again". 26 February 2019 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  13. ^ a b "N Ireland 1971–2000 averages". Met Office. 2001. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  14. ^ a b c d https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate-extremes/#?tab=climateExtremes
  15. ^ a b "Scotland 1971–2000 averages". Met Office. 2001. Archived from the original on 30 April 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  16. ^ Meteo France. "METEO %%% par Météo-France- Prévisions météo du monde gratuites à 10 jours".
  17. ^ "Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh climate".
  18. ^ "UK climate". Archived from the original on 25 March 2013.
  19. ^ "UK climate". Archived from the original on 7 October 2012.
  20. ^ a b c "Wales 1971–2000 averages". Met Office. 2001. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
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External links

2009 Great Britain and Ireland floods

The 2009 Great Britain and Ireland floods were a weather event that affected parts of Great Britain and Ireland throughout November and into December 2009. November was the wettest month across the United Kingdom since records began in 1914 and had well above average temperatures. The worst affected area in Great Britain was the English county of Cumbria. The Irish counties of Clare, Cork, Galway and Westmeath were among the worst affected areas of Ireland.

European windstorms bringing heavy rain and gale-force winds caused damage and flooding to the south of Great Britain on 13–14 November. Unsettled weather continued across the south and later to the north. On 19–20 November, many towns and villages in Cumbria and Dumfries and Galloway were affected. A number of bridges collapsed, one of which led to the death of a police officer, who was standing on the bridge when it collapsed. Another death occurred on 21 November as a canoeist was trapped against a tree near Poundsgate, on Dartmoor in Devon. In Powys, there were two deaths, at Newtown and Talybont-on-Usk.

Among the many places severely flooded was the Republic of Ireland's second largest city, Cork. For more than ten days, 40 per cent of its population were without running water after a treatment plant was affected by several metres of flood water. University College Cork was damaged and at least a week of lectures was cancelled. Courts were also disrupted, with some eventually being moved to a hotel. At the time, Taoiseach Brian Cowen described the situation in Ireland as an "ongoing emergency" that was going to get worse.

Birmingham tornado of 2005

The Birmingham tornado of 2005 was one of the strongest tornadoes recorded in the United Kingdom in nearly 30 years, occurring on 28 July 2005 in the suburbs of Birmingham. It formed on a day when strong tornadoes were expected to develop across the Midlands and eastern England. The tornado struck at approximately 2.30pm BST in the Sparkbrook area of the city, also affecting King's Heath, Moseley and Balsall Heath as it carved 7 kilometre-long path through the city. Its main effects were felt in the Ladypool Road which bore the brunt of the damage. Ladypool Primary School was extensively damaged and lost its distinctive Martin & Chamberlain tower. The adjacent St Agatha's Church also suffered some damage. Christ Church (consecrated 1867), on the corner of Dolobran Road and Grantham Road in Sparkbrook was also damaged and has now been demolished.The Met Office and TORRO (The Tornado and Storm Research Organisation) has estimated that the tornado had a general T4 rating on the TORRO scale with a short spell as a T5/6 tornado, which would indicate wind speeds between 137 and 186 mph (220 and 299 km/h), equivalent to an F2 or F3 tornado on the Fujita scale.

There were no fatalities, although there were approximately 19 injuries, three of which were reported to be serious. The tornado uprooted an estimated 1000 trees, removed the roofs of buildings, picked up and deposited cars and caused other damage during its short existence. The total cost of damage has been put at £40 million, making it the most costly tornado in British history.

While the United Kingdom has more reported tornadoes, relative to its land area, than any other country excluding the Netherlands, the vast majority are weak. The strongest recorded tornado in the country struck Portsmouth on 14 December 1810 with a T8 (F4) rating and a top wind speed of 213 to 240 mph (343 to 386 km/h).

British climate

British climate may refer to:

Oceanic climate, a type of climate

Climate of the United Kingdom

Central England temperature

The Central England Temperature (CET) record is a meteorological dataset originally published by Professor Gordon Manley in 1953 and subsequently extended and updated in 1974, following many decades of painstaking work. The monthly mean surface air temperatures, for the Midlands region of England, are given (in degrees Celsius) from the year 1659 to the present.

This record represents the longest series of monthly temperature observations in existence. It is a valuable dataset for meteorologists and climate scientists. It is monthly from 1659, and a daily version has been produced from 1772. The monthly means from November 1722 onwards are given to a precision of 0.1 °C. The earliest years of the series, from 1659 to October 1722 inclusive, for the most part only have monthly means given to the nearest degree or half a degree, though there is a small 'window' of 0.1 degree precision from 1699 to 1706 inclusive. This reflects the number, accuracy, reliability and geographical spread of the temperature records that were available for the years in question.

Climate change in the United Kingdom

Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protest and controversies and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. The government has a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the United Kingdom by 50% on 1990 levels by 2025 and by 80% on 1990 levels by 2050. In May 2019, Parliament declared a 'climate change emergency', however this does not legally compel the government to act.

Climate of London

London, the capital of the United Kingdom and largest city in the United Kingdom, has a temperate oceanic climate, with warm summers and cool winters. While the city annually has modest precipitation, there are long periods of overcast skies and frequent light mist-type precipitation, which may account for the rainy image of the city.

Within the current boundaries of Greater London, the coldest temperature ever recorded was −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) at Northolt in January 1962, and the highest temperature ever recorded was 38.1 °C (100.6 °F), recorded at Kew Gardens during the European Heat Wave of 2003. London averages about 1600 hours of sunshine annually. London's large built-up area creates a microclimate (an "urban heat island"), with heat stored by the city's buildings. Sometimes temperatures are 5 °C (9 °F) warmer in the city than in the surrounding areas. The urban heat island effect creates a microclimate in inner London, as seen in the London weather centre climate table below which features a bordering humid subtropical climate (according to the Trewartha climate classification), compared to the other climate tables below with a cooler oceanic climate.

Climate of south-west England

The climate of south-west England is classed as oceanic (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate is typified by cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) and up to 2,000 millimetres (79 in) on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C (64 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F) and winter minima averages range from 1 °C (34 °F) to 4 °C (39 °F) across the south-west. It is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the area will experience a rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom.

Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation. They have the highest summer maxima temperatures, but winter minima are lower than those of the coast. Snowfalls are more frequent in comparison to the coast, but less so in comparison to higher ground. They experience the lowest wind speeds and the total sunshine hours are between those of the coast and the moors. This typical climate of inland areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region.

In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures, especially in winter, and slightly lower maximum temperatures during the summer. Rainfall is lowest at the coast and snowfall there is rarer than the rest of the region. Coastal areas are the windiest parts of the peninsula and they receive the most sunshine. The general coastal climate becomes more prevalent further south-west into the region.

The south-west has areas of moorland inland such as Bodmin Moor, Dartmoor and Exmoor. Because of their high altitude they experience lower temperatures and more precipitation than the rest of the south west (approximately twice as much rainfall as lowland areas). Both of these factors also result in the highest levels of snowfall and the lowest levels of sunshine. Exposed areas of the moors are windier than the lowlands and can be almost as windy as the coast.

Climate of the British Isles

The British Isles are an archipelago off the northwest coast of Europe, consisting of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland along with smaller surrounding ones. Its position allows dry continental air from Eurasia to meet wetter air from the Atlantic Ocean, which causes the weather to be highly variable, often changing many times during the day. It is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Köppen climate classification system. It is significantly warmer than other regions on the same latitude, due to the warmth provided by the Gulf Stream. Temperatures do not often switch between great extremes, with warm summers and mild winters.

England and Wales Precipitation

The England and Wales Precipitation (EWP) record is a meteorological dataset which was originally published in the journal British Rainfall in 1931 and updated in a greatly revised form by a number of climatologists including Janice Lough, Tom Wigley and Phil Jones during the 1970s and 1980s. The monthly mean rainfall and snowfall for the region of England and Wales are given (in millimetres) from the year 1766 to the present, though the original 1931 dataset went as far back as 1727.

Environment of the United Kingdom

This page is for articles relating to the environment of the United Kingdom.Anti-nuclear movement in the United Kingdom

Conservation in the United Kingdom

Climate of the United Kingdom

Climate change in the United Kingdom

Environmental inequality in the United Kingdom

Environmental issues in the United Kingdom

Environmental direct action in the United Kingdom

Recycling in the United Kingdom

Waste in the United Kingdom

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an independent intergovernmental organisation supported by most of the nations of Europe and is based at Shinfield Park, Reading, United Kingdom. It operates one of the largest supercomputer complexes in Europe and the world's largest archive of numerical weather prediction data.ECMWF was established in 1975, in recognition of the need to pool the scientific and technical resources of Europe's meteorological services and institutions for the production of weather forecasts for medium-range timescales (up to approximately two weeks) and of the economic and social benefits expected from it.

It comprises 22 European countries:

the eighteen founding states of 1975: Austria, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom.

four states that joined since 2010: Iceland (April 2011), Slovenia (December 2012), Serbia (January 2015) and Croatia (January 2016).It also has co-operation agreements with other states: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Morocco, Romania and Slovakia.

The Centre employs about 350 staff, mostly appointed from across the member states and co-operating states.In 2017, the Centre's member states accepted an offer from the Italian Government to move ECMWF's data centre to Bologna, Italy. The new site, a former tobacco factory, would be redesigned by the architecture firm gmp.

List of atmospheric pressure records in Europe

The following is a List of atmospheric pressure records in Europe and the extratropical Northern Atlantic (it does not include localised events, such as those that occur in tornados).

Extreme pressure values in Europe show both seasonal and geographical differentiation. The greatest pressure extremes occur in winter (January) with the deepest lows occurring to the northwest of the continent with a diminishing influence of low pressure to the southeast towards Central Europe and Southeast Europe. This is related to the main cyclonic centre of the Icelandic low, and the North Atlantic extratropical storm track, close to which have been observed some of the lowest atmospheric pressures of the Northern Hemisphere outside the tropics. Extreme high values are favoured over the north east of Europe where intense cold and long winter nights lead to cooling of the air column by radiative cooling causing sinking air reinforcing the development of the highest pressures. Other influences include the semi-permanent Azores high, and Siberian highs.

Met Office

The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office until 2000) is the United Kingdom's national weather service. It is an executive agency and trading fund of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy led by CEO, Penelope Endersby, who took on the role as Chief Executive in December 2018, the first woman to do so. The Met Office makes meteorological predictions across all timescales from weather forecasts to climate change.

National Centre for Atmospheric Science

The National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) is research centre dedicated to the advancement of atmospheric science, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). NCAS is one of the NERC's six research centres, and was formed in 2002 to provide the UK with national capability in atmospheric science research and technology.

NCAS research programmes include:

Climate change science (including climate modelling and predictions)

Atmospheric composition (including air quality modelling and predictions)

Weather (including hazardous weather)

Technologies for observing and modelling the atmosphereNCAS provides UK researchers with scientific facilities and services that enable excellent atmospheric science at a national scale. These include a world-leading aircraft, ground-based instrumentation, and access to computer models and facilities for storing and accessing scientific data. NCAS is not based in one location, its staff, facilities and services are distributed across many UK universities and related institutions.

The head office is based in Leeds: National Centre For Atmospheric Science Fairbairn House 71-75 Clarendon Road Leeds LS2 9PH Tel: +44 (0) 113 34 36408

Outline of the United Kingdom

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; a sovereign state in Europe, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK), or Britain. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, it includes the island of Great Britain—a term also applied loosely to refer to the whole country—the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands

Rainwater harvesting in the United Kingdom

Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is a practice of growing importance in the United Kingdom, particularly in the South East of England where there is less water available per person than in many Mediterranean countries. Rainwater harvesting in the UK is both a traditional and reviving technique for collecting water for domestic uses. This water is generally used for non-hygienic purposes like watering gardens, flushing toilets, and washing clothes. There is a growing demand for larger tank systems collecting between 1000-7500 litres of water. The two main uses for harvested rainwater are botanical uses, like gardening for plant irrigation, and domestic uses, like flushing toilets and running washing machines. Rainwater is almost always collected strictly from the roof, then heavily filtered using either a filter attached to the down pipe, a fine basket filter or for more expensive systems like self-cleaning filters placed in an underground tank. UK homes using some form of rainwater harvesting system can reduce their mains water usage by 50% or more, although a 20-30% saving is more common.

Royal Meteorological Society

The Royal Meteorological Society is a long-established institution that promotes academic and public engagement in weather and climate science. Fellows of the Society must possess relevant qualifications, but Associate Fellows can be lay enthusiasts. Its Quarterly Journal is one of the world's leading sources of original research in the atmospheric sciences.

University of Reading Atmospheric Observatory

The University of Reading Atmospheric Observatory is an atmospheric observatory and weather station located on the Whiteknights Campus of the University of Reading. It forms part of the university's Department of Meteorology.

The observatory has been a centre for atmospheric measurements and meteorological observations since 1970. Keeping of weather records was originally started by the University College of Reading (a precursor of the university) in 1901, with a near complete daily record from January 1908. The location of the site was moved, Originally sited on the London Road campus (nearer central Reading), it was moved to Whiteknights campus in January 1968, but took up its current location (still on Whiteknights campus) in January 1970.

England weather averages
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average maximum temperature
°C (°F)
6.4
(43.5)
6.6
(43.9)
9.1
(48.4)
11.8
(53.2)
15.6
(60.1)
18.6
(65.5)
20.4
(68.7)
20.1
(68.2)
17.5
(63.5)
14.0
(57.2)
9.4
(48.9)
7.3
(45.1)
13.1
(55.6)
Average minimum temperature
°C (°F)
1.2
(34.2)
0.9
(33.6)
2.0
(35.6)
3.9
(39.0)
6.8
(44.2)
9.7
(49.5)
11.7
(53.1)
11.5
(52.7)
9.6
(49.3)
7.2
(44.5)
3.6
(38.5)
2.0
(35.6)
5.9
(42.6)
Sunshine
hours
54.2 74.3 107.6 155.2 190.6 182.6 193.5 182.5 137.2 103.1 64.5 47.3 1492.7
Rainfall
mm (inches)
82.9
(3.3)
60.3
(2.4)
64.0
(2.5)
58.7
(2.3)
58.4
(2.3)
61.8
(2.4)
62.6
(2.5)
69.3
(2.7)
69.7
(2.7)
91.7
(3.6)
88.2
(3.5)
87.2
(3.4)
854.8
(33.7)
Rainfall ≥ 1 mm
days
13.2 10.4 11.5 10.4 9.9 9.6 9.5 9.9 9.9 12.6 13.1 12.7 132.8
Source: Met Office[2] (1981–2010 averages)
Climate data for England
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
21.2
(70.2)
25.6
(78.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.8
(91.0)
35.6
(96.1)
36.7
(98.1)
38.5
(101.3)
35.6
(96.1)
29.9
(85.8)
21.1
(70.0)
17.7
(63.9)
38.5
(101.3)
Record low °C (°F) −26.1
(−15.0)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−15.0
(5.0)
−9.4
(15.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−5.6
(21.9)
−10.6
(12.9)
−15.5
(4.1)
−25.2
(−13.4)
−26.1
(−15.0)
Source: The Met Office[3]
Climate data for Sheffield
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
6.7
(44.1)
9.3
(48.7)
11.8
(53.2)
15.7
(60.3)
18.3
(64.9)
20.8
(69.4)
20.6
(69.1)
17.3
(63.1)
13.3
(55.9)
9.2
(48.6)
7.2
(45.0)
13.1
(55.6)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.6
(34.9)
3.1
(37.6)
4.4
(39.9)
7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50.0)
12.4
(54.3)
12.1
(53.8)
10.0
(50.0)
7.2
(45.0)
4.2
(39.6)
2.6
(36.7)
6.4
(43.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 86.5
(3.41)
63.4
(2.50)
67.9
(2.67)
62.5
(2.46)
55.5
(2.19)
66.7
(2.63)
51.0
(2.01)
63.5
(2.50)
64.3
(2.53)
73.9
(2.91)
77.7
(3.06)
91.9
(3.62)
824.7
(32.47)
Source: The Met Office[3]
Climate data for Birmingham Elmdon, 99m asl, 1971–2000, extremes 1901– (sunshine 1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
(59.0)
18.1
(64.6)
23.7
(74.7)
26.0
(78.8)
30.0
(86.0)
31.6
(88.9)
32.9
(91.2)
34.9
(94.8)
29.8
(85.6)
26.8
(80.2)
18.7
(65.7)
15.7
(60.3)
34.9
(94.8)
Average high °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.1
(44.8)
9.8
(49.6)
12.7
(54.9)
16.0
(60.8)
19.0
(66.2)
21.3
(70.3)
20.8
(69.4)
17.8
(64.0)
13.6
(56.5)
9.5
(49.1)
6.9
(44.4)
13.4
(56.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.1
(34.0)
2.9
(37.2)
4.2
(39.6)
7.1
(44.8)
10.0
(50.0)
12.1
(53.8)
11.8
(53.2)
9.7
(49.5)
6.8
(44.2)
3.8
(38.8)
1.6
(34.9)
6.0
(42.8)
Record low °C (°F) −20.8
(−5.4)
−13.7
(7.3)
−11.6
(11.1)
−6.6
(20.1)
−3.8
(25.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.2
(34.2)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.8
(28.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
−8.9
(16.0)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−20.8
(−5.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 73.2
(2.88)
51.4
(2.02)
55.8
(2.20)
61.9
(2.44)
61.3
(2.41)
65.6
(2.58)
63.8
(2.51)
66.7
(2.63)
68.1
(2.68)
82.7
(3.26)
74.8
(2.94)
79.7
(3.14)
805
(31.7)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.7 60.0 101.5 129.2 178.0 186.2 181.0 166.8 134.3 97.2 64.2 46.9 1,395
Source #1: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute[4]
Source #2: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration[5]
Climate data for Manchester (MAN), elevation: 69 m (226 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1958–2004
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
16.5
(61.7)
21.7
(71.1)
25.1
(77.2)
26.7
(80.1)
31.3
(88.3)
32.2
(90.0)
33.7
(92.7)
28.4
(83.1)
25.6
(78.1)
17.7
(63.9)
15.1
(59.2)
33.7
(92.7)
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.6
(45.7)
10.0
(50.0)
12.6
(54.7)
16.1
(61.0)
18.6
(65.5)
20.6
(69.1)
20.3
(68.5)
17.6
(63.7)
13.9
(57.0)
10.0
(50.0)
7.4
(45.3)
13.5
(56.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
4.6
(40.3)
6.7
(44.1)
8.8
(47.8)
11.9
(53.4)
14.6
(58.3)
16.6
(61.9)
16.4
(61.5)
14.0
(57.2)
10.7
(51.3)
7.1
(44.8)
4.6
(40.3)
10.0
(50.0)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
1.6
(34.9)
3.3
(37.9)
4.9
(40.8)
7.7
(45.9)
10.5
(50.9)
12.6
(54.7)
12.4
(54.3)
10.3
(50.5)
7.4
(45.3)
4.2
(39.6)
1.8
(35.2)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F) −12.0
(10.4)
−13.1
(8.4)
−9.7
(14.5)
−4.9
(23.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
0.8
(33.4)
5.4
(41.7)
3.6
(38.5)
0.8
(33.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
−13.5
(7.7)
−13.5
(7.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.3
(2.85)
51.4
(2.02)
61.2
(2.41)
54.0
(2.13)
56.8
(2.24)
66.1
(2.60)
63.9
(2.52)
77.0
(3.03)
71.5
(2.81)
92.5
(3.64)
81.5
(3.21)
80.7
(3.18)
828.8
(32.63)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 10.3
(4.1)
8.3
(3.3)
2.4
(0.9)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
4.8
(1.9)
25.8
(10.2)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.1 9.7 12.3 11.2 10.4 11.1 10.9 12.0 11.1 13.6 14.1 13.5 142.9
Average snowy days 6 5 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 20
Average relative humidity (%) 87 86 85 85 85 87 88 89 89 89 88 87 88
Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.5 73.9 99.0 146.9 188.3 172.5 179.7 166.3 131.2 99.3 59.5 47.1 1,416.2
Source #1: Met Office[3] NOAA (relative humidity and snow days 1961–1990)[6]
Source #2: KNMI[7][8]
Climate data for Shanklin, Isle of Wight 1981–2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
7.9
(46.2)
10.0
(50.0)
12.3
(54.1)
15.6
(60.1)
18.2
(64.8)
20.4
(68.7)
20.5
(68.9)
18.3
(64.9)
15.0
(59.0)
11.3
(52.3)
8.8
(47.8)
13.9
(56.9)
Average low °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
2.9
(37.2)
4.3
(39.7)
5.4
(41.7)
8.4
(47.1)
11.1
(52.0)
13.4
(56.1)
13.8
(56.8)
11.8
(53.2)
9.5
(49.1)
6.2
(43.2)
4.0
(39.2)
7.9
(46.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 90.8
(3.57)
65.5
(2.58)
66.0
(2.60)
53.4
(2.10)
52.1
(2.05)
46.3
(1.82)
47.1
(1.85)
54.6
(2.15)
70.5
(2.78)
115.0
(4.53)
108.6
(4.28)
101.0
(3.98)
870.9
(34.29)
Average precipitation days 13.1 9.8 10.4 9.1 8.2 7.6 6.9 7.4 8.9 12.7 12.7 12.9 119.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.2 89.8 132.9 201.4 241.1 247.7 262.3 240.9 173.1 122.3 82.6 60.7 1,923
Source: Met Office[10]
Climate data for Bognor Regis 7m asl, 1981-2010, extremes 1960-
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.8
(46.0)
7.9
(46.2)
10.2
(50.4)
12.8
(55.0)
16.0
(60.8)
18.6
(65.5)
20.9
(69.6)
21.0
(69.8)
18.8
(65.8)
15.3
(59.5)
11.3
(52.3)
8.6
(47.5)
14.1
(57.4)
Average low °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
2.7
(36.9)
4.3
(39.7)
5.8
(42.4)
9.0
(48.2)
11.7
(53.1)
14.0
(57.2)
13.9
(57.0)
11.9
(53.4)
9.3
(48.7)
5.8
(42.4)
3.6
(38.5)
7.9
(46.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 76.2
(3.00)
49.6
(1.95)
56.1
(2.21)
46.8
(1.84)
44.4
(1.75)
44.0
(1.73)
44.9
(1.77)
51.3
(2.02)
58.9
(2.32)
91.9
(3.62)
83.4
(3.28)
81.8
(3.22)
729.3
(28.71)
Average rainy days 12.5 9.0 9.7 8.8 7.6 7.3 6.5 7.3 8.3 11.2 11.6 11.7 111.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 75.4 94.6 130.9 198.6 233.0 237.9 252.5 236.7 174.1 131.9 88.5 66.7 1,920.8
Source: Met Office [1]
Climate data for Bournemouth Hurn 10m asl, 1981–2010,[Note 1] Extremes 1960–
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
8.5
(47.3)
11.0
(51.8)
13.5
(56.3)
17.0
(62.6)
19.8
(67.6)
22.1
(71.8)
22.0
(71.6)
19.3
(66.7)
15.3
(59.5)
11.5
(52.7)
8.7
(47.7)
14.8
(58.6)
Average low °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
1.2
(34.2)
2.7
(36.9)
3.8
(38.8)
7.2
(45.0)
9.8
(49.6)
11.9
(53.4)
11.6
(52.9)
9.4
(48.9)
7.1
(44.8)
3.7
(38.7)
1.6
(34.9)
6.0
(42.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 86.9
(3.42)
62.5
(2.46)
64.7
(2.55)
53.9
(2.12)
49.5
(1.95)
51.6
(2.03)
47.8
(1.88)
51.8
(2.04)
65.3
(2.57)
100.7
(3.96)
100.5
(3.96)
100.0
(3.94)
835.2
(32.88)
Average rainy days 12.8 9.6 10.8 9.1 8.8 7.7 7.9 7.3 9.0 12.6 12.5 12.3 120.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.5 84.5 121.4 185.1 218.5 229.5 232.0 214.6 159.1 115.2 80.1 60.3 1,766.8
Source: Met Office[11]
Northern Ireland weather averages
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average maximum temperature °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.1
(44.8)
8.9
(48.0)
11.1
(52.0)
14.2
(57.6)
16.5
(61.7)
18.4
(65.1)
18.1
(64.6)
15.7
(60.3)
12.5
(54.5)
9.2
(48.6)
7.5
(45.5)
12.2
(54.0)
Average minimum temperature °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
1.2
(34.2)
2.3
(36.1)
3.3
(37.9)
5.6
(42.1)
8.3
(46.9)
10.6
(51.1)
10.2
(50.4)
8.3
(46.9)
6.1
(43.0)
3.1
(37.6)
2.0
(35.6)
5.2
(41.4)
Sunshine
hours
41.0 60.1 90.0 140.8 175.9 150.9 139.6 138.0 113.1 85.5 52.8 31.9 1219.7
Rainfall
mm (inches)
119.1
(4.7)
86.5
(3.4)
93.4
(3.7)
70.6
(2.8)
68.1
(2.7)
72.1
(2.8)
73.2
(2.9)
90.8
(3.6)
94.4
(3.7)
114.5
(4.5)
110.5
(4.4)
118.5
(4.7)
1111.6
(43.8)
Rainfall ≥ 1 mm
days
17.8 14.1 16.4 12.4 12.6 12.4 13.1 13.9 14.4 16.4 16.7 16.9 177.0
Source: Met Office[13] (1971–2000 averages)
Climate data for Northern Ireland
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
17.8
(64.0)
21.7
(71.1)
24.5
(76.1)
28.0
(82.4)
30.8
(87.4)
30.8
(87.4)
30.6
(87.1)
27.8
(82.0)
24.1
(75.4)
18.5
(65.3)
16.0
(60.8)
30.8
(87.4)
Record low °C (°F) −17.5
(0.5)
−15.0
(5.0)
−14.8
(5.4)
−8.5
(16.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
−1.1
(30.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
−3.2
(26.2)
−7.2
(19.0)
−12.2
(10.0)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−18.7
(−1.7)
Source: The Met Office[3]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
6.7
 
 
41
32
 
 
4.9
 
 
41
32
 
 
5.5
 
 
44
34
 
 
3.4
 
 
49
36
 
 
3.1
 
 
55
40
 
 
3.4
 
 
59
45
 
 
3.6
 
 
62
49
 
 
4.2
 
 
62
49
 
 
5.5
 
 
57
45
 
 
6.4
 
 
51
41
 
 
6.5
 
 
45
36
 
 
6.7
 
 
42
33
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Scotland weather averages
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average maximum temperature °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
5.2
(41.4)
6.9
(44.4)
9.3
(48.7)
12.8
(55.0)
14.9
(58.8)
16.9
(62.4)
16.6
(61.9)
13.9
(57.0)
10.8
(51.4)
7.4
(45.3)
5.7
(42.3)
10.5
(50.9)
Average minimum temperature °C (°F) -0.2
(31.6)
-0.1
(31.8)
0.9
(33.6)
2.1
(35.8)
4.5
(40.1)
7.2
(45.0)
9.3
(48.7)
9.2
(48.6)
7.2
(45.0)
4.9
(40.8)
2.0
(35.6)
0.5
(32.9)
4.0
(39.2)
Sunshine
hours
30.8 58.1 87.6 128.2 173.2 153.2 145.0 137.5 104.4 74.5 43.2 24.7 1160.4
Rainfall
mm (inches)
170.5
(6.7)
123.4
(4.9)
138.5
(5.5)
86.2
(3.4)
79.0
(3.1)
85.1
(3.4)
92.1
(3.6)
107.4
(4.2)
139.7
(5.5)
162.6
(6.4)
165.9
(6.5)
169.6
(6.7)
1520.1
(59.8)
Rainfall ≥ 1 mm
days
18.6 14.8 17.3 13.0 12.2 12.7 13.3 14.1 15.9 17.7 17.9 18.2 185.8
Source: Met Office[15] (1971–2000 averages)
Climate data for Scotland
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
18.3
(64.9)
23.6
(74.5)
27.2
(81.0)
30.9
(87.6)
32.2
(90.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.9
(91.2)
32.2
(90.0)
27.4
(81.3)
20.6
(69.1)
18.3
(64.9)
32.9
(91.2)
Record low °C (°F) −27.2
(−17.0)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−22.8
(−9.0)
−13.3
(8.1)
−7.7
(18.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−2.5
(27.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
−6.7
(19.9)
−11.7
(10.9)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−27.2
(−17.0)
Source: The Met Office[3]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3
 
 
43
32
 
 
2.1
 
 
43
32
 
 
2.4
 
 
46
34
 
 
2.3
 
 
50
37
 
 
2.2
 
 
55
41
 
 
2.2
 
 
61
46
 
 
2.3
 
 
64
50
 
 
2.4
 
 
64
50
 
 
2.9
 
 
59
46
 
 
3.3
 
 
54
41
 
 
3.3
 
 
46
36
 
 
3.1
 
 
43
34
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.6
 
 
45
34
 
 
1.9
 
 
45
34
 
 
2
 
 
48
36
 
 
1.6
 
 
52
39
 
 
1.9
 
 
57
43
 
 
2.4
 
 
63
48
 
 
2.6
 
 
66
52
 
 
2.4
 
 
66
52
 
 
2.5
 
 
61
48
 
 
3
 
 
55
43
 
 
2.4
 
 
48
37
 
 
2.4
 
 
45
34
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5.8
 
 
45
34
 
 
4.1
 
 
45
34
 
 
4.4
 
 
48
37
 
 
2.5
 
 
52
39
 
 
2.6
 
 
57
45
 
 
2.6
 
 
61
50
 
 
2.9
 
 
66
54
 
 
3.6
 
 
66
52
 
 
4.4
 
 
61
48
 
 
5.6
 
 
54
43
 
 
5
 
 
48
39
 
 
5.3
 
 
45
34
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5.6
 
 
41
34
 
 
4.7
 
 
41
34
 
 
4.9
 
 
43
36
 
 
2.8
 
 
46
37
 
 
2.1
 
 
50
41
 
 
2.3
 
 
54
45
 
 
2.6
 
 
57
50
 
 
3.3
 
 
57
50
 
 
4.2
 
 
54
46
 
 
5.6
 
 
50
43
 
 
5.7
 
 
45
39
 
 
5.6
 
 
43
36
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
6.2
 
 
44
34
 
 
4.5
 
 
44
34
 
 
4.7
 
 
47
36
 
 
3.4
 
 
52
38
 
 
3.2
 
 
58
43
 
 
3.4
 
 
62
47
 
 
3.1
 
 
66
52
 
 
4.2
 
 
66
51
 
 
4.9
 
 
61
48
 
 
6
 
 
55
44
 
 
6.2
 
 
49
39
 
 
6.8
 
 
45
36
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Wales weather averages
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average maximum temperature °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
6.6
(43.9)
8.6
(47.5)
11.0
(51.8)
14.5
(58.1)
16.8
(62.2)
19.1
(66.4)
18.8
(65.8)
16.2
(61.2)
12.8
(55.0)
9.3
(48.7)
7.4
(45.3)
12.3
(54.1)
Average minimum temperature °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
1.1
(34.0)
2.4
(36.3)
3.4
(38.1)
6.0
(42.8)
8.6
(47.5)
10.9
(51.6)
10.7
(51.3)
8.8
(47.8)
6.5
(43.7)
3.7
(38.7)
2.2
(36.0)
5.5
(41.9)
Sunshine
hours
42.8 63.4 94.2 148.0 186.8 167.0 181.8 168.7 125.8 90.4 54.9 35.4 1359.3
Rainfall
mm (inches)
158.4
(6.2)
113.8
(4.5)
118.5
(4.7)
85.7
(3.4)
80.6
(3.2)
86.0
(3.4)
78.3
(3.1)
105.8
(4.2)
123.8
(4.9)
152.9
(6.0)
156.6
(6.2)
173.1
(6.8)
1433.5
(56.4)
Rainfall ≥ 1 mm
days
17.4 13.4 15.1 11.7 11.5 11.4 10.3 12.2 13.0 15.8 16.7 17.1 165.5
Source: Met Office[20] (1971–2000 averages)
Climate data for Wales
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
20.6
(69.1)
23.9
(75.0)
26.2
(79.2)
29.2
(84.6)
33.7
(92.7)
34.6
(94.3)
35.2
(95.4)
31.1
(88.0)
28.2
(82.8)
22.4
(72.3)
18.0
(64.4)
35.2
(95.4)
Record low °C (°F) −23.3
(−9.9)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−11.2
(11.8)
−6.1
(21.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
−1.5
(29.3)
−2.8
(27.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−9.4
(15.1)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−22.7
(−8.9)
−23.3
(−9.9)
Source: The Met Office[3]
Climate data for Central England, 1659-1688
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.9
(37.2)
3.0
(37.4)
4.8
(40.6)
7.4
(45.3)
11.0
(51.8)
14.3
(57.7)
15.7
(60.3)
15.3
(59.5)
12.9
(55.2)
9.7
(49.5)
5.8
(42.4)
3.4
(38.1)
8.84
(47.91)
Source: Met Office[74]
Climate data for Central England, 1689-1717
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
3.4
(38.1)
4.7
(40.5)
7.5
(45.5)
10.5
(50.9)
13.9
(57.0)
15.6
(60.1)
15.4
(59.7)
12.8
(55.0)
9.0
(48.2)
5.8
(42.4)
3.8
(38.8)
8.77
(47.79)
Source: Met Office[75]
Climate data for Central England, 1718-1747
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
3.9
(39.0)
5.2
(41.4)
7.9
(46.2)
11.4
(52.5)
14.6
(58.3)
16.1
(61.0)
15.9
(60.6)
14.0
(57.2)
9.6
(49.3)
6.3
(43.3)
4.1
(39.4)
9.38
(48.88)
Source: Met Office[76]
Climate data for Central England, 1748-1777
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
3.6
(38.5)
5.2
(41.4)
7.8
(46.0)
11.2
(52.2)
14.4
(57.9)
16.0
(60.8)
15.6
(60.1)
13.4
(56.1)
9.4
(48.9)
5.6
(42.1)
4.0
(39.2)
9.06
(48.31)
Source: Met Office[77]
Climate data for Central England, 1778-1807
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
3.9
(39.0)
4.8
(40.6)
8.1
(46.6)
11.5
(52.7)
14.6
(58.3)
16.2
(61.2)
16.0
(60.8)
13.3
(55.9)
9.4
(48.9)
5.3
(41.5)
4.3
(39.7)
9.10
(48.38)
Source: Met Office[78]
Climate data for Central England, 1808-1837
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
4.2
(39.6)
5.5
(41.9)
7.8
(46.0)
11.5
(52.7)
14.4
(57.9)
15.9
(60.6)
15.2
(59.4)
13.1
(55.6)
9.8
(49.6)
6.1
(43.0)
4.0
(39.2)
9.16
(48.49)
Source: Met Office[79]
Climate data for Central England, 1838-1867
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
3.6
(38.5)
5.1
(41.2)
8.0
(46.4)
11.1
(52.0)
14.4
(57.9)
15.5
(59.9)
15.3
(59.5)
13.1
(55.6)
9.5
(49.1)
5.7
(42.3)
4.3
(39.7)
9.09
(48.36)
Source: Met Office[80]
Climate data for Central England, 1868-1897
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
4.3
(39.7)
5.3
(41.5)
8.0
(46.4)
10.8
(51.4)
14.2
(57.6)
15.9
(60.6)
15.4
(59.7)
13.1
(55.6)
8.9
(48.0)
5.9
(42.6)
3.5
(38.3)
9.08
(48.34)
Source: Met Office[81]
Climate data for Central England, 1898-1927
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
4.3
(39.7)
5.4
(41.7)
7.7
(45.9)
11.3
(52.3)
13.9
(57.0)
15.9
(60.6)
15.3
(59.5)
13.1
(55.6)
9.8
(49.6)
5.9
(42.6)
4.6
(40.3)
9.32
(48.78)
Source: Met Office[82]
Climate data for Central England, 1928-1957
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
3.7
(38.7)
5.9
(42.6)
8.4
(47.1)
11.3
(52.3)
14.4
(57.9)
16.2
(61.2)
16.0
(60.8)
13.7
(56.7)
10.0
(50.0)
6.8
(44.2)
4.8
(40.6)
9.58
(49.24)
Source: Met Office[83]
Climate data for Central England, 1958-1987
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
3.6
(38.5)
5.5
(41.9)
8.0
(46.4)
11.1
(52.0)
14.3
(57.7)
16.0
(60.8)
15.7
(60.3)
13.7
(56.7)
10.6
(51.1)
6.6
(43.9)
4.6
(40.3)
9.46
(49.03)
Source: Met Office[84]
Climate data for Central England, 1988-2017
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.0
(41.0)
6.8
(44.2)
8.7
(47.7)
11.9
(53.4)
14.6
(58.3)
16.7
(62.1)
16.5
(61.7)
14.1
(57.4)
11.1
(52.0)
7.3
(45.1)
4.9
(40.8)
10.22
(50.40)
Source: Met Office[85]
Climate data for Central England, all series mean (1659-2018)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
3.9
(39.0)
5.3
(41.5)
7.9
(46.2)
11.2
(52.2)
14.3
(57.7)
16.0
(60.8)
15.6
(60.1)
13.4
(56.1)
9.7
(49.5)
6.1
(43.0)
4.1
(39.4)
9.27
(48.69)
Source: Met Office[88]
Climate data for Central England, 1981-2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
4.4
(39.9)
6.6
(43.9)
8.5
(47.3)
11.7
(53.1)
14.5
(58.1)
16.7
(62.1)
16.4
(61.5)
14.0
(57.2)
10.7
(51.3)
7.1
(44.8)
4.6
(40.3)
9.97
(49.95)
Source: Met Office[89]
Climate data for Central England, 1961-1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
3.8
(38.8)
5.7
(42.3)
8.5
(47.3)
11.2
(52.2)
11.2
(52.2)
16.0
(60.8)
15.8
(60.4)
13.6
(56.5)
10.6
(51.1)
6.5
(43.7)
4.6
(40.3)
9.47
(49.05)
Source: Met Office[90]
Climate data for United Kingdom
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
21.2
(70.2)
25.6
(78.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.8
(91.0)
35.6
(96.1)
36.7
(98.1)
38.5
(101.3)
35.6
(96.1)
29.9
(85.8)
22.4
(72.3)
18.3
(64.9)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
6.6
(43.9)
8.9
(48.0)
11.4
(52.5)
14.7
(58.5)
17.3
(63.1)
19.4
(66.9)
19.1
(66.4)
16.5
(61.7)
12.8
(55.0)
9.1
(48.4)
6.7
(44.1)
12.4
(54.3)
Average low °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
0.7
(33.3)
2.1
(35.8)
3.4
(38.1)
6.0
(42.8)
8.8
(47.8)
10.9
(51.6)
10.8
(51.4)
8.8
(47.8)
6.2
(43.2)
3.3
(37.9)
1.1
(34.0)
5.3
(41.5)
Record low °C (°F) −27.2
(−17.0)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−22.8
(−9.0)
−15.0
(5.0)
−9.4
(15.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−2.5
(27.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
−6.7
(19.9)
−11.7
(10.9)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−27.2
(−17.0)
Source: Met Office[92]
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