Clay panel (also known as clay board, clay wallboard, clay building board, clay building panel) is a panel made of clay with some additives. The clay is mixed with sand, water, and fiber, typically wood fiber, and sometimes other additives like starch. Most often this means employing the use of high-cellulose waste fibres. To improve the breaking resistance clay boards are often embedded in a hessian skin on the backside or similar embeddings.
Clay board is an alternative to gypsum plasterboard. It is suitable for drywall applications for interior walls and ceilings. It can be applied to either timber or metal studwork. Usually the application of clay boards is completed with clay finishing plaster.
The boards have fire retardant properties and medium levels of acoustic insulation. Due to the clay component they have the ability to absorb large amounts of humidity through the plaster and helping to protect vulnerable buildings from excess moisture generated by modern living.
The cutting of clay boards can be done with a cutter knife, jigsaw or circular saw. The clay board is mounted in vertical or horizontal form. It is fastened with screws with plate head or holding plate, alternatively also with wide back clamps.
A clay plaster skim can be directly applied to the boards following joint filling and reinforcement.
A cement board is a combination of cement and reinforcing fibers formed into 3 foot by 5 foot sheets, 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick that are typically used as a tile backing board. Cement board can be nailed or screwed to wood or steel studs to create a substrate for vertical tile and attached horizontally to plywood for tile floors, kitchen counters and backsplashes. It can be used on the exterior of buildings as a base for exterior plaster (stucco) systems and sometimes as the finish system itself.
Cement board adds impact resistance and strength to the wall surface as compared to water resistant gypsum boards. Cement board is also fabricated in thin sheets with polymer modified cements to allow bending for curved surfaces.Clay
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3 , MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.
Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, however, some overlap in particle size and other physical properties. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline. Geologists and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm (clays being finer than silts), sedimentologists often use 4–5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm. Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils' Atterberg limits. ISO 14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 μm and silt particles as being larger.
Mixtures of sand, silt and less than 40% clay are called loam. Loam makes good soil and is used as a building material.Drywall
Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, sheet rock, gyprock, gypsum board, or gypsum panel) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, used in the construction of interior walls and ceilings. The plaster is mixed with fiber (typically paper, fiberglass, asbestos, or a combination of these materials), plasticizer, foaming agent, and various additives that can reduce mildew, flammability, and water absorption.
Drywall construction became prevalent in North America as a time and labor saving alternative to traditional lath and plaster.Enviroboard
Enviroboard is a paper-like or cardboard-like construction and packaging material, generally manufactured using compressed, ecologically safe, agricultural material. Most often this means employing the use of high-cellulose waste fibres, such as the post-harvest straw of rice, barley, wheat, and elephant grass or alternatively, a more urban waste stream such as newspaper fibre.
Construction panels built from agricultural wastes have been around for hundreds of years, especially in Central and Eastern Europe where pressed leaves and straw were used as insulation and even structural material. Environmental board panels should not be confused with straw bale construction which does not process waste fibres into a compressed standardized board panel.
The concept of environmental construction panels dovetails with the principles of sustainability, namely reducing the impact that the entire life-cycle of constructing built environments has on the environment.
The Securities and Exchange Commission filed fraud charges against Enviroboard on 29 August 2016.Magnesium oxide wallboard
Magnesium oxide, more commonly called magnesia, is a versatile mineral that when used as part of a cement mixture and cast into thin cement panels under proper curing procedures and practices can be used in residential and commercial building construction. Some versions are suitable for a wide range of general building uses and for applications that require fire resistance, mold and mildew control, as well as sound control applications and many other benefits. As an environmentally friendly building material, magnesia board has strength and resistance due to very strong bonds between magnesium and oxygen atoms that form magnesium oxide crystals (with the chemical formula MgO).
Magnesia boards are used in place of traditional gypsum drywall as wall and ceiling covering material and sheathing. It is also used in a number of other construction applications such as fascias, soffit, shaft-liner and area separation, wall sheathing, and as tile backing (backer board) or as substrates for coatings and insulated systems such as finish systems, EIFS, and some types of stucco.
Magnesia cement board for building construction is available is various sizes and thickness. It is not a paperfaced material. It generally comes in a light gray, white or beige color. Numerous versions and value of grades exist including smooth face, rough texture, utility, versatile grades as well as different densities and strengths for different applications and uses.
Presently various magnesia cement boards are widely used in Asia as a primary construction material. Some versions have been designated as the ‘official’ construction specified material of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games and some versions are used extensively on the inside and outside of all the walls, fireproofing beams, and as the sub-floor sheathing in one of the world's tallest buildings, Taipei 101, located in Taipei, Taiwan.
Magnesia cement is manufactured in a number of areas around the world, primarily near areas where magnesia based ore (periclase) deposits are mined. Major deposits are found in China, Europe, and Canada. Magnesia ore deposits in the US are negligible. Estimates put the use of magnesia board products at around 8 million ft² in Asia alone. It is gaining popularity in the US, particularly near coastal regions.Plaster
Plaster is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
In English "plaster" usually means a material used for the interiors of buildings, while "render" commonly refers to external applications. Another imprecise term used for the material is stucco, which is also often used for plasterwork that is worked in some way to produce relief decoration, rather than flat surfaces.
The most common types of plaster mainly contain either gypsum, lime, or cement, but all work in a similar way. The plaster is manufactured as a dry powder and is mixed with water to form a stiff but workable paste immediately before it is applied to the surface. The reaction with water liberates heat through crystallization and the hydrated plaster then hardens.
Plaster can be relatively easily worked with metal tools or even sandpaper, and can be moulded, either on site or to make pre-formed sections in advance, which are put in place with adhesive. Plaster is not a strong material; it is suitable for finishing, rather than load-bearing, and when thickly applied for decoration may require a hidden supporting framework, usually in metal.
Forms of plaster have several other uses. In medicine plaster orthopedic casts are still often used for supporting set broken bones. In dentistry plaster is used to make dental models. Various types of models and moulds are made with plaster. In art, lime plaster is the traditional matrix for fresco painting; the pigments are applied to a thin wet top layer of plaster and fuse with it so that the painting is actually in coloured plaster. In the ancient world, as well as the sort of ornamental designs in plaster relief that are still used, plaster was also widely used to create large figurative reliefs for walls, though few of these have survived.Pramod Kamble
Pramod Kamble ; (Marathi: प्रमोद कांबळे, born 11 August 1964) is an Indian artist as painter, sculptor and creative painter. He is a promoter of pushing eco-friendly idols, with NGOs promoting Ganapatis made of clay and painted in natural colours for a safer festival. He takes classes on making such eco-friendly idols during Ganesh festival.QuietRock
QuietRock is a brand of internally damped gypsum drywall panels manufactured in Newark, CA by PABCO Gypsum. QuietRock was invented prior to 2003 by Kevin Surace founder of Silicon Valley company Quiet Solution INC. (which later became known as Serious Materials and Serious Energy respectively) in Sunnyvale, CA. QuietRock panels are engineered to boost Sound Transmission Class (STC) performance in wall and ceiling applications using modern building science and construction techniques.Striding Lion
Striding Lion, a wall relief made from polychrome glazed, fired bricks, is one of the most iconic objects on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. It came from Babylon, Iraq, and dates to the time of Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BCE), king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Striding Lion is one of many such reliefs that decorated the walls of the palace's ceremonial hall and very similar to the lions that line the processional way from the Ishtar Gate to the temple of Marduk.
A large group of such figures is part of the Processional Way leading to the Ishtar Gate, a centrepiece display of the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. Other panels were sold by Berlin, such as the Panel with striding lion in New York.Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw. Wattle and daub has been used for at least 6,000 years and is still an important construction material in many parts of the world. Many historic buildings include wattle and daub construction, and the technique is becoming popular again in more developed areas as a low-impact sustainable building technique.