# Clearance rate

In criminal justice, clearance rate is calculated by dividing the number of crimes that are "cleared" (a charge being laid) by the total number of crimes recorded. Clearance rates are used by various groups as a measure of crimes solved by the police.

Clearance rates can be problematic for measuring the performance of police services and for comparing various police services. This is because a police force may employ a different way of measuring clearance rates. For example, each police force may have a different method of recording when a "crime" has occurred and different criteria for determining when a crime has been "cleared." One police force may appear to have a much better clearance rate because of its calculation methodology.[1]

In System Conflict Theory, it is argued that clearance rates cause the police to focus on appearing to solve crimes (generating high clearance rate scores) rather than actually solving crimes. Further focus on clearance rates may result in effort being expended to attribute crimes (correctly or incorrectly) to a criminal, which may not result in retribution, compensation, rehabilitation or deterrence.

U.S. 2004 clearance rates separated by crime type

## References

1. ^ The encyclopedia of police science, Volume 1 By Jack R. Greene, https://books.google.com/books?id=HIE_zF1Rv7MC&lpg=PA907&ots=fVuvhI2iZL&dq=definition%20%22clearance%20rate%22%20police&pg=PA907#v=onepage&q=definition%20%22clearance%20rate%22%20police&f=false
• Criminal Justice Today, An Introductory Text For The 21st Century. Fourteenth edition by Frank Schmalleger
Alcohol use and sleep

Alcohol (also known formally as ethanol), found in alcoholic beverages, can exacerbate sleep disturbances. During abstinence, sleep disruption is one of the greatest predictors of relapse.

Auction rate security

An auction rate security (ARS) typically refers to a debt instrument (corporate or municipal bonds) with a long-term nominal maturity for which the interest rate is regularly reset through a dutch auction. Since February 2008, most such auctions have failed, and the auction market has been largely frozen. In late 2008, investment banks that had marketed and distributed auction rate securities agreed to repurchase most of them at par.

Benzopyrene

A benzopyrene is an organic compound with the formula C20H12. Structurally speaking, the colorless isomers of benzopyrene are pentacyclic hydrocarbons and are fusion products of pyrene and a phenylene group. Two isomeric species of benzopyrene are benzo[a]pyrene and the less common benzo[e]pyrene. They belong to the chemical class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Bounce TV

Bounce TV is an American digital multicast television network that is owned by Katz Broadcasting, a subsidiary of E. W. Scripps Company. Promoted as "the first 24/7 digital multicast broadcast network created to target African Americans," the channel features a mix of original and acquired programming geared toward African Americans between 25 and 54 years of age. The network is affiliated with broadcast television stations in several markets through digital subchannels, and is also available on the digital tiers of select cable providers at the discretion of a local affiliate.

Brinzolamide

Brinzolamide (trade names Azopt, Alcon Laboratories, Befardin, Fardi Medicals, ) is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to lower intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Clearance

Clearance can refer to:

Authorization or permission from an authority

Air traffic control clearance in aviation

Security clearance, a status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information

Cheque clearing, the process of transferring value on a cheque from one bank account to another

Engineering tolerance, a physical distance or space between two components

Ride height (vehicle clearance)

Hydraulic clearance, valve clearance

Clearance in civil engineering

Ground clearance, the amount of space between the base of an automobile tire and the underside of the chassis

The difference between the loading gauge and the structure gauge, the amount of space between the top of a rail car and the top of a tunnel or the bottom of a rail car and the top of rail

Air draft, applies to bridges across navigable waterways

Clearance car

Clearance (pharmacology), the rate at which a substance is removed or cleared from the body by the kidneys or in renal dialysis

Clearance rate, in criminal justice, the number of crimes "cleared" divided by the number reported

Closeout (sale), in retail, the final sale of items to zero inventory

Customs clearance, in international trade, the movement of goods through customs barriers

Deforestation, the deliberate clearance of woodland or forest for human development

In Australian rules football, the clearing of the ball out of a ball-up situation

A chess term for removal of pieces from a rank, file or diagonal so that a bishop, rook or queen is free to move along it

The Highland Clearances, eviction of tenants in the Scottish Highlands during the 18th and 19th centuries

Market clearing or equilibrium price, the price at which quantity supplied is equal to quantity demanded

Collective rights management, the licensing of copyright and related rights

Clearance (pharmacology)

In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min. The quantity reflects the rate of drug elimination divided by plasma concentration.

The total body clearance will be equal to the renal clearance + hepatic clearance + lung clearance. Although for many drugs the clearance is simply considered as the renal excretion ability, that is, the rate at which waste substances are cleared from the blood by the kidney. In these cases clearance is almost synonymous with renal clearance or renal plasma clearance. Each substance has a specific clearance that depends on its filtration characteristics. Clearance is a function of glomerular filtration, secretion from the peritubular capillaries to the nephron, and re-absorption from the nephron back to the peritubular capillaries. Clearance is variable in zero-order kinetics because a constant amount of the drug is eliminated per unit time, but it is constant in first-order kinetics, because the amount of drug eliminated per unit time changes with the concentration of drug in the blood. The concept of clearance was described by Thomas Addis, a graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School.

It can refer to the amount of drug removed from the whole body per unit time, or in some cases the inter-compartmental clearances can be discussed referring to redistribution between body compartments such as plasma, muscle, fat.

Crime in Chicago

Crime in Chicago has been tracked by the Chicago Police Department's Bureau of Records since the beginning of the 20th century. The city's overall crime rate, especially the violent crime rate, is higher than the US average. Chicago was responsible for nearly half of 2016's increase in homicides in the US, though the nation's crime rates remain near historic lows. The reasons for the higher numbers in Chicago remain unclear. An article in The Atlantic detailed how researchers and analysts had come to no real consensus on the cause for the violence.

Crime in Oakland, California

Crime in Oakland began to rise during the late 1960s, and by the end of the 1970s Oakland's per capita murder rate had risen to twice that of San Francisco or New York City. In 1983, the National Journal referred to Oakland as the "1983 crime capital" of the San Francisco Bay Area. Crime continued to escalate during the 1980s and 1990s, and during the first decade of the 21st century Oakland has consistently been listed as one of the most dangerous large cities in the United States. However the homicide rate in Oakland has dropped substantially in the 21st century, compared to the late 1980s and early 1990s.Among Oakland's 35 police patrol beats, violent crime remains a serious problem in specific East and West Oakland neighborhoods. In 2008, homicides were disproportionately concentrated: 72% occurred in three City Council districts, District 3 in West Oakland and Districts 6 and 7 in East Oakland, even though these districts represent only 44% of Oakland's residents.

Elimination (pharmacology)

In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite. The kidney is the main excretory organ although others exist such as the liver, the skin, the lungs or glandular structures, such as the salivary glands and the lacrimal glands. These organs or structures use specific routes to expel a drug from the body, these are termed elimination pathways:

Urine,

Tears,

Perspiration

Saliva

Respiration

Milk

Faeces

BileDrugs are excreted from the kidney by glomerular filtration and by active tubular secretion following the same steps and mechanisms as the products of intermediate metabolism. Therefore, drugs that are filtered by the glomerulus are also subject to the process of passive tubular reabsorption. Glomerular filtration will only remove those drugs or metabolites that are not bound to proteins present in blood plasma (free fraction) and many other types of drugs (such as the organic acids) are actively secreted. In the proximal and distal convoluted tubules non-ionised acids and weak bases are reabsorbed both actively and passively. Weak acids are excreted when the tubular fluid becomes too alkaline and this reduces passive reabsorption. The opposite occurs with weak bases. Poisoning treatments use this effect to increase elimination, by alkalizing the urine causing forced diuresis which promotes excretion of a weak acid, rather than it getting reabsorbed. As the acid is ionised, it cannot pass through the plasma membrane back into the blood stream and instead gets excreted with the urine. Acidifying the urine has the same effect for weakly basic drugs.

On other occasions drugs combine with bile juices and enter the intestines. In the intestines the drug will join with the unabsorbed fraction of the administered dose and be eliminated with the faeces or it may undergo a new process of absorption to eventually be eliminated by the kidney.

The other elimination pathways are less important in the elimination of drugs, except in very specific cases, such as the respiratory tract for alcohol or anaesthetic gases. The case of mother's milk is of special importance. The liver and kidneys of newly born infants are relatively undeveloped and they are highly sensitive to a drug’s toxic effects. For this reason it is important to know if a drug is likely to be eliminated from a woman’s body if she is breast feeding in order to avoid this situation.

The Major Case Squad is a division within some police departments. The detectives of these divisions typically investigate crimes beyond the scope of normal squads. These functions vary from department to department.

Murder Accountability Project

Murder Accountability Project (MAP) is a nonprofit organization which disseminates information about homicides, especially unsolved killings and serial murders committed in the United States. MAP was established in 2015 by a group of retired detectives, investigative journalists, homicide scholars, and a forensic psychiatrist.MAP has assembled records on most criminal fatalities, including case-level details on many thousands of homicides that local police failed to report to the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s voluntary Uniform Crime Report program. At its website, the group also provides access to an interactive computer algorithm that has identified homicides committed by known serial killers and suspicious clusters of murders that might contain serial killings.MAP is an outgrowth of a 2010 national reporting project led by Scripps Howard News Service reporter Thomas Hargrove, who wanted to know if FBI computer files could be used to detect previously unrecognized serial killings. The project took first place in the 2011 Philip Meyer Journalism Award offered by the National Institute of Computer Assisted Reporting for outstanding journalism using social science techniques.Hargrove developed an algorithm that organizes homicide reports into groups based on the victims’ gender, geographic location, and method of killing. The algorithm searches for murder clusters with extremely low clearance rates. The algorithm’s identification of 15 unsolved strangulations in Gary, Indiana, was validated with the October 18, 2014, arrest of Darren Deon Vann by the Hammond Police Department. Vann confessed to multiple homicides and took police to abandoned properties in Gary, where the bodies of six previously unknown female victims were recovered.MAP personnel warned police and local journalists about larger clusters of suspicious female homicides committed in Cleveland and Chicago. The Cleveland Police Department assembled a small task force to review the area’s unsolved homicides following release of the group’s analysis. Chicago Police Department officials told reporters it had found no evidence of serial murders in a wave of unsolved female strangulations committed since 2000.MAP filed a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit against the Illinois State Police on December 3, 2015, to compel the state to release homicide data it “no longer reports to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report and Supplementary Homicide Report.” The case was settled when Illinois agreed to release data on hundreds of cases it hadn’t provided to the federal government. After determining Illinois State Police were not counting how often Illinois police solve homicides through arrest, MAP sent Freedom of Information Act data requests to 102 Illinois law enforcement agencies and determined the state suffered the lowest clearance rate in the nation in 2015.The MAP Board of Directors includes: Eric Witzig, a retired homicide detective and former FBI intelligence analyst, Enzo Yaksic, director of the Northeastern University Atypical Homicide Research Group, and Michael Arntfield, a professor at the University of Western Ontario where he runs a cold-case society.

Progesterone carboxymethyloxime

Progesterone carboxymethyloxime, or progesterone 3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime (P4-3-CMO), is a progestin which was never marketed. It is an oral prodrug of progesterone with improved pharmacokinetic properties. The compound was developed in an attempt to address the poor oral pharmacokinetics of progesterone, including its very low bioavailability and short biological half-life. These properties of progesterone are thought to be caused by its low water solubility and high metabolic clearance rate due to rapid degradation in the intestines and liver. Drugs with low aqueous solubility are not absorbed well in the intestines because their dissolution in water is limited.P4-3-CMO (as the potassium salt) showed water solubility that was increased by more than four orders of magnitude relative to progesterone (solubility = 9.44 mol/L and 0.0006 mol/L, respectively). In addition, it showed an in vitro terminal half-life in rat liver microsomes that was 363-fold longer than that of progesterone (half-life = 795.5 minutes and 2.2 minutes, respectively). As such, P4-3-CMO could have both improved absorption and increased metabolic stability relative to progesterone. However, the compound has not been further assessed nor studied in humans.

Reaction inhibitor

A reaction inhibitor is a substance that decreases the rate of, or prevents, a chemical reaction.

A catalyst, in contrast, is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction.

Renal function

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine clearance rate (CCr or CrCl) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR. Creatinine clearance exceeds GFR due to creatinine secretion, which can be blocked by cimetidine. In alternative fashion, overestimation by older serum creatinine methods resulted in an underestimation of creatinine clearance, which provided a less biased estimate of GFR. Both GFR and CCr may be accurately calculated by comparative measurements of substances in the blood and urine, or estimated by formulas using just a blood test result (eGFR and eCCr).

The results of these tests are used to assess the excretory function of the kidneys. Staging of chronic kidney disease is based on categories of GFR as well as albuminuria and cause of kidney disease.Dosage of drugs that are excreted primarily via urine may need to be modified based on either GFR or creatinine clearance.

Sa Kaeo Province

Sa Kaeo (Thai: สระแก้ว, pronounced [sàʔ kɛ̂ːw]) is a province (changwat) of Thailand. It is in the east of Thailand about 200 km from Bangkok. Neighboring provinces are (from south clockwise) Chanthaburi, Chachoengsao, Prachinburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Buriram. To the east it borders Banteay Meanchey and Battambang of Cambodia.

TAS1R1

Taste receptor type 1 member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAS1R1 gene.

The Works (TV network)

The Works was an American digital broadcast television network owned by the MGM Television division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The network, which was primarily carried on the digital subchannels of television stations, maintained a general entertainment format featuring a mix of feature films, classic television sitcoms and drama series from the 1950s through the 1980s, and news and interview programming.

Through its ownership by MGM, The Works was a sister network to This TV, a joint venture between MGM and Tribune Broadcasting which also focuses on films and classic television series from the 1950s to the 1990s and carries programming from The Works' corporate cousin MGM Television.

Venous lake

A venous lake (also known as "Phlebectasis") is a generally solitary, soft, compressible, dark blue to violaceous, 0.2- to 1-cm papule commonly found on sun-exposed surfaces of the vermilion border of the lip, face and ears. Lesions generally occur among the elderly.Though these lesions may resemble nodular melanoma, the lack of induration, slow growth, and lightening appearance upon diascopy suggest against it, and indicate a vascular lesion. Additionally, lack of pulsation distinguishes this lesion of the lower lip from a tortuous segment of the inferior labial artery.

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