Clemens Wenzeslaus Brentano (also Klemens; pseudonym: Clemens Maria Brentano /brɛnˈtɑːnoʊ/; German: [bʁɛnˈtaːno]; 9 September 1778 – 28 July 1842) was a German poet and novelist, and a major figure of German Romanticism. He was the uncle, via his brother Christian, of Franz and Lujo Brentano.
Picture from Meyer's Encyclopedia, 1906
|Born||9 September 1778|
Ehrenbreitstein near Koblenz (today in Koblenz), Electorate of Trier, Holy Roman Empire
|Died||28 July 1842 (aged 63)|
|Alma mater||University of Halle|
|Notable works||Des Knaben Wunderhorn|
|Relatives||Bettina von Arnim (sibling)|
Clemens Brentano was born to Peter Anton Brentano and Maximiliane von La Roche, a wealthy merchant family in Frankfurt on 9 September 1778. His father's family was of Italian descent. His sister was writer Bettina von Arnim, who, at a young age, lionised and corresponded with Goethe, and, in 1835, published the correspondence as Goethes Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde (Goethe's correspondence with a child). Clemens Brentano studied in Halle and Jena, afterwards residing at Heidelberg, Vienna and Berlin. He was close to Wieland, Herder, Goethe, Friedrich Schlegel, Fichte and Tieck.
From 1798 to 1800 Brentano lived in Jena, the first center of the romantic movement. In 1801, he moved to Göttingen, and became a friend of Achim von Arnim. He married writer Sophie Mereau on 29 October 1803. In 1804, he moved to Heidelberg and worked with Arnim on Zeitungen für Einsiedler and Des Knaben Wunderhorn. After his wife Sophie died in 1806 he married a second time in 1807 to Auguste Bussmann (whose half-sister, Marie de Flavigny, later by marriage the Countess Marie d'Agoult, would become the companion of pianist and composer Franz Liszt). In the years between 1808 and 1818, Brentano lived mostly in Berlin, and from 1819 to 1824 in Dülmen, Westphalia.
In 1818, weary of his somewhat restless and unsettled life, he returned to the practice of the Catholic faith and withdrew to the monastery of Dülmen, where he lived for some years in strict seclusion. He took on there the position of secretary to the Catholic visionary nun, the Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich.
It was claimed that from 1802 until her death, she bore the wounds of the Crown of Thorns, and from 1812, the full stigmata, a cross over her heart and the wound from the lance. Clemens Brentano made her acquaintance in 1818 and remained at the foot of the stigmatist's bed copying her dictation until 1824. When she died, he prepared an index of the visions and revelations from her journal, The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ (published 1833). One of these visions made known by Brentano later resulted in the actual identification of the real House of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus by Abbé Julien Gouyet, a French priest, during 1881. However, some posthumous investigations in 1923 and 1928 made it uncertain how much of the books he attributed to Emmerich were actually his own creation and the works were discarded for her beatification process.
The latter part of his life he spent in Regensburg, Frankfurt and Munich, actively engaged in promoting the Catholic faith. Brentano assisted Ludwig Achim von Arnim, his brother-in-law, in the collection of folk-songs forming Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1805–1808), which Gustav Mahler drew upon for his song cycle. He died in Aschaffenburg.
Brentano, whose early writings were published under the pseudonym Maria, belonged to the Heidelberg group of German romantic writers, and his works are marked by excess of fantastic imagery and by abrupt, bizarre modes of expression. His first published writings were Satiren und poetische Spiele (Leipzig, 1800), a romance Godwi oder Das steinerne Bild der Mutter (2 vols., Frankfort, 1801), and a musical drama Die lustigen Musikanten (Frankfort, 1803). Of his dramas the best are Ponce de Leon (1804), Victoria und ihre Geschwister (Berlin, 1817) and Die Grundung Prags (Pesth, 1815).
On the whole his finest work is the collection of Romanzen vom Rosenkranz (published posthumously in 1852); his short stories, and more especially the charming Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem schönen Annerl (1817), which has been translated into English, were very popular.
Brentano's collected works, edited by his brother Christian, appeared at Frankfurt in 9 vols. (1851–1855). Selections have been edited by J. B. Diel (1873), M. Koch (1892), and J. Dohmke (1893). See J. B. Diel and William Kreiten, Klemens Brentano (2 vols, 1877–1878), the introduction to Koch's edition, and R. Steig, A. von Arnim und K. Brentano (1894).
In his honor the Clemens Brentano prize is awarded for German literature.
Brentano's work is referenced in Thomas Mann's novel Doctor Faustus. A cycle of thirteen songs, based on Brentano's poems, is noted in Chapter XXI as one of the composer protagonist's most significant early works.
Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (German: Anna Katharina Emmerick; 8 September 1774 – 9 February 1824) was a Roman Catholic Augustinian Canoness Regular of Windesheim, mystic, Marian visionary, ecstatic and stigmatist.
She was born in Flamschen, a farming community at Coesfeld, in the Diocese of Münster, Westphalia, Germany, and died at age 49 in Dülmen, where she had been a nun, and later become bedridden. Emmerich is notable for her visions on the life and passion of Jesus Christ, reputed to be revealed to her by the Blessed Virgin Mary under religious ecstasy.During her bedridden years, a number of well-known figures were inspired to visit her. The poet Clemens Brentano interviewed her at length and wrote two books based on his notes of her visions. The authenticity of Brentano's writings has been questioned and critics have characterized the books as "conscious elaborations by a poet" and a "well-intentioned fraud" by Brentano.Emmerich was beatified on 3 October 2004, by Pope John Paul II. However, the Vatican focused on her own personal piety rather than the religious writings associated to her by Clemens Brentano. Her documents of postulation towards canonization are handled by the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter.Bettina von Arnim
Bettina von Arnim (the Countess of Arnim) (4 April 1785 – 20 January 1859), born Elisabeth Catharina Ludovica Magdalena Brentano, was a German writer and novelist.
Bettina (as well: Bettine) Brentano was a writer, publisher, composer, singer, visual artist, an illustrator, patron of young talent, and a social activist. She was the archetype of the Romantic era's zeitgeist and the crux of many creative relationships of canonical artistic figures. Best known for the company she kept, she numbered among her closest friends Goethe, Beethoven, and Pückler and tried to foster artistic agreement among them. Many leading composers of the time, including Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johanna Kinkel, and Johannes Brahms, admired her spirit and talents. As a composer, von Arnim's style was unconventional, molding and melding favorite folk melodies and historical themes with innovative harmonies, phrase lengths, and improvisations that became synonymous with the music of the era. She was closely related to the German writers Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim: the first was her brother, the second her husband. Her daughter Gisela von Arnim became a prominent writer as well. Her nephews, via her brother Christian, were Franz and Lujo Brentano.Brentano
Brentano is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
August Brentano, bookseller
Bernard von Brentano, novelist
Clemens Brentano, poet and novelist, brother of Bettina von Arnim (b. Brentano)
Franz Brentano, philosopher, influenced phenomenology and gestalt psychology
Franz Funck-Brentano, French historian and librarian
Heinrich von Brentano di Tremezzo, politician Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
Lorenzo Brentano, politician
Lujo Brentano, economist, reformer
Marianne Ehrmann-Brentano, novelist
Maximiliane Brentano, befriended Goethe; dedicatee of some of Beethoven's compositions
Robert Brentano, American historian
Theodore Brentano, attorney, judge, and first U. S. ambassador to Hungary, son of Lorenzo
Théophile Funck-Brentano, Luxembourgian-French sociologistCaroline Rudolphi
Caroline Rudolphi (also Karoline; 1753–1811) was a German educationist and poet.
Born to a poor family in Magdeburg and growing up in Potsdam (Margraviate of Brandenburg, Kingdom of Prussia), she was discovered by composer Johann Friedrich Reichardt, who in 1781 set to music and published a number of her poems.
From 1778, Rudolphi served as educator to the daughters of the von Röpert family of Trollenhagen.
In 1783, she open her own educational institute at Trittau. Over the following years, Rudolphi became a widely known and respected educationist for girls. She became friends with Elise Reimarus and at her institute she established a literary salon, attracting a circle of intellectuals such as Matthias Claudius, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Jens Baggesen.
Rudolphi moved her institute to Heidelberg in 1803 (in the newly formed Electorate of Baden), where she became socially involved with the circle of Romanticist intellectuals there (Achim von Arnim, Clemens Brentano, Sophie Mereau, Friedrich Creuzer Ludwig Tieck) and a close friend of the family of classicist Johann Heinrich Voß.
Rudolphi published collections of her poems in 1781, 1787 and 1796, and she published her principles on the education of girls in form of an epistolary novel, Gemälde weiblicher Erziehung (1807).
Her poem Ode an Gott ("Ode to God") was set to music by Johann Heinrich Tobler in 1825 and was sung as the unofficial "national anthem" of the Swiss canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden at the Landsgemeinde since 1877.Christian Brentano
Christian Brentano (24 January 1784, Frankfurt – 27 October 1851, Frankfurt) was a German writer and Catholic publicist. He was the brother of Clemens Brentano and Bettina von Arnim, famous German writers of the Romantic school.
Brentano is noted for editing and releasing nine volumes of his brother's work in 1851–55. He survived Clemens, who actually died in 1842 while visiting Christian in Aschaffenburg.Clemens
Clemens is both a Late Latin masculine given name and a surname meaning "merciful". Notable people with the name include:
Adelaide Clemens (born 1989), Australian actress.
Andrew Clemens (b. 1852 or 1857–1894), American folk artist
Aurelius Prudentius Clemens, 4th century Roman poet
Barry Clemens (born 1943), American basketball player
Bert A. Clemens (1874–1935), American politician
Brian Clemens (born 1931), British screenwriter and television producer
Clayton Clemens, American Professor of Government
Dan Clemens (born 1945), American politician
George T. Clemens (1902–1992), American cinematographer
Harold W. Clemens (1918–1998), American politician
C. Herbert Clemens (born 1939), American mathematician
Isaac Clemens (1815–1880), Canadian farmer and politician
James Brackenridge Clemens (1825–1867), American entomologist
Jacob Clemens non Papa (c. 1510 to 1515–1555 or 1556), Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance
James Clemens, Lord Mayor of Liverpool 1775-6
James Clemens, pen name of author James Paul Czajkowski
James Clemens, Jr. (1791–1878), a US Senator
Jean Clemens (1880–1909), youngest daughter of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain)
Jeremiah Clemens (1814–1865), U.S. senator and novelist
Josef Clemens (born 1947), German bishop
Joseph Clemens (1862–1936), American missionary and plant collector
Joseph Clemens of Bavaria (1671–1723), German archbishop
Kellen Clemens (born 1983), American football player
Koby Clemens (born 1986), American baseball player
Marcus Arrecinus Clemens (disambiguation), multiple people
Martin Clemens, British World War II soldier and Solomon Islands coastwatcher
Mary Strong Clemens (1873–1968), American botanist and plant collector
Olivia Langdon Clemens (1845–1904), wife of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain)
Orion Clemens (1825–1897), brother of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain)
Paul Clemens (born 1988), American baseball player
Roger Clemens (born 1962), American baseball player
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known as Mark Twain (1835–1910), author
Sherrard Clemens (1820–1881), American politician and lawyer
Titus Flavius Clemens (consul), great-nephew of the Roman Emperor Vespasian and (as Flavius Clemens) a saint in the Greek Orthodox Church
William Clemens (film director) (1905–1980), American film directorGiven name:
Clemens (rapper), (born 1979), real name Clemens Legolas Telling, Danish rapper, singer, music writer, actor
Clemens (impostor) (d. c. 15 AD), ancient Roman
Clemens Alexandrinus (Clement of Alexandria, c. 150 – c. 215), Christian theologian
Clemens Arnold (born 1978), German field hockey player
Clemens Baeumker (1853–1924), German historian of philosophy
Clemens Bollen (born 1948), German politician
Clemens Brentano (1778–1842), German poet and novelist
Clemens Denhardt (1852–1929), German explorer of Africa
Clemens Fritz (born 1980), German footballer
Arno Clemens Gaebelein (1861–1945), Methodist minister
Clemens Maria Hofbauer (1751–1820), patron saint of Vienna
Clemens Holzmeister (1886–1983), Austrian architect
Clemens Kalischer (born 1921), German-American photographer
Clemens Klotz (1886–1969), German architect
Clemens Krauss (1893–1954), Austrian conductor
Clemens August Graf von Galen (1878–1946), German count, Bishop of Münster, and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
Clemens von Pirquet (1874–1929), Austrian scientist and pediatrician
Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony (1739–1812), German Archbishop
Clemens Westerhof (born 1940), Dutch football manager
Clemens Wilmenrod (1906–1967), German television cook
Clemens Winkler (1838–1904), German chemistFictional characters:
Dr. Jonathon Clemens, a character in the 1992 film Alien 3 played by the British Actor Charles Dance
See Cambridge Latin Course for Clemens, a fictional slaveClemens-Brentano-Preis
Clemens-Brentano-Preis is a literary prize of Germany. It is named after the German poet Clemens Brentano (9 September 1778 – 28 July 1842).Der Ritter und die Magd
"Der Ritter und die Magd" (English: "The Knight and the Maiden") is a traditional German folk song. With a few (or even one) changes, it was included by Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim in their collection of German folk songs and poems, Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1806, I). As its possible source, both editors used a German broadside printed before 1790. Another version of the song, published in Die deutschen Volkslieder mit ihren Singweisen (1843) was recorded from an oral source near Cottbus.Des Knaben Wunderhorn
Des Knaben Wunderhorn: Alte deutsche Lieder (German; "The boy's magic horn: old German songs") is a collection of German folk poems and songs edited by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano, and published in Heidelberg, Baden. The book was published in three editions: the first in 1805 followed by two more volumes in 1808.
The collection of love, soldier's, wandering and children's songs was an important source of idealized folklore in the Romantic nationalism of the 19th century. Des Knaben Wunderhorn became widely popular across the German-speaking world; Goethe, one of the most influential writers of the time, declared that Des Knaben Wunderhorn "has its place in every household".Des Knaben Wunderhorn (Mahler)
The songs of Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Boy’s Miraculous Horn) by Gustav Mahler are voice-and-piano and orchestral settings of German folk poems in a collection of the same name assembled by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano and published by them, in heavily redacted form, between 1805 and 1808.
Ten songs set for soprano or baritone and orchestra were first published by Mahler as a cycle in 1905. but in total 12 orchestral songs exist, and a similar number of songs for voice and piano.Franz Brentano
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (; German: [bʁɛnˈtaːno]; 16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts.House of the Virgin Mary
The House of the Virgin Mary (Turkish: Meryemana Evi or Meryem Ana Evi, "Mother Mary's House") is a Catholic and Muslim shrine located on Mt. Koressos (Turkish: Bülbüldağı, "Mount Nightingale") in the vicinity of Ephesus, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from Selçuk in Turkey.The house was discovered in the 19th century by following the descriptions in the reported visions of Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (1774–1824), a Roman Catholic nun and visionary, which were published as a book by Clemens Brentano after her death. While the Catholic Church has never pronounced in favour or against the authenticity of the house, it nevertheless has maintained a steady flow of pilgrimage since its discovery. Anne Catherine Emmerich was Beatified by Pope John Paul II on October 3, 2004.
Catholic pilgrims visit the house based on the belief that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was taken to this stone house by Saint John and lived there for the remainder of her earthly life.The shrine has merited several papal Apostolic Blessings and visits from several popes, the earliest pilgrimage coming from Pope Leo XIII in 1896, and the most recent in 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI.Johann Nepomuk Schelble
Johann Nepomuk Schelble (16 May 1789 – 6 August 1837), was a German musician and composer.
Schelble was born in Hüfingen in the Black Forest. At the age of 18 he obtained a position as court and opera singer in Stuttgart, and having there begun the study of composition, he wrote an opera (Graf Adalbert) and other smaller pieces for voices or instruments; there too he was appointed teacher at the musical school of the city. Seven years later (1814), in order to perfect himself in his art, he went to Vienna, where he made the acquaintance of Beethoven. Among other of his compositions during his stay is a Missa solemnis for four voices and orchestra. Upon his arrival in Berlin in 1818, Clemens Brentano, with whom he had formed a friendship, procured him a place as first tenor in Frankfurt.
In this city he remained for the rest of his life, and there founded the Society of St. Cecilia, which worked to popularise classical music. He began by giving a weekly musical entertainment in his own house; these meetings were popular, and before long he was able to give them a permanent form under the title Cäcilienverein. Its members steadily increased in numbers: in 1818 he began with 21 members; in a few years there were a hundred. The first concert given was the Magic Flute of Mozart; soon followed works by Händel, Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven, and after 1828 those of Bach, and earlier composers such as Palestrina, Pergolesi, etc. In 1836 his health became impaired, and he returned to his native country to recuperate; but in vain. The following year he died. During his absence Felix Mendelssohn took his place as director of the society. Such was Mendelssohn's affection for him, that at the death of his (Mendelssohn's) father, he reportedly wrote to Schelble: "You are the only friend who after such a loss can fill the place of my father".
In 1831 Schelble commissioned Mendelssohn to write an Oratorio on behalf of the Society of St Cecilia. Mendelssohn chose as his subject St. Paul (oratorio).List of compositions by Gustav Mahler
The musical compositions of Gustav Mahler (1860–1911) are almost exclusively in the genres of song and symphony. In his juvenile years he attempted to write opera and instrumental works; all that survives musically from those times is a single movement from a Piano Quartet from around 1876–78. From 1880 onwards Mahler was a professional conductor whose composing activities had to be fitted around concert and theatrical engagements. Nevertheless, over the next 30 years he produced nine complete symphonies and sketches for a tenth, several orchestral song cycles and many other songs with piano or orchestral accompaniment. Mahler's symphonies are generally on an expansive scale, requiring large forces in performance, and are among the longest in the concert repertoire.Mahler scholar Deryck Cooke divides Mahler's compositions into separate creative phases, preceded by a "juvenile" period up to 1880. The earliest surviving whole work is Das klagende Lied (The Song of Lament), a cantata for soloists, chorus and orchestra which was completed in 1880 just before Mahler took up his first conducting post. In Cooke's chronology Mahler's first period as a mature composer extends over 20 years, to 1900, and includes his first four symphonies, his first song cycle Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen ("Songs of a Wayfarer") and numerous other songs. The period includes Mahler's Wunderhorn phase, after his discovery in 1887 of the German folk-poems collected by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano under the title Des Knaben Wunderhorn ("The Young Lad's Magic Horn"). Music critic Neville Cardus writes that this anthology nourished the composer's "pantheistic feelings about life and the world ... in which an all-embracing love [makes] all creatures kin." Mahler set 24 of these poems to music; three were absorbed into his Second, Third and Fourth symphonies; nine were used to create Volumes II and III of Lieder und Gesänge ("Songs and Airs"), and the remaining 12 were grouped to form Mahler's own Wunderhorn song cycle.Cooke dates Mahler's "middle period" as between 1901 and 1907, covering the trio of instrumental symphonies (Fifth, Sixth and Seventh), the massive Eighth Symphony, and the settings of poems by Friedrich Rückert including the Kindertotenlieder cycle and the Rückert-Lieder. The final period covers the last works: the symphonic Das Lied von der Erde ("The Song of the Earth") and the Ninth and Tenth Symphonies. None of these late works were performed during Mahler's lifetime. The unfinished Tenth Symphony was rendered by Deryck Cooke into a "performing version" which was first performed in London in 1964.Ludwig Achim von Arnim
Carl Joachim Friedrich Ludwig von Arnim (26 January 1781 – 21 January 1831), better known as Achim von Arnim, was a German poet, novelist, and together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism.Otto Heinrich von Loeben
Ferdinand August Otto Heinrich, Graf von Loeben (18 August 1786 in Dresden – 3 April 1825 in Dresden) was a German writer.
He was born into an aristocratic Protestant family, and was educated by private tutors. From 1804 he studied law at the University of Wittenberg, but moved to Heidelberg in 1807, where he befriended Joseph von Eichendorff, also meeting Achim von Arnim, Clemens Brentano and Johann Joseph von Görres. Over the next few years he travelled between Vienna, Dresden and Berlin, meeting Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué at Nennhausen. He was involved in the campaign of 1813-14; after his return, he married Johanna Victoria Gottliebe née von Bressler and spent the rest of his life in Dresden. A stroke suffered in 1822 left him an invalid until his death.
Graf von Loeben was a very prolific writer of the Dresden school, and he influenced Eichendorff and Ludwig Tieck among others, but quickly fell out of favour, most later critics viewing his work as bordering on parody. His most important novel is Guido, written under the pen-name "Isidorus Orientalis". Under a second pseudonym, Heinrich Goeble (sometimes just H. Goeble), he authored the poem Abendlied unterm gestirten Himmel, set to music by Ludwig van Beethoven as WoO 150. See Theodore Albrecht, "Otto Heinrich Graf von Loeben (1786-1825) and the Poetic Source of Beethoven's Abendlied unterm gestirnten Himmel, WoO 150," in Bonner Beethoven-Studien, Band 10 (Bonn: Verlag Beethoven-Haus, 2012), pp. 7–32.
An article about him can be found in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, and a monograph by Raimund Pissin was published in Berlin in 1905. On the basis of these two sources, Porterfield enumerates his known works as "one conventional drama, one musical-romantic drama, two narrative poems, one of which is on Ferdusi, three collections of poems, between 30 and 40 novelettes, fairy tales and [several thousand] aphorisms and detached thoughts." He is discussed by his friend Eichendorff in Ahnung und Gegenwart (ch. 12) and Erlebtes (ch. 10).Sechs Lieder, Op. 68 (Strauss)
Sechs Lieder (Six Songs), Op. 68, is a collection of six Lieder (German art songs) by Richard Strauss. He composed them, setting poems by Clemens Brentano, in 1918 for soprano and piano, and orchestrated one in 1933 and five in 1940. The piano version was first published by Adolph Fürstner in Berlin in 1919. They are also known as Brentano Lieder.Sibylle Lewitscharoff
Sibylle Lewitscharoff (born 16 April 1954) is a German author. Among her novels are Pong (1998), Apostoloff (2009) and Blumenberg (2011). She has received several German literary awards, including the Georg Büchner Prize in 2013.Sophie Mereau
Sophie Friederike Mereau (27 March 1770 – 31 October 1806) was a writer of the German romantic school. Her maiden name was Schubart, but she did most of her work under the married name of Mereau. She also later married a second time, to writer Clemens Brentano, and took her husband's surname. She wrote novels, stories and poems, and she translated and published journals.