Claudi Lorenzale i Sugrañes (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈklau̯ði loɾẽn̟ˈθale i suˈɣɾaɲes]; December 8, 1814 – March 31, 1889) was a Spanish painter, associated with the German Nazarene movement and local efforts to recover the history of the Catalan region.
He was born in Barcelona. His father was a hatter of Italian origin. He began to study painting in Murcia at the age of twelve and, after 1830, was enrolled at the Escola de la Llotja in Barcelona, where he studied under Pelegrí Clavé and was awarded the first prize in painting for his work "Sísara derrotat per Barac" (The Defeat of Sisera by Barak), in 1837. That same year, he travelled to Rome, accompanied by fellow painter Pau Milà (a follower of the Nazarene artist Friedrich Overbeck), and came under Overbeck's influence. He continued his education there at the Accademia di San Luca, where he also received the first prize for painting.
Upon his return to Barcelona in 1844, he began a career devoted to artistic purity, inspired by Medieval art and the teachings of Overbeck. In pursuit of that goal, he founded his own Academy, which became widely known. His prestige as a teacher reached its peak in 1851 when he was named an Associate Professor of the graduate school at the Escola. The following year, he became a full Professor and, in 1858, he became the Director, a post he filled until 1885. He retired from the Academy three years later, and died in Barcelona, aged 74. Among his best-known students were Marià Fortuny, Antoni Caba and Tomàs Padró.
Alex Clapés (Vilassar de Dalt, September 10, 1850 – Barcelona, 1920) was a Catalan modernisme artist. He was one of the most unknown painters at in late 19th century and early 20th century in Catalonia, Spain. He was born in Vilassar de Dalt on September 10, 1850. He died in Barcelona in 1920. He is most known for performing some commissions for the Güell family, thanks to his friend and colleague, Antoni Gaudí.Alexandre de Riquer
Alexandre de Riquer i Ynglada, 7th Count of Casa Dávalos (Catalan pronunciation: [ələkˈsandɾə ðə riˈke]) (Born 3 May 1856 - 13 November 1920), was a versatile artist intellectual and Catalan Spanish designer, illustrator, painter, engraver, writer and poet. He was one of the leading figures of Modernism in Catalonia. He belonged to an aristocratic family, the Counts of Casa Dávalos. His father, Martí de Riquer, Marquis of Benavent, was a senior leader of the Carlist of Catalonia, while his mother, Elisea Ynglada, belonged to a family of intellectuals and artists (including writers such as Joseph and Wifred Coroleu and painter Ricard Modest Urgell).
In 1885, he was married to Dolors Palau Gonzalez de Quijano. "Between 1886 and 1898 he fathered nine children (three of whom died in infancy) and it was this responsibility with its attendant economic pressures which doubtless gave added, even urgent stimulus to Riquer's professional dedication."Antoni Caba
Antoni Caba i Casamitjana (1838 – 25 January 1907) was a Catalonian painter who worked in the Realistic style and is best known for his portraits.Arcadi Mas i Fondevila
Arcadi Mas i Fondevila, or Fontdevila (12 November 1852 in Barcelona – 31 January 1934 in Sitges), was a Catalan painter and graphic artist.Catalonia
Catalonia (; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə]; Aranese: Catalonha [kataˈluɲɔ]; Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa];) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales, Occitanie). It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria) to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, the lineages of the rulers of Catalonia and rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, when the King of Aragon married his daughter to the Count of Barcelona. The de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese rulers in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts (parliament), and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.
During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees, suppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.
In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence.
On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including President Carles Puigdemont, fled to other European countries.Joaquim Espalter
Joaquim Espalter i Rull or, in Spanish, Joaquín Espalter y Rull (September 30 1809 – 16 January 1880) was a Catalan painter who spent most of his career in Madrid; known primarily for portraits and historical scenes.Josefa Texidor Torres
Josefa Texidor i Torres (also known as Pepita Texidor and Teixidor; 17 November 1865 - 8 February 1914) was a Spanish painter. Born in Barcelona in 1865, she was trained by her father, José Texidor Busquets, her brother, Modest Texidor Torres and later she studied under Francesc Miralles. Her brother wanted her to dedicate herself to the painting of portraits, but Pepita preferred, from the beginning, the use of watercolours and the painting of cultivated flowers. Pepita was trained in music, singing and painting and often travelled. She remained single and dedicated herself to family and charity work. She participated in many exhibitions in Barcelona and at the Exposition Universelle (Paris, 1900), where she was awarded a silver medal for her flower sprays in Springtime and Autumn. She was nominated an honorary member of the "Union des femmes peintres et sculpteurs". She died at the age of 39 in Barcelona in 1914, after a year of severe illness. On 21 May 1914 meetings began to commission a bust for the Parc de la Ciutadella. A tombola was held to raise funds through the sale of paintings by her father and brother, along with works from painters of the time, like Lluïsa Vidal, Isabel Baquero, Rafaela Sánchez Aroca, Visitació Ubach, Ramon Casas, Claudi Lorenzale, Santiago Rusiñol, Modest Urgell, Apel·les Mestres, etc.; and works also of dead artists, like Fortuny, Martí Alsina, Vayreda, etc. Apel·les Mestres dedicated a poem to her that he shared with all those who attended the inaugural act. The bust was designed by Manuel Fuxá and was inaugurated on 14 October 1917. (translated source )
In March 1909, La Vanguardia, reviewed a musical composition by Pepita Texidor - "Lola", a graceful habanera for the piano. She was praised for her 'refined talent' with both colours and sounds. The piece was edited by Musical Emporium and the cover was designed by Alexandre de Riquer with a female figure in dance pose. (translated source )Josep Masriera
Josep Masriera i Manovens (22 January 1841, Barcelona – 31 January 1912, Barcelona) was a Spanish landscape painter, goldsmith and businessman.Josep Tapiró Baró
Josep Tapiró i Baró (17 February 1836, Reus - 4 October 1913, Tangier) was a Spanish painter; best known for his watercolor portraits from Morocco.La Violeta de oro
La Violeta de oro was a Catalan magazine that was first published in October 1851. The editor-in-chief was Víctor Balaguer. Behind the publication of the magazine was the "Sociedad Filarmónica Literaria" (a literary society), which had a very high prestige regarding music. After two months, Victor Balaguer had to leave the magazine. As a consequence, it disappeared on December 20, 1851, with only 9 issues published. Regarding the format of the magazine, it had 8 pages and a monthly subscription cost of 1 peseta. It was printed by "Imprenta del Porvenir" (Barcelona).Legend of the Four Blood Bars
The Legend of the Four Blood Bars is a legend about the origins of the Senyera Reial (Royal Banner) that appeared for the first time in 1551 at Segunda parte de la crónica general de España, a chronicle edited by Pere Antoni Beuter in Spanish in Valencia. This legend places the Senyera Reial origins on Wilfred the Hairy. Specifically, it narrates that the sign of the four bars was created after a battle against the Normans, when the King of the Franks doused his hands in the blood of Wilfred the Hairy's injuries. After swiping his fingers over the golden shield of the Earl of Barcelona he said: "These will be your arms, Earl".
The Legend of the Four Blood Bars does not appear in any other historical work before Beuter's work in 1551, even though the affiliation of Senyal Reial to the lineage of the Barcelona's Earl was already established by the kings of Aragon in the fourteenth century. In the fifteenth century, early versions of the legend appeared. This versions explained the creation of this heraldic sign as some blood marks on a golden shield. Finally, in the sixteenth century it was Beuter who noticed that he had found the legend of Wilfred the Hairy and the blood bars in some alleged "manuscripts" he gave no further data from. Although it cannot be imputed with absolute certainty that Beuter was the creator of the legend, it seems rather clear that the alleged "manuscript" source was either remitting to an earlier source, or it was a subterfuge to avoid any subsequent critique.
The Valencian Legend of the Four Blood Bars was an immediate and fulminating success that was copied by all the later historians that made it a true story. It was not until 1812 that the Catalan historian Joan de Sans i de Barutell discredited any truth in the Valencian legend of the four bars. He noted the historical incoherences regarding Wilfred the Hairy (840-897). Meanwhile, heraldic Faustino Menéndez Pidal de Navascués proved that heraldic did not reach Europe until the second quarter of the twelfth century (1125-1150). Although in 1812 Joan de Sans i de Barutell discredited completely the historicity of the legend, it is still a beautiful legend, which is why artists felt the need to graphically reproduce it and glosse it with poems. The Valencian Legend of the Four Blood Bars that appeared in the sixteenth century should not be confused with the Llegenda medieval de Guifré el Pilós(Medieval legend of Wilfred the Hairy), compiled by the monks of Santa Maria de Ripoll Monastery in the twelfth century.List of Spanish painters
This is a list of notable painters from, or associated with, Spain.List of artists from the MNAC collection
This is an alphabetical list of the names of artists with one or more works in the MNAC Collection in Barcelona, of the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (MNAC), or its funds, as of 2012.Marià Fortuny
Marià Josep Maria Bernat Fortuny i Marsal (Catalan pronunciation: [məɾiˈa ʒuˈzɛb məˈɾi.ə βəɾˈnat fuɾˈtuɲ i məɾˈsal]; Spanish: Mariano José María Bernardo Fortuny y Marsal; June 11, 1838 – November 21, 1874), known more simply as Marià Fortuny or Mariano Fortuny, was the leading Spanish painter of his day, with an international reputation. His brief career encompassed works on a variety of subjects common in the art of the period, including the Romantic fascination with Orientalist themes, historicist genre painting, military painting of Spanish colonial expansion, as well as a prescient loosening of brush-stroke and color.Modest Urgell
Modest Urgell i Inglada, also known by the nickname Katúfol (13 June 1839, Barcelona - 3 April 1919, Barcelona) was a Spanish landscape painter and comic playwright. He used his nickname for cartoons and illustrations.Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya
The Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (Catalan pronunciation: [muˈzɛw nəsi.uˈnal ˈdaɾd də kətəˈluɲə], English: "National Art Museum of Catalonia"), abbreviated as MNAC, is the national museum of Catalan visual art located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Situated on Montjuïc hill at the end of Avinguda de la Reina Maria Cristina, near Pl Espanya, the museum is especially notable for its outstanding collection of romanesque church paintings, and for Catalan art and design from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including modernisme and noucentisme. The museum is housed in the Palau Nacional, a huge, Italian-style building dating to 1929. The Palau Nacional, which has housed the Museu d'Art de Catalunya since 1934, was declared a national museum in 1990 under the Museums Law passed by the Catalan Government. That same year, a thorough renovation process was launched to refurbish the site, based on plans drawn up by the architects Gae Aulenti and Enric Steegmann, who were later joined in the undertaking by Josep Benedito. The Oval Hall was reopened in 1992 on the occasion of the Olympic Games, and the various collections were installed and opened over the period from 1995 (when the Romanesque Art section was reopened) to 2004. The Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (Museu Nacional) was officially inaugurated on 16 December 2004. It is one of the largest museums in Spain.National symbols of Catalonia
The national symbols of Catalonia are flags, icons or cultural expressions that are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of Catalonia or Catalan culture.
The oldest Catalan symbol is the coat of arms of Catalonia, based on the royal arms of the Crown of Aragon, though a number of theories trace its origin to even older times. It is one of the oldest coats of arms in Europe. A legend, considered non-historical, says that the four red bars (Quatre Pals or Quatre Barres) are the result of Charles the Bald, known also as Charles II, king of West Francia, smearing four bloodied fingers over Wilfred the Hairy's golden shield, after the latter had fought bravely against the Normans.
Catalonia's national symbols as defined in the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia are the flag, Catalonia's day, and the anthem. These symbols have often a political and revindicative significance. Other symbols may not have official status, for different reasons, but are likewise recognised at a national or international level.
One of the highest civil distinctions awarded in Catalonia is the St George's Cross (Creu de Sant Jordi).Principality of Catalonia
The Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Principat de Catalunya, Latin: Principatus Cathaloniæ, Occitan: Principautat de Catalonha, French: Principauté de Catalogne, Spanish: Principado de Cataluña) was a medieval and early modern political entity in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. During most of its history it was in dynastic union with the Kingdom of Aragon, constituting together the Crown of Aragon. Between the 13th and the 18th centuries it was bordered by the Kingdom of Aragon to the west, the Kingdom of Valencia to the south, the Kingdom of France and the feudal lordship of Andorra to the north and by the Mediterranean sea to the east. The term "Principality of Catalonia" remained in use until the Second Spanish Republic, when its use declined because of its historical relation to the monarchy. Today, the term Principat (Principality) is used primarily to refer to the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain, as distinct from the other Catalan Countries. and usually including the historical region of Roussillon in southern France.
The first reference to Catalonia and the Catalans appears in the Liber maiolichinus de gestis Pisanorum illustribus, a Pisan chronicle (written between 1117 and 1125) of the conquest of Menorca by a joint force of Italians, Catalans, and Occitans. At the time, Catalonia did not yet exist as a political entity, though the use of this term seems to acknowledge Catalonia as a cultural or geographical entity.
The counties that would eventually make up the Principality of Catalonia were gradually unified under the rule of the Count of Barcelona. In 1137, the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were unified under a single dynasty, creating what modern historians call the Crown of Aragon; however, Aragon and Catalonia retained their own political structure and legal traditions, developing separate political communities along the next centuries. Under Alfons I the Troubador (reigned 1164–1196), Catalonia was regarded as a legal entity for the first time. Still, the term Principality of Catalonia was not used legally until the 14th century, when it was applied to the territories ruled by the Courts of Catalonia.
Its institutional system evolved over the centuries, establishing political bodies (such as the Courts, the Generalitat or the Consell de Cent) and legislation (constitutions, derived from the Usages of Barcelona) which limited the royal power and secured the political model of pactism. Catalonia contributed to further develop the Crown trade and military, most significantly their navy. Catalan language flourished and expanded as more territories were added to the Crown, including Valencia, the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Sicily, Naples and Athens, constituting a thalassocracy across the Mediterranean. The crisis of the 14th century, the end of the rule of House of Barcelona (1410) and a civil war (1462–1472) weakened the role of the Principality in Crown and international affairs.
The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 laid the foundations of the Monarchy of Spain. In 1492 the Spanish colonization of the Americas began, and political power began to shift away towards Castile. Tensions between Catalan institutions and the Monarchy, alongside the peasants' revolts provoked the Reapers' War (1640–1659). By the Treaty of the Pyrenees the Roussillon was ceded to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), the Crown of Aragon supported the Archduke Charles of Habsburg. After the surrender of Barcelona in 1714, the king Philip V of Bourbon, inspired by the model of France imposed the abolutism and a unifying administration across Spain, and enacted the Nueva Planta decrees for every realm of the Crown of Aragon, which suppressed the main Catalan, Aragonese, Valencian and Majorcan political institutions and rights and merged them into the Crown of Castile as provinces.Valentí Almirall i Llozer
Valentí Almirall i Llozer (Catalan pronunciation: [bələnˈti əlmiˈɾaʎ]; Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, 8 March 1841 – 1904) was a Spanish politician, considered one of the fathers of modern Catalan nationalism, and more specifically, of the left-wing nationalism.