Classic Ethernet

Classic Ethernet is a family of 10 Mbit/s Ethernet standards, which is the first generation of Ethernet standards. In 10BASE-X, the 10 represents its maximum throughput of 10 Mbit/s, BASE indicates its use of baseband transmission, and X indicates the type of medium used.


Name Standard Status Media OFC or RFC Transceiver Module Reach (km) # Media Lanes (⇅) Notes
Classic Ethernet - (Data rate: 10 Mbit/s - Line code: PE - Line rate: 20 MBd - Full-Duplex / Half-Duplex)
Thick Ethernet
DIX Standard
(50 Ω)
Vampire tap
MAU 0.5 1 1 LAN; original standard;
electrical bus topology with collision detection;
uses a single coaxial cable into which you literally tap a connection by drilling into the cable to connect to the core and screen.
Thin Ethernet
(50 Ω)
0.185 1 1 LAN; dominant standard from the mid to late 1980s;
electrical bus topology with collision detection;
coaxial cable connects machines together, each machine using a T-connector to connect to its NIC. Requires terminators at each end.
10BASE-T 0.1 2 1
FOIRL 802.3d-1987
superseded Fibre
850 nm
ST OF: 1 2 1 original standard for Ethernet over fiber;
uses any optical fiber with up to 4 dB/km attenuation and at least 150 MHz bandwidth;
superseded by 10BASE-FL
10BASE-FL 802.3j-1993
850 nm
ST FDDI: 2 2 1 Nodes
10BASE-FB 802.3j-1993
850 nm
ST FDDI: 2 2 1 synchronous inter-repeater connections
10BASE-FP 802.3j-1993
obsolete Fibre
850 nm
ST FDDI: 1 2 1 passive, repeaterless star network;
Market Failure, never implemented


10BASE-F, or sometimes 10BASE-FX, is a generic term for the family of 10 Mbit/s Ethernet standards using fiber optic cable. In 10BASE-F, the 10 represents a maximum throughput of 10 Mbit/s, BASE indicates its use of baseband transmission, and F indicates that it relies on medium of fiber-optic cable. The technical standard requires two strands of 62.5/125 µm multimode fiber. One strand is used for data transmission while the other is used for reception, making 10BASE-F a full-duplex technology. There a three different variants of 10BASE-F: 10BASE-FL, 10BASE-FB and 10BASE-FP. Of these only 10BASE-FL experienced widespread use.[1] With the introduction later standards 10 Mbit/s technology has been largely replaced by faster Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet and 100 Gigabit Ethernet standards.


10BASE-FL is the most commonly used 10BASE-F specification of Ethernet over optical fiber. In 10BASE-FL, FL stands for fiber optic link. It replaces the original fiber-optic inter-repeater link (FOIRL) specification, but retains compatibility with FOIRL-based equipment. When mixed with FOIRL equipment, maximum segment length is limited to FOIRL's 1000 meters.[1]


The 10BASE-FB is a network segment used to bridge Ethernet hubs. Here FB abbreviates FiberBackbone. Due to the synchronous operation of 10BASE-FB, delays normally associated with Ethernet repeaters are reduced, thus allowing segment distances to be extended without compromising the collision detection mechanism. The maximum allowable segment length for 10BASE-FB is 2000 meters. This media system allowed multiple half-duplex Ethernet signal repeaters to be linked in series, exceeding the limit on the total number of repeaters that could be used in a given 10 Mbit/s Ethernet system. 10BASE-FB links were attached to synchronous signaling repeater hubs and used to link the hubs together in a half-duplex repeated backbone system that could span longer distances.[1]


Fiber-optic inter-repeater link (FOIRL) is a specification of Ethernet over optical fiber. It was especially designed as a back-to-back transport between repeater hubs as to decrease latency and collision detection time, thus increasing the possible network radius. It was replaced by 10BASE-FL.[1]


In 10BASE-FP, FP denotes Fibre Passive. This variant calls for a non-powered signal coupler to act as optical signal couplers capable of linking up to 33 devices, with each segment being up to 500 m in length. This formed a star-type network centered on the signal coupler. There are no devices known to have implemented this standard.[1][2]


  1. ^ a b c d e Charles E. Spurgeon (2014). Ethernet: The Definitive Guide (2nd ed.). O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-6184-6.
  2. ^ Parker, Tim (2000-07-10). "Obscure standard may make you flip for fibre". ProQuest Computer Science Journals. Rogers Publishing Limited. 13 (11). Retrieved 2016-02-28.
Data-rate units

In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system. Common data rate units are multiples of bits per second (bit/s) and bytes per second (B/s). For example, the data rates of modern residential high-speed Internet connections are commonly expressed in megabits per second (Mbit/s).

Dell PowerConnect

The current portfolio of PowerConnect switches are now being offered as part of the Dell Networking brand: information on this page is an overview of all current and past PowerConnect switches as per August 2013, but any updates on current portfolio will be detailed on the Dell Networking page.

PowerConnect was a Dell series of network switches. The PowerConnect "classic" switches are based on Broadcom or Marvell Technology Group fabric and firmware. Dell acquired Force10 Networks in 2011 to expand its data center switch products.

Dell also offers the PowerConnect M-series which are switches for the M1000e blade-server enclosure and the PowerConnect W-series which is a Wi-Fi platform based on Aruba Networks.

Starting in 2013 Dell will re-brand their networking portfolio to Dell Networking which covers both the legacy PowerConnect products as well as the Force10 products.

Ethernet physical layer

The Ethernet physical layer is the physical layer functionality of the Ethernet family of computer network standards. The physical layer defines the electrical or optical properties of the physical connection between a device and the network or between network devices. It is complemented by the MAC layer and the logical link layer.

The Ethernet physical layer has evolved over its existence starting in 1980 and encompasses multiple physical media interfaces and several orders of magnitude of speed from 1 Mbit/s to 400 Gbit/s. The physical medium ranges from bulky coaxial cable to twisted pair and optical fiber. In general, network protocol stack software will work similarly on all physical layers.

Many Ethernet adapters and switch ports support multiple speeds by using autonegotiation to set the speed and duplex for the best values supported by both connected devices. While this can practically be relied on for Ethernet over twisted pair, few optical-fiber ports support multiple speeds. If autonegotiation fails, some multiple-speed devices sense the speed used by their partner, but this may result in a duplex mismatch. With rare exceptions, a 100BASE-TX port (10/100) also supports 10BASE-T while a 1000BASE-T port (10/100/1000) also supports 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX. A 10GBASE-T port often also supports 1000BASE-T.10 Gigabit Ethernet was already used in both enterprise and carrier networks by 2007, with 40 Gbit/s and 100 Gigabit Ethernet ratified. In 2017, the fastest additions to the Ethernet family were 200 and 400 Gbit/s.

Interpacket gap

In computer networking, a minimal pause may be required between network packets or network frames. This time between packets is known as the interpacket gap (IPG), interframe spacing, or interframe gap (IFG). Depending on the physical layer protocol or encoding used, the pause may be necessary to allow for receiver clock recovery, permitting the receiver to prepare for another packet (e.g. powering up from a low-power state) or another purpose.

Orders of magnitude (bit rate)

An order of magnitude is generally a factor of ten. A quantity growing by four orders of magnitude implies it has grown by a factor of 10000 or 104. However, because computers are binary, orders of magnitude are sometimes given as powers of two.

This article presents a list of multiples, sorted by orders of magnitude, for bit rates measured in bits per second. Since some bit rates may measured in other quantities of data or time (like MB/s), information to assist with converting to and from these formats is provided. This article assumes the following:

A group of 8 bits (8 b) constitutes one byte (1 B). The byte is the most common unit of measurement of information (megabyte, mebibyte, gigabyte, gibibyte, etc.).

The decimal SI prefixes kilo, mega etc., are powers of 10. The power of two equivalents are the binary prefixes kibi, mebi, etc.Accordingly:

1 kB (kilobyte) = 1000 bytes = 8000 bits

1 KiB (kibibyte) = 210 bytes = 1024 bytes = 8192 bits

1 kb (kilobit) = 125 bytes = 1000 bits

1 Kib (kibibit) = 210 bits = 1024 bits = 128 bytes

Physical Coding Sublayer

The Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS) is a networking protocol sublayer in the Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet standards. It resides at the top of the physical layer (PHY), and provides an interface between the Physical Medium Attachment (PMA) sublayer and the Media Independent Interface (MII). It is responsible for data encoding and decoding, scrambling and descrambling, alignment marker insertion and removal, block and symbol redistribution, and lane block synchronization and deskew.

Ethernet family of local area network technologies

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