Cleveland Public Library

Cleveland Public Library, located in Cleveland, Ohio operates the Main Library on Superior Avenue in downtown Cleveland, 27 branches throughout the city, a mobile library, a Public Administration Library in City Hall, and the Ohio Library for the Blind and Physically Disabled. The library replaced the State Library of Ohio as the location for the Ohio Center for the Book in 2003.[1]

Cleveland Public Library
Cleveland Public Library (July 2018)
Front entrance to the Cleveland Public Library's central location on Superior Avenue
Location325 & 525 Superior Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44114
Size10,557,336 (2016)[2]
Access and use
Circulation5,500,000 (2016)[2]
Other information
DirectorFelton Thomas, Jr. (2009)



In 1811, the idea behind the Cleveland Public Library came "out of small beginnings" when sixteen of Cleveland's sixty-four residents subscribed to its first library, established to distribute the rare printed book. The members read books such as the history of Rome, Lives of the English Poets, Goldsmith's Greece, and Don Quixote. [3]

In 1867, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Dayton Boards of Education petitioned the Ohio General Assembly for authority to levy a tax for the maintenance of free public libraries, permitting boards of education with populations over 20,000 to levy a tax of one-tenth of a mill for each dollar evaluation of their taxable property. Cleveland Superintendent, the Reverend Anson Smyth, who has been doubtfully called the "father of the Cleveland Public Library," supported this law in his Superintendent position, helping in the laws' development.[3]

The new law provided for a Cleveland library that was part of the school system, controlled by the Cleveland Board of Education throughout the first decade of the library's existence, except for the years 1871-1873.[3]

The Cleveland Public Library opened on February 17, 1869 on the third floor of the Northup and Harrington Block on West Superior Avenue, The library room was adjacent to the Cleveland Board of Education, and opened with approximately 5,800 books.[3]

Luther Melville Oviatt was the first librarian at Cleveland Public Library from 1869 to 1875. During his first year, patrons borrowed 65,000 books. Forwarding thinking in his views, Oviatt wanted to provide books that would interest both children and adults, the mechanic, businessman, and scholar. He had open shelves because, "without a catalog, the only way potential borrowers could ascertain what books were available was to look at them." Oviatt resigned in June, 1875, the victim of governing boards or their subsidiaries, who micromanaged daily operations of the library.[3]

Librarian William Howard Brett opened the library's first stand-alone children's room on February 22, 1898.[4] Effie Louise Power was appointed Cleveland's first children's librarian.

In 1915, the Cleveland architectural firm of Walker and Weeks won a competition to design a new library building. Construction of their classical Renaissance design, delayed by the First World War, began in 1923 under Linda Anne Eastman. Eastman (1867–1963) was the first woman to head a major U.S. city library system and a pioneer in the modern library system. She opened bookshelves to patrons, replacing the New York Public Library system in which a librarian fetched the books.

Main Library

Stokes wing
Louis Stokes Wing at the corner of Superior Avenue and East 6th Street in downtown Cleveland.

The Main Library consists of two buildings. The older wing, completed on May 6, 1925 and renovated between 1997 and 1999, has five stories, each as high as two stories in most buildings. The renovations included the restoration of a large mural painted by Ora Coltman in 1934 for the Federal Arts Project. The work was done by the Intermuseum Conservation Association.[5]

In 1957, the library purchased the six-story Plain Dealer Building at 710 Superior Avenue (now the site of the Louis Stokes Wing).[6] The library won passage in November 1957 of a $3 million bond levy to pay for the purchase of the building.[7] The structure was purchased on December 22, 1957,[8] and the new Business and Social Sciences Annex opened on August 24, 1959.[9]

The annex was demolished in 1994 to make way for a second building, named after former Representative Louis Stokes, was dedicated on April 12, 1997. Stokes commented, "This is the most beautiful that I have ever seen." The $65 million structure of fritted glass panels and Georgia marble housed eight million items and two million titles on its grand opening.[10] The two buildings are connected by underground corridor below the Eastman Reading Garden, which was designed by landscape architecture firm OLIN, and includes sculptures by Maya Lin and Tom Otterness.

The Main Library's special collections include the Mears and Murdock baseball collections, the Cleveland Theater collection, the John G. White chess and checkers collection, a 130,000-volume children's collection, a 74,000-volume rare book collection, and collection of 1.3 million photographs.[11]

(Former) Sub-Branches

The Cleveland Public Library had Sub-Branches (Stations) named Alliance, Alta House, Brooklyn, Detroit, Glenville, Hiram House, Lorain, Lorain-Clark, Prospect, South Brooklyn, Superior, and Temple. [12]


Rookwood Installation at Carnegie West
Rookwood Installation at Carnegie-West Branch
Carnegie West
Carnegie-West Branch

During the 1890s, William Howard Brett opened four self-contained branch libraries in leased buildings. As early as 1891, he asked Andrew Carnegie for building permanent structures, but the steel-mogul-turned-philanthropist refused the librarian's requests for 12 years. Brett persisted and in 1903 Carnegie donated $250,000 to build seven branches, including the Woodland Branch. Carnegie was so impressed with Brett's money management of the funds, he eventually increased the amount to $507,000, which built 15 branches-the foundation for what would become one of the largest branch systems in the United States. Children living in the city's poorest manufacturing districts could not visit the library downtown or the new branches, so William Howard Brett and Miss Eastman put small reading collections in neighborhood homes. By 1913, there were 57 "home libraries" in seven different working class districts, serving 11 different nationalities: Italian, Greek, Syrian, Polish, Bohemian, Hungarian, Slovak, Irish, German, Danish, and Norwegian.[3]

Lorain Ave Carnegie Library in the City of Cleveland, Ohio
Lorain Branch
South Branch Carnegie Library in Cleveland, Ohio
South Branch

Currently, the Cleveland Public Library has 27 neighborhood branches located throughout the city in addition to the Ohio Library for the Blind and Physically Disabled:[13]

  1. Addison Branch
  2. Brooklyn Branch
  3. Carnegie-West Branch - the biggest neighborhood branch at 25,000 square feet (2,300 m2)
  4. Collinwood Branch
  5. East 131st Street Branch
  6. Eastman Branch
  7. Fleet Branch
  8. Fulton Branch
  9. Garden Valley Branch
  10. Glenville Branch
  11. Harvard-Lee Branch
  12. Hough Branch
  13. Jefferson Branch
  14. Langston Hughes Branch
  15. Lorain Branch
  16. Martin Luther King, Jr. Branch
  17. Memorial-Nottingham Branch - also the location of the Ohio Library for the Blind and Physically Disabled
  18. Mount Pleasant Branch
  19. Public Administration Library
  20. Rice Branch
  21. Rockport Branch
  22. South Branch
  23. South Brooklyn Branch
  24. Sterling Branch
  25. Union Branch
  26. Walz Branch
  27. West Park Branch
  28. Woodland Branch
Sensory Garden at the Ohio Library for the Blind and Physically Disabled
Sensory Garden at the Ohio Library for the Blind and Physically Disabled

A Sensory Garden is also adjacent to the Ohio Library for the Blind and Physically Disabled. The garden was first organized in 1998 and was significantly enlarged the following year. The garden features plants specifically for the tactile sensations they provide and unique scents.[14]

Notable Art and Architecture

The Public Works of Art Project came to Cleveland in 1933, with far-reaching lines of job-seeking artists extending around the Cleveland Museum of Art. Linda Eastman was invited to consult with Cleveland Museum of Art Director William Milliken. What resulted from this interaction were murals of Willam Sommer's "The City in 1833", Donald Bayard's "Early Transportation", and Ora Coltman's "The Dominance of the City." Linda Eastman believed if art could lead readers to books, if art could enlighten and educate in itself, than art was acceptable at the Cleveland Public Library. [15]

To complete the decoration of Brett Hall, Cleveland Public Library partnered with the Cleveland Area Arts Council to select three new artists to paint new murals for the walls. "Sommer's Sun" by Edwin Mieczkowski's, Christopher Pekoc's "Night Sky", and "Public Square" by Robert Jergens.[16]

Terrestrial Globe created by Sterling Bronze Company
Terrestrial Globe

Hanging from the Main Library entrance hall is a large terrestrial pearl-gray art glass globe made by the Sterling Bronze Company in 1925. This globe is based on a Leonardo da Vinci map, now housed at Windsor Castle. The map is one of earliest to depict the Americas-with North America indicated simply by small islands.[17]

The portraits of former members of Congress Louis Stokes and Stephanie Tubbs Jones are housed at the Cleveland Public Library, painted by artist Khaz Ra'el.[18]

Recent History

In 2002, the Cleveland Public Library had annual attendance of 804,692 and an annual circulation of 1,698,928 items. In 2016, the library's collection totaled 10,557,336 items.[2] The Cleveland Public Library is a member of CLEVNET, a consortium of 44 public libraries throughout northern Ohio. In 1947, it became a depository library for the United Nations Library network, holding documents for the state of Ohio. There are only 400 UN depository libraries worldwide.

In 2002, Northern Ohio library patrons had access to download digital books and periodicals through a new e-book system headquartered at Cleveland Public Library. The Clevnet consortium of libraries entered in a $50,000 setup-free agreement with the Cleveland-based company OverDrive to allow patrons to download text from e-books to their personal computer.[19]

In 2012, the Library released a strategic plan focusing on communities of learning and preparing for its 150th anniversary in 2019.[20]

Cleveland Public Library launched Tech Central on June 14, 2012, featuring a computer lab with 90 computers, tables encouraging collaboration, a 3D printer, and a MyCloud service. This $1 million launch was funded primarily through the Library's existing budgets, in which the MyCloud service was partially funded through corporate partners.[21]

Cleveland Public Library, along with three other Ohio Libraries (Columbus, Toledo, and Cincinnati), opened digitization hubs, with $1 million in funding dispersed among them, funded by Ohio Public Library Information Network and the Library Services Technology Act.[22] The digitization hub at Cleveland Public Library was named the Cleveland Digital Public Library and debuted February 14, 2015.[23][24] As stated by Chatham Ewing, Cleveland Public Library's Digital Strategist, "It's a way for us to strike up some partnerships with local organizations that have historical objects they are interested in stewarding and digitizing." [25]

In 2018, Cleveland Public Library was designated an official Digital Access Partner with the Federal Depository Library Program for its digitized multi-volume set of the First United States Army Report of Operations during World War II.[26]

Notable former Cleveland Public Library staff members

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c "2016 CPL Annual Report" (PDF). Cleveland Public Library. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Cramer, C.H. (1972). Open Shelves and Open Minds: A History of the Cleveland Public Library. Cleveland, OH: Press of Case Western Reserve University.
  4. ^ Cleveland Public Library Image Collections (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2009 from
  5. ^ Cleveland Public Library, Dominance of the City Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2007-07-25.
  6. ^ "Library Will Seek Funds to Buy Old Plain Dealer Building". The Plain Dealer. March 21, 1957. p. 8.
  7. ^ Kane, Russell W. (November 6, 1957). "Library Issue and School Levy Pass". The Plain Dealer. pp. 1, 15.
  8. ^ "Library to Open Annex in 1958". The Plain Dealer. December 22, 1957. p. 9.
  9. ^ "Library-School Board Finance Feud Flares". The Plain Dealer. August 26, 1959. p. 4.
  10. ^ Mason, Marilyn Gell. "Annual report of the Cleveland Public Library for 1997". Cleveland Public Library. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  11. ^ Cleveland Public Library, Special Collections. Accessed 2017-04-26.
  12. ^ Cleveland Public Library, Preservation Office (1911). "Library Directory". The Open Shelf. 111 (1).
  13. ^ "Locations". Cleveland Public Library. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  14. ^ Spector, Kaye (May 19, 2005). "Garden for blind people is a treat for senses". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, Ohio. p. E15 – via NewsBank: America's News – Historical and Current. ...The Sensory Garden at the Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, part of the Cleveland Public Library system, has plants specially selected for their scents and textures so that blind and disabled people can enjoy them: nutty geranium, root beer plant, lime basil, pineapple sage, peppermint and sweet bay magnolia, among dozens of others. ... The garden was first planted in 1998 and substantially expanded in 1999. It is maintained through donations. (excerpt)
  15. ^ Marling, Karal Ann (1974). Federal Art in Cleveland, 1933-1943. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Public Library.
  16. ^ Kaplan, Andrew. "Homage to Artist Edwin Mieczkowski (1929-2017)". Cleveland Public Library.
  17. ^ Vincent, Ph.D., Marc (1999). Cleveland Public Library, The Art, Architecture, and Collections of the Main Library. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Public Library.
  18. ^ Dixon Murray, Teresa (April 1, 2018). "Public art- Library unveils donated portrait of Stokes, Jones". The Cleveland Plain Dealer.
  19. ^ "Cleveland PL Debuts New E-Book Loan Program". American Libraries. 34: 22 – via MasterFILE Premier Access.
  20. ^
  21. ^ Good, T. "Three Makerspace Models that Work". American Libraries. 44: 45–47 – via Masterfile Premier.
  22. ^ "Ohio Digitization Hubs Project". Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  23. ^ "Ohio: Grand Opening of Cleveland Digital Public Library (ClevDPL) Taking Place Today". LJ infoDOCKET. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  24. ^ Thomas, Jr., Felton. "2017 Report to the Community".
  25. ^ O'Brien, Erin (October 15, 2014). "Cleveland Digital Public Library will offer High-tech Scanning for the Masses". FreshWater.
  26. ^ "Cleveland Public Library Partners with GPO to Provide Access to World War II Army Operations Reports". Federal Depository Library Program. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  27. ^ Leonard Kniffel, P. S. (1999, December). 100 of the Most Important Leaders we had in the 20th Century. American Libraries
  28. ^
  29. ^

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 41°30′04″N 81°41′30″W / 41.50107°N 81.69164°W


Brithenig is an invented language, or constructed language ("conlang"). It was created as a hobby in 1996 by Andrew Smith from New Zealand, who also invented the alternate history of Ill Bethisad to "explain" it.

Brithenig was not developed to be used in the real world, like Esperanto or Interlingua, nor to provide detail to a work of fiction, like Klingon from the Star Trek scenarios. Rather, Brithenig started as a thought experiment to create a Romance language that might have evolved if Latin had displaced the native Celtic language as the spoken language of the people in Great Britain.

The result is an artificial sister language to French, Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Occitan and Italian which differs from them by having sound-changes similar to those that affected the Welsh language, and words that are borrowed from the Brittonic languages and from English throughout its pseudo-history. One important distinction between Brithenig and Welsh is that while Welsh is P-Celtic, Latin was a Q-Italic language (as opposed to P-Italic, like Oscan), and this trait was passed onto Brithenig.

Similar efforts to extrapolate Romance languages are Breathanach (influenced by the other branch of Celtic), Judajca (influenced by Hebrew), Þrjótrunn (a non-Ill Bethisad language influenced by Icelandic), Wenedyk (influenced by Polish), and Xliponian (which experienced a Grimm's law-like sound shift). It has also inspired Wessisc, a hypothetical Germanic language influenced by contact with Old Celtic.

Brithenig was granted the code BZT as part of ISO 639-3.

Andrew Smith was one of the conlangers featured in the exhibit "Esperanto, Elvish, and Beyond: The World of Constructed Languages" displayed at the Cleveland Public Library from May through August 2008. Smith's creation of Brithenig was cited as the reason for his inclusion in the exhibit (which also included the Babel Text in Smith's language).


CLEVNET is a library consortium headquartered at Cleveland Public Library. It was founded in 1982 and includes over 40 public library systems in northeast Ohio. CLEVNET provides access to more than 12 million titles of books, movies, music and e-books.

CLEVNET was also the headquarters for Ohio's virtual reference service, KnowItNow24x7, from 2001 to its closing in 2015.

Chess theory

The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame. There is a large body of theory regarding how the game should be played in each of these phases, especially the opening and endgame. Those who write about chess theory, who are often also eminent players, are referred to as "theorists" or "theoreticians".

"Opening theory" commonly refers to consensus, broadly represented by current literature on the openings. "Endgame theory" consists of statements regarding specific positions, or positions of a similar type, though there are few universally applicable principles. "Middlegame theory" often refers to maxims or principles applicable to the middlegame. The modern trend, however, is to assign paramount importance to analysis of the specific position at hand rather than to general principles.The development of theory in all of these areas has been assisted by the vast literature on the game. In 1913, preeminent chess historian H. J. R. Murray wrote in his 900-page magnum opus A History of Chess

that, "The game possesses a literature which in contents probably exceeds that of all other games combined." He estimated that at that time the "total number of books on chess, chess magazines, and newspapers devoting space regularly to the game probably exceeds 5,000". In 1949, B. H. Wood estimated that the number had increased to about 20,000. David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld wrote in 1992 that, "Since then there has been a steady increase year by year of the number of new chess publications. No one knows how many have been printed..." The world's largest chess library, the John G. White Collection at the Cleveland Public Library, contains over 32,000 chess books and serials, including over 6,000 bound volumes of chess periodicals. Chess players today also avail themselves of computer-based sources of information.

Civic Center (Cleveland)

The Civic Center is a mostly governmental district in downtown Cleveland, Ohio that is home to the 1916 erected Cleveland City Hall Building. The 1925 Cleveland Public Library main branch, the 1976 massive Cuyahoga County Justice Center, the 419 foot Anthony J. Celebrezze Federal Building (named after the 1953-1962 popular Cleveland Mayor), the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland (one of only twelve in the US), the historic Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Hall, the Howard M. Metzenbaum U.S. Courthouse which butts Public Square, and the city owned greenspace Willard Park which is home to the Free Stamp.

The district is also the site of the headquarters of the Cleveland Division of Police, the historic Standard Building is located across St. Clair Avenue from the CPD HQ, the highest hotel in the state of Ohio, the 374 foot Hilton Cleveland Downtown Hotel, the new Cleveland Global Center for Health Innovation which is the home to the largest medical mart in the country, the ultra-modern Huntington Convention Center of Cleveland, which is connected to the renovated Public Hall, and the Cleveland Metropolitan School District old Board of Education Main Building all the area in common.

The Civic Center is bound to the east by the Nine-Twelve District, to the north by North Coast Harbor, to the south by Public Square, and to the west by the Warehouse District. Running through the center of the district is the Cleveland greenway The Mall. In this regard the district is pretty much landlocked. The mall also hosts the impressive Cleveland War Memorial.

Cuyahoga County Courthouse

The Cuyahoga County Courthouse stretches along Lakeside Boulevard at the north end of the Cleveland Mall in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. The building was listed on the National Register along with the mall district in 1975. Other notable buildings of the Group Plan are the Howard M. Metzenbaum U.S. Courthouse designed by Arnold Brunner, the Cleveland Public Library, the Board of Education Building, Cleveland City Hall, and Public Auditorium.

East Cleveland, Ohio

East Cleveland is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, and is the first suburb of Cleveland. The population was 17,843 at the 2010 census. East Cleveland is bounded by the city of Cleveland to its north, west, and a small section of its southwestern edge, and by Cleveland Heights to the east and the majority of its southern limits.

East Technical High School

East Technical High School or East Tech is a secondary school under the operation of the Cleveland Metropolitan School District in Cleveland, Ohio.

Effie Louise Power

Effie Louise Power (February 12, 1873 – October 8, 1969) was a children's librarian, educator, author, and storyteller. She encouraged children's book production and evaluated children's literature. She “directly influenced the development of services to children in three major United States cities: Cleveland, St. Louis, and Pittsburgh.” Power also traveled across the U.S. lecturing students and librarians on children and youth library services. She worked to build a network of children's librarians across the country who supported each other and established high standards for all in the profession.

Eugene Murdock

Eugene Converse Murdock (April 30, 1921 – July 23, 1992) was an historian and author best known for his research into baseball.

John Griswold White

John Griswold White (10 August 1845 – 27 August 1928) was a prominent Cleveland attorney, a chess connoisseur, and a bibliophile.

Linda Eastman

Linda Anne Eastman (July 17, 1867 – April 5, 1963) was an American librarian. She was selected by the American Library Association as one of the 100 most important librarians of the 20th century.Eastman served as the head Librarian of the Cleveland Public Library from 1918 to 1938 and president of the American Library Association from 1928 to 1929. At the time of her appointment in Cleveland, she was the first woman to head a library system the size of Cleveland's. She was also a founding member and later president of the Ohio Library Association, and a professor of Library Science at Case Western Reserve University.

László Szabó (chess player)

László Szabó ([ˈsɒboː ˈlaːsloː] March 19, 1917 – August 8, 1998) was a Hungarian grandmaster of chess.

Born in Budapest, Szabó burst onto the international chess scene in 1935, at the age of 18, winning the first of Hungarian Championships, an international tournament in Tatatóváros, and was selected to represent his country at the 1935 Warsaw Olympiad. Onlookers at the Olympiad marvelled at the youngster's flair for attacking chess, a style that ran contrary to the dour, positional approach adopted by his countrymen. It is thought that the young Szabó studied under Géza Maróczy, then a patriarchal figure in Hungarian chess who had previously trained future world champions, Max Euwe and Vera Menchik.

Prior to World War II, there were other successes, including outright victory at Hastings 1938/39 (a tournament he was to hold a long association with). He began a career as a banker, dealing in Foreign Exchange.

At the outbreak of war, Szabó was attached to a Forced Labour Unit, and was later captured by Russian troops who held him as a Prisoner of War. After the war, he returned to chess and played many major international events.

He finished fifth at Groningen 1946, an extremely strong tournament which included Botvinnik, Euwe, Smyslov, Najdorf, Boleslavsky and Kotov. At the Saltsjöbaden Interzonal of 1948, he finished second to Bronstein and took outright first place at Hastings 1947/48, Budapest 1948 and Hastings 1949/50. A share of fifth place at both the Saltsjöbaden 1952 Interzonal and the Gothenburg Interzonal of 1955, meant that each of his Interzonal finishes had been strong enough to merit him a place in the corresponding Candidates Tournament. It was at his third and final Candidates, held in Amsterdam in 1956, that Szabó made his most promising bid for a World Championship title challenge. He tied for third place with Bronstein, Geller, Petrosian and Spassky, behind Smyslov and Keres.

Into the 1960s and 1970s, he continued to excel in international competition; first at Zagreb 1964, first at Budapest 1965 (with Polugaevsky and Taimanov), first at Sarajevo 1972, first at Hilversum 1973 (with Geller) and tied for first at Hastings 1973/74 (with Gennady Kuzmin, Timman and Tal).

In total, he represented Hungary at 11 Olympiads, playing first board on five occasions and delivering many medal-winning performances. In 1937, he took the team silver and individual silver medals, in 1952 an individual bronze, in 1956 a team bronze and in 1966, team bronze and individual silver.

Szabó was the best player in Hungary for nearly 20 years (eventually being succeeded by Lajos Portisch around 1963/64) and at the peak of his powers, one of the top 12 players in the world.

His family donated Szabó's entire chess library and his papers to the Cleveland Public Library John G. White Chess and Checkers Collection. The John G. White Collection of Chess and Checkers is the largest chess library in the world (32,568 volumes of books and serials, including 6,359 volumes of bound periodicals.)

Marilla Waite Freeman

Marilla Waite Freeman (February 21, 1871 – October 29, 1961) was a prominent librarian known for her innovative ideas in library service. At the time of her retirement from the Cleveland Public Library in 1940, she was "one of the best known and most beloved librarians in the country."

Mike Curtis (writer)

Mike Curtis (born 1953) is an American writer who scripts the Dick Tracy comic strip, with Joe Staton as artist. He has been working professionally in comic books as a writer since the mid-1980s. He has also been a newspaper editor, deputy sheriff, comic book publisher, movie theater manager, TV horror movie host, Santa Claus for 39 years in the family tradition, and is a Baptist minister.

Curtis is currently best known for Dick Tracy, but he is also the third largest collector of Superman memorabilia in the United States. He has been exhibiting and writing about Superman since 1973.

William Howard Brett

William Howard Brett (July 1, 1846 – August 24, 1918) was head librarian for the Cleveland Public Library from 1884 to 1918. American Libraries described him as one of the "100 most important leaders (librarians) had in the 20th century"

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