Clayoquot Sound /ˈklɑːkwɒt/ is located on the west coast of Vancouver Island in the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is bordered by the Esowista Peninsula to the south, and the Hesquiaht Peninsula to the North. It is a body of water with many inlets and islands. Major inlets include Sydney Inlet, Shelter Inlet, Herbert Inlet, Bedwell Inlet, Lemmens Inlet, and Tofino Inlet. Major islands include Flores Island, Vargas Island, and Meares Island. The name is also used for the larger region of land around the waterbody (essentially its watershed).
The name Clayoquot is derived from the name of a subgroup of the Nuu-chah-nulth, who lived at Clayoqua, today merged into the multi-group band government known as the Tla-o-qui-aht, meaning "different" or "changing".
First Nations have inhabited the area for thousands of years. The oldest dated location within Nuu-cha-nulth territory is 4,200 years (at Yuquot, Nootka Island). However, due to a number of factors, including rising post-glacial sea-level rise, most will date the beginnings of human habitation beyond 9,000 years before present.
In the late 18th century, Clayoquot Sound was explored by various European and American ships, which were mainly involved in the fur trade. In 1791 the complex inner waters were explored and mapped by José María Narváez and Juan Carrasco while their commander, Francisco de Eliza met and befriended Wickaninnish, the chief of the Tla-o-qui-aht peoples.
The region's wealth of natural resources was discovered in the 18th century with the arrival of the first European explorers. This wealth attracted growing numbers of foreigners, limiting First Nation access to land, and creating increasing displeasure among the locals. Government support of private company resource extraction allowed for the growth of this industry over time, resulting in the presence of logging companies in the Clayoquot Sound in the 1980s and 1990s.
The differing opinions between these two groups led to the development of Native lobbying organizations and many negotiations regarding policies and general awareness of the conflict. The situation escalated in the late 1980s when MacMillan Bloedel Corporation's permit to log Meares Island was approved.
Opposition to the MacMillan Bloedel Corporation logging in the Clayoquot Sound was expressed in several peaceful protests and blockades of logging roads ranging from 1980-1994. The largest event occurred in the summer of 1993, when over 800 protestors were arrested and many put on trial. Protestors included local residents of the Sound, the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation and Ahousaht First Nation bands, and environmentalist groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of the Clayoquot Sound.
The portrayal of the logging protests and blockades received worldwide mass media attention, creating national support for environmental movements facing British Columbia and fostering strong advocacy for anti-logging campaigns. Media attention was focused around the perceived unfairness of the masses of individuals getting arrested for joining the peaceful protests and blockades. Participants encountered aggression and intimidation from law enforcement, which eventually helped strengthen public support for non-violent protests.
The first significant change in government policies occurred after the 1990 protests. Implementation of this change took place in July 1995, when all 127 unanimous recommendations made by the scientific panel on Clayoquot Sound were accepted by the Forests Minister of British Columbia, Andrew Petter, and the Environment Minister, Elizabeth Cull on behalf of the NDP government. Greenpeace played a significant role in these protests, instigating a boycott of BC forest products in order to apply pressure on the industry. The boycott was called off once the scientific panel's recommendations were accepted by the government, deferring logging until an inventory of pristine areas was completed. The Annual Allowable Cut and clear-cuts in the area were reduced to a maximum of four hectares. In addition, Eco-Based Planning was to occur once biological and cultural inventories were completed.
The members of three major First Nations band governments of the Nuu-chah-nulth peoples inhabit the Clayoquot Sound: the Hesquiaht in the North, the Ahousaht in the middle, and the Tla-o-qui-aht in the south, focused on the village of Opitsaht on Meares Island. The village of Tofino lies opposite Opitsaht on the southern promontory of the entrance to the sound.
In 1985 for the first time in British Columbia history the courts froze resource development on crown land surrounding an issue of Aboriginal title claim. This was stimulated by an injunction granted to Chiefs of the Ahousaht and Tla-o-qui-aht first nations halting logging on Meares Island in Clayoquot Sound pending treaty negotiations. These negotiations led to the signing of the Interim Measures Act (IMA) between the provincial government and Nuu-chah-nulth first nations on March 19, 1994 after protests in 1993 pressured the province to come to a resolution. Local land and resource co-management, and economic development strategies are primary enactments made by the IMA.
In recent years the communities surrounding Clayoquot Sound (Tofino, Ucluelet, and Ahousaht) have been developing new sources of income in light of diminished traditional logging jobs. Key areas of focus have been ecotourism and selective logging based on co-management strategies.
The land around Clayoquot Sound includes vast coastal temperate rain forest, rivers, lakes, marine areas and beaches. It includes part of the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and some of Strathcona Provincial Park. The total size of the Clayoquot Sound region, including both land and water, is 350,000 hectares (860,000 acres). More than 200,000 hectares have been part of a multi-year study using Terrestrial Ecosystem Mapping (TEM) to identify areas prone to geologic and geomorphic hazards, in particular, landslides, soil erosion, and sedimentation, as well as identify and characterize terrain conditions associated with these hazards.The region contains the largest area of intact (unlogged) temperate rainforest left on Vancouver Island.
Clayoquot Sound is home to wolves, black bears, cougars, grey whales, orcas, porpoises, seals, sea lions, river otters, bald eagles, osprey, marbled murrelets, Pacific loons, Roosevelt elk, martens, and raccoons.
In 2000, Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve was designated as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. The designation created world recognition of Clayoquot Sound's biological diversity, and a $12M monetary fund to "support research, education and training in the Biosphere region". At the end of July 2006, a new set of Watershed Plans was approved in Clayoquot Sound, opening the door for logging to proceed through 10,000 hectares of the forest, including pristine old-growth valleys. As of 2007, both logging tenures within Clayoquot Sound are controlled by aboriginal logging companies: Iisaak Forest Resources controls Timber Forest License (TFL) 57 in Clayoquot Sound, and MaMook Natural Resources Ltd, in conjunction with Coulson Forest Products, manages TFL54 in Clayoquot Sound.
Ahousaht , also spelled Ahousat, is the principal settlement on Flores Island, in British Columbia, Canada. Accessible only by water or air, Ahousaht is a small community predominantly composed of First Nations people from the Nuu-chah-nulth nation. The settlement is named for the Ahousaht subgroup of the Nuu-chah-nulth, whose modern Indian Act government is the Ahousaht First Nation which combines the Ahousaht, Manhousaht and Keltsmaht under one administration. The other main settlement of the Ahousaht First Nation is at Marktosis.Amphitrite Point Light
Amphitrite Point Lighthouse is an active lighthouse near Uclulelet on the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, named after Amphitrite, the sea goddess and wife of Poseidon in Greek mythology.Clayoquot Arm Provincial Park
Clayoquot Arm Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada.Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve situated in Vancouver Island on the west coast of British Columbia. A diverse range of ecosystems exist within the biosphere reserve boundaries, including temperate coastal rainforest, ocean and rocky coastal shores.Nine of the large forested valleys remain untouched by logging or other industrial development. The area's temperate rainforest, lakes, rivers and alpine peaks provide habitats for a vast array of species, a significant number of which are endangered or rare. Given that development is increasingly resulting in the fragmentation of forest and alpine ecosystems and loss of biodiversity in coastal rainforests, this biosphere reserve provides a refuge and centre for the natural dispersion and re-establishment of species.Clayoquot Sound Central Region Board
The Clayoquot Sound Central Region Board (CRB) was created as a result of the historic two-year Interim Measures Agreement (IMA) in 1994. This agreement acknowledged that "the Ha'wiih (Hereditary Chiefs) of the First Nations have the responsibility to conserve and protect their traditional territories and waters for generations which will follow". The IMA was a negotiated agreement between the Central Region Chiefs (CRC) and the Province of British Columbia to define the terms of co-management of land and resource use and operations during treaty
The IMA was extended twice in April 1996 and March 2000 to become the Interim Measures Extension Agreement: A Bridge to Treaty dated on March 28, 2000. As of April 2008 the IMEA has been re-extended for one further year with funds provided to support the Central Region functions and administration and the Central Region Board (CRB). The CRB was dismantled in 2009.Clayoquot protests
The Clayoquot protests also called War in the Woods were a series of protests related to clearcutting in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia and culminated in the mid-1993, when 900 people were arrested. As of 2017 the protest against logging of the temperate rainforest has been the largest act of civil disobedience in Canadian history.The timber resources of Clayoquot Sound attracted growing numbers of foreigners, limiting access of indigenous peoples to land and creating increasing displeasure among the local population. In the 1980s and 1990s, government support of private company resource extraction allowed for the growth of this industry over time, resulting in the presence of logging companies in Clayoquot Sound The differing opinions between these groups led the First Nations to develop lobbying organizations and a series of negotiations over logging practices. In the late 1980s, the situation escalated when MacMillan Bloedel secured a permit to log Meares Island.From 1980 to 1994 several peaceful protests and blockades of logging roads occurred, with the largest in the mid-1993, when over 800 protesters were arrested and many put on trial. Protesters included local residents of the Sound, the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation and Ahousaht First Nation bands, and environmentalist groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of Clayoquot Sound.The logging protests and blockades received worldwide mass media attention, creating national support for the environmental movement in British Columbia and fostering strong advocacy for anti-logging campaigns. Media focused on the mass arrests of people engaging in peaceful protests and blockades, aggression and intimidation from law enforcement, which served to strengthen public support for nonviolent protests.Flores Island (British Columbia)
Flores Island is a small island (approximately 155 km²) in Clayoquot Sound, off the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.
The area of Marktosis (population around 900) holds the only major settlement on the island. Most residents are members of the Ahousaht nation (population around 2000) and form the largest part of the Nuu-chah-nulth or Nootka First Nation. Some of the indigenous language is spoken though English is predominant.
Residing within the Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve, Flores holds one of the largest tracts of contiguous old-growth forest on Vancouver Island. 41 km² of the island has been demarcated as the Flores Island Marine Provincial Park, 1.43 km² is the Gibson Marine Provincial Park where hot springs are located at the southern banks of the Matilda Inlet, the Marktosis reservation is 1.2 km² and the rest is Crown Land.
Flores Island was named in 1791 by Francisco de Eliza, in honor of Manuel Antonio Flórez, the 51st viceroy of New Spain.The main industry is fishing with some tourism. Tourism is promoted through the 'Walk the Wild Side' hiking trail and the addition of accommodation at the Aauuknuck Lodge. Cow Bay on the Western side of the Island has been voted as one of Canada's top ten beaches.The island can be reached by water-taxi or seaplane from Tofino.Friends of Clayoquot Sound
Friends of Clayoquot Sound is a Canadian grassroots non-profit environmental organization, based in Tofino, British Columbia. It focuses on protecting Clayoquot Sound’s globally rare ecosystem of temperate rainforest and ocean (designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve), and on building a local, conservation-based economy.Gibson Marine Provincial Park
Gibson Marine Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada, located on the southeast end of Flores Island in the central Clayoquot Sound region of Vancouver Island. The park was created on 13 November 1967. It contains approximately 143 hectares (350 acres) and is adjacent to Flores Island Provincial Park.Hesquiat Peninsula Provincial Park
Hesquiat Peninsula Provincial Park is a provincial park at the western extremity of the Clayoquot Sound region of the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The Hesquiat Peninsula forms the division between the Clayoquot Sound region, to the south, and the Nootka Sound region to the north. The park contains 7,898 ha. and was created as part of the Clayoquot Land-Use Decision. The peninsula is named for the Hesquiaht group of the Nuu-chah-nulth peoples. Hesquiat Indian Reserve No. 1 and adjoining locality and former steamer landing of Hesquiat are located on its southeastern tip. Estevan Point, a lighthouse that was the setting for one of the few Japanese military attacks on North America in World War II, is on the southwestern tip.Hot Springs Cove, British Columbia
Hot Springs Cove, formerly Refuge Cove, is an unincorporated settlement on Sydney Inlet on the west side of the Openit Peninsula in the western Clayoquot Sound region of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. Hot Springs Cove derives its name from its proximity to Ramsay Hot Springs, and is protected by Maquinna Marine Provincial Park. The post office at Hot Springs Cove was closed in 1974 but had operated since 1947, when it was first named Sydney Inlet until being renamed in 1948. Despite the closure of the post office, there remains a year-round population in the vicinity.Kingfisher (sloop)
Kingfisher was a sloop engaged in merchant trading out of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada to First Nations peoples around Vancouver Island and adjoining waters. During trading with the Ahousaht subgroup of the Tla-o-qui-aht division of the Nuu-chah-nulth in Clayoquot Sound late in 1864 the vessel was attacked and its captain, a Captain Stephenson, and three crew members were massacred. HMS Devastation, a small gunboat, was dispatched to the scene but due to overwhelming superiority of Ahousaht forces waited for reinforcements, which came in the form of the screw frigate HMS Sutlej and its fifty guns. Holding offshore from Marktosis, one of the main Ahousaht communities, Admiral Denman, commander of the vessel, demanded the surrender of Chapchah, who had masterminded the killings. When the residents refused, Denman opened fire on the village, destroying it. Subsequently the village of Moyat and others were destroyed by shellfire and incendiary rockets from Sutlej.Land (song)
"Land" was a one-off charity single released in August 1993, credited to (and in the following order) Midnight Oil, Daniel Lanois, Hothouse Flowers, Crash Vegas, and The Tragically Hip. All five artists were part of that year's Another Roadside Attraction tour.The CD release credits the authorship of the track to Jim Moginie, Rob Hirst, Peter Garrett, Gord Downie, Daniel Lanois and The Tragically Hip. However, as officially registered with ASCAP and BMI, the composition of "Land" is credited to Downie, Garrett, Lanois and Liam Ó Maonlaí. It was recorded in Calgary, with Lanois producing.
The song protests the logging industry practice of clearcutting in the rainforests of British Columbia, particularly in Clayoquot Sound. Issued as a single in Australia, "Land" peaked at #63.Marktosis
Marktosis, also spelled Maaqtusiis in the Nuu-chah-nulth language, is one of the principal settlements of the Ahousaht First Nation, located off the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, just southeast of the Hesquiat Peninsula on Flores Island. Accessible only by water or air, Marktosis is a small community predominantly composed of First Nations people from the Nuu-chah-nulth nation. Marktosis has approximately 900 residents.
Marktosis Indian Reserve No. 15 was established around the site of the community and has 622 individuals living on the reserve in 2016.Meares Island
Meares Island is one of the many islands surrounding the Village of Tofino, British Columbia, Canada. Its name was given in 1862 by George Henry Richards, captain of HMS Hecate, in honor of John Meares. The island is located in the Clayoquot Sound region and is the location of Opitsat, the main village of the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations, and was the location of Fort Defiance, a short-lived American fur-trading post founded by Captain Robert Gray.
An attraction for tourists visiting Tofino is the Big Tree Trail, the small section of Meares Island that contains a boardwalk that features some of the tallest trees in British Columbia. It is a spectacular site for photography and has been viewed in many nature publications and television.
Meares Island is reachable by boat or water taxi.
Meares Island became historically significant shortly after 1984, when the Nuu-chah-nulth began protesting forestry giant MacMillan Bloedel's potential harvesting activities. The Nuu-chah-nulth, with significant cooperation from environmental groups, eventually erected a blockade, preventing MacMillan Bloedel from logging the island. Both sides pursued legal action, and the court ruled that since the Nuu-chah-nulth had claimed that this was part of their traditional territory, until that claim was resolved, no development could occur on the whole of Meares Island. This essentially granted an injunction in favour of the Nuu-chah-nulth, which was the first time in British Columbia's history that the province had been overruled on a land claims issue.Opitsaht
Opitsaht, spelled also as Opitsat and Opitsitah, is a community of the Tla-o-qui-aht people of the Nuu-chah-nulth nation, located at the SW end of Meares Island in Clayoquot Sound. During the era of the Maritime Fur Trade, Opitsaht was the seat of Wickaninnish, chief of the Tla-o-qui-aht, and contained 200 ornately carved buildings typical of Nuu-chah-nulth villages. This original village was destroyed by cannon fire by Captain Robert Gray of the Columbia Rediviva as part of a falling-out with the Tla-o-qui-aht when Gray evacuated his erstwhile "fort" nearby on Meares Island, known as Fort Defiance. Today Opitsaht is one of the main villages governed by the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations, the band government of the Tla-o-qui-aht people.
The population of Opitsat Indian Reserve No. 1, which is named after the village and is an official land status used by Statistics Canada as a census area, was 174 at the Census of 2006.Tofino
Tofino is a district of approximately 1,932 residents on the west coast of Vancouver Island in the Canadian province of British Columbia. The district is located at the western terminus of Highway 4 on the tip of the Esowista Peninsula at the southern edge of Clayoquot Sound.
A popular tourist destination in the summer, Tofino's population swells to many times its winter size. It attracts surfers, hikers, nature lovers, bird watchers, campers, whale watchers, fishers, or anyone just looking to be close to nature. In the winter it is not as bustling, although many people visit Tofino and the west coast to watch storms on the water. Close to Tofino is Long Beach, a scenic and popular year-round destination, at the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. With its natural hot springs, Maquinna Marine Provincial Park is a popular day-trip destination for tourists. Reachable by boat or floatplane, the park is located about 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Tofino.Tofino Harbour Water Aerodrome
Tofino Harbour Water Aerodrome (IATA: YTP, TC LID: CAB4) is located adjacent to Tofino Harbour, British Columbia, Canada.Wickaninnish
Wickaninnish () was a chief of the Tla-o-qui-aht people of Clayoquot Sound in the 1780s and 1790s, at present-day Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, during the opening period of European contact with the Pacific Northwest Coast cultures. His main name is also transliterated Wickaninish, Wickananish, Wikinanish, Huiquinanichi, Quiquinanis, and he was also known as Hiyoua.
Wickaninnish was a rival of the Mowachaht chief Maquinna of Nootka Sound. In one account he was blamed for the death of Maquinna's brother, Callicum, an event which spurred a war by the Mowachaht against the Tla-o-qui-aht. Maquinna's captive John R. Jewitt wrote of Wickaninnish.
Wickaninnish took umbrage at behaviour by American Capt. Jonathan Thorn, who was leading a voyage on the Pacific Fur Company's frigate Tonquin in June 1811, and had made overtures for trading. This resulted in the Battle of Woody Point, the Tla-o-qui-aht massacre of Thorn and most of the Tonquin crew. As the Tla-o-qui-aht plundered the vessel, a surviving crew member blew it up.Wickaninnish's name is preserved in the name of Wickaninnish Beach in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, Wickaninnish Island, and Wickaninnish Bay, and the Wickaninnish Inn. a surfside hotel, restaurant, and spa on Chesterman Beach, close to Long Beach.