Claude Cahen (26 February 1909 – 18 November 1991) was a 20th-century French Marxist orientalist and historian. He specialized in the studies of the Islamic Middle Ages, Muslim sources about the Crusades, and social history of the medieval Islamic society (works on Futuwa orders).
Claude Cahen was born in Paris to a French Jewish family. After studying at the École Normale Supérieure on the rue d'Ulm, he attended the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, receiving a doctorate in 1940. He was a professor at the University of Strasbourg from 1945 to 1959 and then at the Sorbonne; in 1967 he was invited to teach at the University of Michigan, and in 1973, he was elected to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.
Cahen was married and had six children, including the historian Michel Cahen, who wrote a biography of his father. Cahen was a member of the French Communist Party from the 1930s until 1960, and remained an active Marxist afterwards. Despite his origins, he neither self-identified as Jewish nor supported the State of Israel.
In 1954 he published "An Introduction to the First Crusade" in the Oxford journal Past and Present. Cahen has been called "the doyen of Islamic social history and one of the most influential Islamic historians of [his] century," and "the best historian of the Middle East in the twentieth century." Mark Cohen describes him as a distinguished Islamic historian. He was a prisoner of war in World War II. The Festschrift Itineraires d'Orient: Hommages a Claude Cahen, edited by Raoul Curiel and Rika Gyselen, appeared in 1995 as an honor to his "distinguished career", and an issue of the journal Arabica (43/1 (1996)) was dedicated to him. That issue also includes a nearly complete bibliography of his works.
« Claude Cahen : histoire et engagement politique. Entretien avec Maxime Rodinson » (propos recueillis par D. Gazagnadou et F. Micheau, bibliographie exhaustive des ouvrages, articles et comptes-rendus de Claude Cahen), Arabica (Brill éditeur), vol. 43, n°1 (1996), (p. 7–27). Revue Arabica
Events from the year 1909 in France.1991 in France
Events from the year 1991 in France.Abu Hanifa Dinawari
Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, Arabic: أبو حنيفة الدينوري) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian. He was born in the region of Dinawar, in Kermanshah in modern-day western Iran. He studied astronomy, mathematics and mechanics in Isfahan and philology and poetry in Kufa and Basra. He died in Dinawar. His most renowned contribution is Book of Plants, for which he is considered the founder of Arabic botany.There is no consensus regarding his ethnic background among scholars. Ludwig Adamec considers him to be of Kurdish descent, while Encyclopedia of Islam classifies him as an Arab philologist and scientist of Iranian origin however, Encyclopaedia Iranica and Claude Cahen list him as Persian. The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity states that Dinawari was Iranian.Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak, also spelled Baba Ishāq, Babaî, or Bābā’ī, a charismatic preacher, led an uprising of the Turkmen of Anatolia against the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm well known as Babai Revolt c. 1239 until he was hanged in 1241.Battle of Köse Dağ
The Battle of Köse Dağ was fought between the Sultanate of Rum ruled by the Seljuq dynasty and the Mongol Empire on June 26, 1243 at the defile of Köse Dağ, a location between Erzincan and Gümüşhane in modern northeastern Turkey; the Mongols achieved a decisive victory.Cahen
Cahen is a surname and/or a first name that may refer to:
Cahen's constant, an infinite series of unit fractions, with alternating signs, derived from Sylvester's sequence
Cahen-Mellin integral, an integral transformChaghri Beg
Chaghri Beg (Turkish: Çağrı Bey, full name: Abu Suleiman Dawud Chaghri-Beg ibn Mikail) (989 - 1060), Da'ud b. Mika'il b. Saljuq, also spelled Chaghri, was the co-ruler of the early Seljuq empire. The name Chaghri is Turkic (Çağrı in modern Turkish) and literally means "small falcon", "merlin".Charles Pellat
Charles Pellat (28 September 1914 – 28 October 1992) was a French Arabist. He was a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, and an editor of the Encyclopaedia of Islam.Eshrefids
The Eshrefids or Ashrafids (Modern Turkish: Eşrefoğulları or Eşrefoğulları Beyliği ) was one of the Anatolian beyliks.Iqta'
Iqta‘ (Arabic: اقطاع) was an Islamic practice of tax farming that became common in Muslim Asia during the Buyid dynasty. The prominent Orientalist Claude Cahen described the Iqta‘ as follows:
a form of administrative grant, often (wrongly) translated by the European word “fief”. The nature of the iḳṭāʿ varied according to time and place, and a translation borrowed from other systems of institutions and conceptions has served only too often to mislead Western historians, and following them, even those of the East.
Unlike European systems, the Muqtis had no right to interfere with the personal life of a paying person if the person stayed on the Muqti's land. Also, Iqtas were not hereditary by law and had to be confirmed by a higher authority (like the sultan or the king).Individual iqta holders in Middle Eastern societies had little incentive to provide public goods to the localities assigned to them. The overarching theme was state power where the iqta was revocable and uninheritable. Though not an investment in a particular holding of land, the iqta—as a fiscal device—gave soldiers a vested interest in the regime.Kaykhusraw III
Kaykhusraw III (Old Anatolian Turkish: كَیخُسرو سوم) or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw bin Qilij Arslān (Persian: غياث الدين كيخسرو بن قلج ارسلان; ca. 1259-1263 - 1284) was between two and six years old when in 1265 he was named Seljuq Sultan of Rûm. He was the son of Kilij Arslan IV, the weak representative of the Seljuq line who was controlled by the Pervane, Mu’in al-Din Suleyman.Kayqubad II
Kayqubad II (Old Anatolian Turkish: كیقباد; Persian: علاء الدين كيقباد بن كيخسرو, ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykhusraw) was the youngest of the three sons of the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm Kaykhusraw II. As son of the sultan’s favorite wife, the Georgian princess Tamar, he was designated heir. He had a weak constitution and was likely seven years old at the time of his father’s death in 1246, being born ca. 1238/39.Kayqubad III
Kayqubad III (Old Anatolian Turkish: كَیقُباد سوم or ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Farāmurz (Persian: علاء الدین کیقباد بن فرامرز) was briefly sultan of the Sultanate of Rum between the years of 1298 and 1302. He was a nephew of the deposed Kaykaus II and had strong support among the Turkmen. As sultan he was a vassal of the Mongols and exercised no real power.Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey
Kerîmeddin Karaman Beg (Turkish) (Arabic: كريم ٱلدين Karīm al-Dīn Karaman Bey) was a Turkmen chief founder of the dynasty Karaman-oğhlu or Karamanoğulları. The province and city of Larandia was renamed Karaman in his honor.Kilij Arslan III
Kilij Arslan III (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان, Persian: قلج ارسلان Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish: Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm for a short period between 1204 and 1205.Kilij Arslan IV
Kilij Arslan IV (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان) or Rukn ad-Dīn Qilij Arslān bin Kaykhusraw (Persian: رکن الدین قلج ارسلان بن کیخسرو) was Seljuq Sultan of Rûm after the death of his father Kaykhusraw II in 1246. He was installed by the Mongol Empire, as sultan over his elder brother, Kaykaus II. He was executed in 1266 by the Pervâne Mu‘in al-Din Suleyman.Louis Bazin
Louis Bazin (20 December 1920 – 2 March 2011) was a French orientalist.Mesud II
Masud II or Mas'ud II (Old Anatolian Turkish: مَسعود دوم, Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Mas'ūd bin Kaykāwūs (Persian: غياث الدين مسعود بن كيكاوس) bore the title of Sultan of Rûm at various times between 1284 and 1308. He was a vassal of the Mongols and exercised no real authority. History does not record his ultimate fate.Nure Sofi
Nûre Sûfi Bey (Turkish: Nureddin Bey) was the predecessor of Karamanid dynasty, a Turkish dynasty which ruled part of Anatolia in the 14th and 15th centuries as a rival of the Ottoman Empire. He was the son of Hodja Sad al-Din (Turkish: Hoca Sadeddin) who had come from Arran, staying for some years near Sivas.
This, when generalized, is a reference to the actual migrations brought about by Khwārizmian and Mongol pressure, and moreover it suggests some perceptible connection, if not precisely with Baba Ishak, at least with circles influenced by religious influence of that kind - there is a reference to a Khorasanian Șūfī, Baba Ilyās, with whom both Nûre Sûfi and Baba Ishāq are said to have been in touch - and also to the fact that the first chiefs who brought in these Turkmens were equally leaders in the field of religion.Nure Sofi was a member of Afşar tribe of Turkmens. Originally living in West Turkmenistan (i.e., modern Balkan Province) the tribe moved west to Anatolia in 1228 probably to escape from the invading Mongols. They were welcomed by Alaattin Keykubat I of Seljuks of Turkey and they were settled around Ermenek (now a district in Karaman Province) Nure Sofi's original position in the tribe is not known. According to some he was dealing with coal trade between Ermenek and the Seljuk cities to the north But he soon proved himself as a leader during Babai Revolt in which he was the partisan of Baba İshak. He also captured many small settlements around Ermenek to form the core of the future Karamanoğlu Beylik.According to historian Shikari, Nûre Sûfi Bey was more interested in Sufi religious matters (he was a disciple of Baba Ilyās) than in politics and military and named his son Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey in commandment in order for him to follow a life of solitude.
He died probably around 1257. His tomb is in Değirmenlik, a location in Mut district of Mersin Province
He was succeeded by his son Karaman Bey who assumed full power upon his death.
Nûre Sûfi fathered two other sons: Zayn al-Hadjdj (died in battle in 1262, fighting for Izz al-Din Kaykaus against Rukn al-Din Kaykubad), Bünsuz, and a daughter (who died in 1282).