Claros

Claros (Greek: Κλάρος, Klaros; Latin: Clarus) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia. It contained a temple and oracle of Apollo, honored here as Apollo Clarius. It was located on the territory of Colophon, one of the twelve Ionic cities, twelve kilometers to the north. The coastal city Notion lay two kilometers to the south. The ruins of the sanctuary are now found north of the modern town Ahmetbeyli in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

The Temple of Apollo at Claros was a very important center of prophecy as in Delphi and Didyma. The oldest information about this sacred site goes back to the sixth and seventh centuries BC. through the Homeric Hymns. A sacred cave near the Temple of Apollo, which was an important place both in the Hellenistic and Roman eras, points to the existence of a Cybele cult in earlier periods here. Games called the Claria were held at Claros every fifth year in honor of Apollo.

Claros
Κλάρος (in Ancient Greek)
Clarus ‹See Tfd›(in Latin)
Klaros01
The Temple of Apollo at Claros
Claros is located in Turkey
Claros
Shown within Turkey
LocationAhmetbeyli, Izmir Province, Turkey
RegionIonia
Coordinates38°00′18″N 27°11′34″E / 38.00500°N 27.19278°ECoordinates: 38°00′18″N 27°11′34″E / 38.00500°N 27.19278°E
TypeSanctuary
Satellite ofColophon
Site notes
ConditionRuined
OwnershipPublic
Public accessYes

History

Map greek sanctuaries-en
A map of the main sanctuaries in Classical Greece

It is unknown when the sanctuary was founded exactly and its origins are shrouded in mythology. Archaeological excavations revealed structures dating back to the 10th century BC.[1] The high point for the fame of the sanctuary seems to have been the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD[2] and it had many visitors until the 4th century AD.[3]

Materials & Source

In the late Hellenistic period, a cargo ship carrying marble sank on its way to Claros off the southwest coast of modern-day Turkey near Kizilburun.[4][5] The ship was discovered in 1993, and has been under excavation since 2005. On this ship, an estimated fifty tons of marble columns were recovered that matched the description of the columns found at Claros, the temple of Apollo. Isotopic and meteorological data indicate Proconnesus as the source of the marble. The marble was being imported from Proconnesus Island to be used at the site, and was a special type of marble with distinctive blue and white bands known as Proconnesian Marble. The marble did not complete its 350 kilometer journey from Proconnesus Island to the Izmir Province of Turkey.

Foundation

The founding myth of Claros connects the city with the myth of the Epigoni who conquered Thebes.[6] The two seers Teiresias and his daughter Manto became their captives along with other Thebans. The Epigoni sent them to Delphi to honor Apollo, but Teiresias died on the journey. At Delphi, Manto was commanded by Apollo to sail to Ionia with the remaining Thebans to found a colony there. When they arrived at the site where Claros would be founded later, they were seized by armed Cretans under Rhacius, the Cretan settler of Caria. After learning from Manto who they were and why they had come, Rhacius married her and allowed the Thebans to found Claros. Their heir was the seer Mopsus.[7]

Thus the origin of the oracle at Clarus was remembered by Greeks of the Classical period as Minoan-Mycenean in origin. Archaeological investigations lend support to the myth. Intensely settled Mycenaean sites have been identified at Ephesus to the south and numerous other nearby sites. Miletus had a historical Minoan settlement, discovered in 1995/96 by the German school. In Claros itself, deep exploratory trenches dug between the altar and the temple façade, revealed Protogeometric pottery of the 10th century BC, attesting to the presence hinted at in myth.

At Colophon, a Mycenaean-era tomb has been found, but the presence of Mycenaean pottery is uncertain.

According to mythology the Greek seer Calchas, a participant in the Trojan War, died at Claros. He challenged Mopsus to see who had the greatest skill in divination, but lost and died of grief.[8]

Hellenistic period

According to legend the oracle at Claros advised the citizens of Smyrna to move from Old Smyrna to the new Smyrna on Mount Pagos (modern Kadifekale), which was refounded there by Alexander the Great. The Smyrnaeans decided to follow up on the advice.[9] Old Smyrna had lost its importance at the time, but after its second foundation it would become one of the most prosperous cities of Asia.

Roman period

Many monuments were erected in the Roman period (Pompey, Lucullus, Quintus Tullius Cicero); several took place above Hellenistic foundations. Pliny the Elder remarks that "At Colophon, in the cave of the Clarian Apollo, there is a pool, by the drinking of which a power is acquired of uttering wonderful oracles; but the lives of those who drink of it are shortened".[10] Iamblichus said that the oracle, during the ecstasy “... is not in control of himself and does not follow what he is saying, or where he is...”[11] Germanicus famously visited the oracle in 18 AD (a year before his death) and "It was said that he prophesied to Germanicus, in dark hints, as oracles usually do, an early doom".[12]

Excavations

Claros had been entirely buried in the alluvial silt deposited by the small river at the site, a widespread phenomenon along this coastline during the 1st century BC, as the hinterland was deforested. T. Macridy uncovered the monumental entrance to the sanctuary in 1905 and returned for further explorations with the French archaeologist Charles Picard in 1913. Excavations recommenced between 1950 and 1961 under Louis Robert, and a series of important Roman dedicated monuments came to light, as well as the famous Doric Temple of Apollo, seat of the oracle, in its final grand though uncompleted Hellenistic phase, 3rd century BC. The Sacred Way was excavated in 1988 under J. de La Genière. Since then much alluvial spoil has been carted off-site and Claros was prepared to receive visitors.[1]

The excavations conducted since 1988 have demonstrated that there was a religious area there around a spring of fresh water from the 9th century BC. The first known construction is a round altar of the second half of the 7th century. It was covered over around the middle of the 6th century by a large rectangular altar (14.85 × 6.05 m); at the same time a marble temple was built for Apollo around the spring while Apollo’s sister, Artemis, had her own precinct and a smaller altar (3.50 × 150 m): next to it were found the bases of two korai, one of which is preserved (the head is missing). There were at least four statues of kouroi dedicated to Apollo; three of them, incomplete, have been found.

Claros temple 2004-11-14
The maze-like adyton beneath the Temple of Apollo has been preserved well.

Very few changes occurred in the sanctuary between the 6th and the end of the 4th century. At that time a new layout of the sacred area was conceived, with monuments on a larger scale; most probably, the plans were put into execution only after the terrible events of the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Later in the 3rd century construction began on the new altar and the new Temple of Apollo. It had a dark crypt-like adyton from where the oracle delivered his prophecies. Today it is well preserved and its narrow, dark and vaulted labyrinthine corridors remain.

Above the ground, remains can be seen of the base and fragments of the colossal sculptures of a seated Apollo with his lyre, accompanied by Leto and Artemis, facing to the east. The group, whose fragments are partially reassembled at the site, seems to have measured more than seven meters in height. In the sanctuary, rows of names of the countless grateful ancient visitors may still be seen, votive and memorial inscriptions on columns, on steps and walls and even on a curving marble bench: in their entirety the inscription of Clarus form the largest assembly of surviving Greek inscriptions. An elegant marble chair in the sanctuary has serpent arms, a reminder of the chthonic nature of all genuine oracles among the Hellenes.

After the beginning of the Roman Province of Asia (end of the 2nd century BC), prominent citizens of Colophon helped to increase the authority of the sanctuary, the importance of the religious competitions and the fame of the oracle. To celebrate the major sacrifices before crowds consisting of Greeks and non-Greeks, four rows of iron rings attached to heavy blocks allowed a hundred victims to be killed simultaneously. Claros is the only sanctuary in the Greek world which offers a clear picture of the way priests could perform the hecatomb.

References

  1. ^ a b "Turkey - Claros". French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  2. ^ Stillwell, Richard; MacDonald, William L; McAllister, Marian Holland (1976). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691035420.
  3. ^ "Klaros on way to becoming faith tourism center". Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  4. ^ "NationalGeographic-Ancient Shipwreck Stone Cargo Linked to Apollo Temple". National Geographic. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  5. ^ "American Journal of Archaeology-The Kızılburun Shipwreck and the Temple of Apollo at Claros". American Journal of Archaeology. JSTOR 20627647. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  6. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 9.9.4–5
  7. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 9.33.1–2, 7.3.1–2; Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.7.3–4
  8. ^ Strabo, Geographica 14.1.27; Pseudo-Apollodorus, Epitome 6.2–4
  9. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 7.5.1–3
  10. ^ Bostock, John (1855). The Natural History, Pliny the Elder. Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, London: Taylor & Francis. pp. II, 106. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  11. ^ Dashu, Max. "Secret History of the Witches" (PDF). Suppressed Histories Archives. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  12. ^ Church, Alfred John; Brodribb, William Jackson (1877). Annals of Tacitus. Macmillan. pp. II, 54. Retrieved 28 November 2016.

External links

Augusto de Lima, Minas Gerais

Augusto de Lima is a Brazilian municipality located in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 4,589 living in a total area of 1,250 km². The city belongs to the statistical mesoregion of Central Mineira and to the statistical microregion of Curvelo. It became a municipality in 1963.Augusto de Lima is located at an elevation of 700 metres on highway BR-135 between Curvelo and Montes Claros. The nearest major population centre is Curvelo. The town began with the building of the railroad from Belo Horizonte to Montes Claros in 1910. The name is derived from the name of a writer and politician. See Augusto de Lima.

The distance to Curvelo is 112 km; and the distance to the state capital, Belo Horizonte, is 240 km. Neighboring municipalities are: Buenópolis, Diamantina, Monjolos, Corinto and Lassance.The main economic activities are services and agriculture. The GDP in 2005 was R$39 million, with 24 million from services, 2 million from industry, and 10 million from agriculture. There were 354 rural producers on 14,000 hectares of land. Only 8 farms had tractors (2006). Approximately 800 persons were dependent on agriculture. The main crops were mangoes, sugarcane, beans, and corn. There were 27,000 head of cattle (2006). There was 1 bank (2007) and 666 automobiles (366 motorcycles), giving a ratio of 14 inhabitants per automobile.

There were 3 health clinics in 2005. Patients with more serious health conditions are transported to Bocaiúva, Montes Claros or Curvelo. Educational needs were met by 16 primary schools, 2 middle schools, and 9 pre-primary schools.

Municipal Human Development Index: 0.690 (2000)

State ranking: 642 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000

National ranking: 3,319 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000

Literacy rate: 77%

Life expectancy: 65 (average of males and females)In 2000 the per capita income of R$149.00 was well below the state and national average of R$276.00 and R$297.00 respectively.

The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics (considering 5,507 municipalities) Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place.

Battle of Montes Claros

The Battle of Montes Claros was fought on 17 June 1665, near Vila Viçosa, between Spanish and Portuguese as the last major battle in the Portuguese Restoration War.

It was a great Portuguese victory and is considered as one of the most important battles in the country's history.

Brasília de Minas

Brasília de Minas is a Brazilian municipality located in the north of the state of Minas Gerais. In 2007 the population was 42,165 in a total area of 1,398 km². It became a municipality in 1923.Brasília de Minas is located about 105 km. northwest of the nearest major population center, Montes Claros, at an elevation of 723 meters. Neighboring municipalities are: Campo Azul, Coração de Jesus, Japonvar, Luislândia, Mirabela, Patis de Minas, São João do Pacuí, São Francisco and Ubaí. It is part of the IBGE statistical microregion of Montes Claros.The most important economic activities are cattle raising, small and medium industries, and agriculture. The GDP in 2003 was R$88,275,000. Brasília de Minas is in the middle tier of municipalities in the state with regard to economic and social development. It suffers from isolation, poor soils, drought, and inadequate transport connections. In 2007 there were 02 banking agencies and there were 1,326 automobiles.

In the rural area there were 2,648 farming establishments with a total area of 65,000 hectares. Around 9,000 people worked in agriculture. There were 48,000 head of cattle. The main agricultural crops were sugarcane, beans, corn, and sorghum.

Municipal Human Development Index: 0.691 (2000)

State ranking: 584 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000

National ranking: 3,135 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha.The first name of this settlement was Sant'Ana de Contendas. In 1890 it became a "vila" with the name Contendas. In 1901 the name was changed to Vila de Brasília and, in 1923, changed again to Brasília. With the transfer of the national capital to the Planalto Central, the town gave up its name for the future capital, in an agreement between President Juscelino Kubitschek and the local mayor. In order not to lose the name completely a change was made to the name adding "de Minas".In the health sector there were 18 establishments (13 public and 5 private), of which there was 01 public and 01 private hospital with a total of 118 beds.

Caculé

Caculé is a Brazilian municipality located in the state of Bahia, which possesses 23,685 inhabitants as of 2016, according to IBGE. It is situated 750 kilometers southwest from Salvador. Its economy is based mostly on agriculture. The climate in Caculé is warm and dry during the day, being cooler at night, at about 15 °C. The "Rio Antônio" (river Antônio) crosses the city. Although it presently has no operational railroad station, Caculé is midpoint on the Ferrovia Centro Atlântica railroad route connecting Montes Claros to Salvador, Bahia.

Campo Azul, Minas Gerais

Campo Azul is a Brazilian municipality located in the north of the state of Minas Gerais. In 2007 the population was 3,828 in a total area of 506 km². It became a municipality in 1995.Campo Azul is located east of the São Francisco River between São Francisco and Montes Claros. It is 50 km. from the nearest major population center, São Francisco, at an elevation of 612 meters. Neighboring municipalities are: Ubaí, Brasília de Minas, Ponto Chique, and São João do Pacuí. Campo Azul is part of the statistical microregion of Montes Claros.The most important economic activities are cattle raising and agriculture. The GDP in 2003 was R$8,940,000, with a per capita income of R$2,432. Campo Azul is in the bottom tier of municipalities in the state with regard to economic and social development. It suffers from isolation, poor soils, drought, and inadequate transport connections.

Municipal Human Development Index: 0.650 (2000)

State ranking: 743 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000

National ranking: 3,780 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000

Literacy rate: 74%

Life expectancy: 67 (average of males and females)The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha.

Corinto, Minas Gerais

Corinto is a Brazilian municipality located in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 22,741 living in a total area of 2,524 km². The city belongs to the statistical mesoregion of Central Mineira and to the statistical microregion of Curvelo. It became a municipality in 1923.Corinto is located at an elevation of 608 meters on highway BR-135 between Curvelo and Montes Claros. The nearest major population center is Curvelo. The town began with the building of the railroad from Belo Horizonte to Montes Claros in 1910.

The distance to Curvelo is 30 km; and the distance to the state capital, Belo Horizonte, is 205 km. Neighboring municipalities are: Augusto de Lima, Curvelo, Felixlândia, Lassance, Morro da Garça, Santo Hipólito and Três Marias.

Engenheiro Navarro

Engenheiro Navarro is a Brazilian municipality located in the north of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 7,079 people living in a total area of 632 km². The city belongs to the mesoregion of North of Minas and to the microregion of Bocaiúva. It became a municipality in 1962.Engenheiro Navarro is located at an elevation 637 meters on the railroad line that links Belo Horizonte to Montes Claros. This line is no longer used for passenger traffic. Highway BR-135, which links Montes Claros to the state boundary with Goiás passes at a distance of 4 kilometers to the east. The distance to Bocaiúva is 35 km; the distance to Montes Claros is 85 km; and the distance to Belo Horizonte is 347 km. Neighboring municipalities are: Bocaiúva (N) and (E); Joaquim Felício (S); Francisco Dumont and Claro dos Poções (W).The main economic activities are cattle raising, services, and agriculture. The GDP in 2005 was R$23 million, with 14 million in services, 2 million in industry, and 5 million in agriculture. There were 268 rural producers on 40,000 hectares of land. The main crops were cotton, sugarcane, beans, and corn. There were 27,000 head of cattle (2006).

Municipal Human Development Index: 0.686 (2000)

State ranking: 606 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000

National ranking: 3,220 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000

Literacy rate: 73%

Life expectancy: 72 (average of males and females)

Degree of urbanization: 66.53% (2000)

Percentage of urban houses with sewage connections: 1.70% The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics (considering 5,507 municipalities) Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place.

Francisco Dumont

Francisco Dumont is a Brazilian municipality located in the north of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 4,759 people living in a total area of 1,553 km². The city belongs to the mesoregion of North of Minas and to the microregion of Bocaiúva. It became a municipality in 1962.Francisco Dumont is located at an elevation of 637 meters in the valley of the Rio Jequitaí, a tributary of the São Francisco River. It is southwest of the regional center Montes Claros. The distance to Bocaiúva is 58 km; the distance to Montes Claros is 108 km; and the distance to Belo Horizonte is 376 km. Neighboring municipalities are: Claro dos Poções (N) ; Joaquim Felício and Engenheiro Navarro (E); Lassance (S); Várzea da Palma and Jequitaí (W).The main economic activities are cattle raising, services, and agriculture. The GDP in 2005 was R$15 million, with 9 million from services, 1 million from industry, and 4 million from agriculture. There were 268 rural producers on 165,000 hectares of land. Only 30 farms had tractors. The main crops were oranges, sugarcane, beans, and corn. There were 24,000 head of cattle (2006).Francisco Dumont suffers from periodic drought and poor highway communications. Its social indicators rank it in the bottom tier of municipalities in the state.

Municipal Human Development Index: 0.656 (2000)

State ranking: 725 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000

National ranking: 3,670 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000

Literacy rate: 76%

Life expectancy: 65 (average of males and females)The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics (considering 5,507 municipalities) Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place.

Francisco Sá, Minas Gerais

Francisco Sá is a municipality in the north of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. As of 2007 the population was 24,838 in a total area of 2,749 km². The elevation is 664 meters above sea level.

Francisco Sá is located 51 km northeast of regional center Montes Claros and is on highway BR-251. It is part of the IBGE statistical microregion of Montes Claros.

The main economic activity is cattle raising with 150,720 head counted in 2006. There were 1,497 rural producers with an agricultural area of 168,645 hectares, of which 100,900 hectares were in natural pasture. Other crops grown were corn, beans, manioc, bananas, and tropical fruits. The Gross Domestic Product was R$97,906,000 (2005). There were 2 banking agencies (2006). Health needs were taken care of by 13 health clinics. As of 2006 there was no hospital. The nearest hospital was in Montes Claros.

Municipal Human Development Index

MHDI: .662

State ranking: 701 out of 853 municipalities

National ranking: 3,570 out of 5,138 municipalities

Life expectancy: 69

Literacy rate: 72 For the complete list see Frigoletto

Guaraciama

Guaraciama is a Brazilian municipality located in the north of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 4,554 people living in a total area of 392 km². The city belongs to the mesoregion of North of Minas and to the microregion of Bocaiúva. It became a municipality in 1997.Guaraciama is located at an elevation of 795 meters in the valley of the Rio Verde Grande, a tributary of the São Francisco River. It is southwest of the regional center Montes Claros. The distance to Bocaiúva is 18 km; the distance to Montes Claros is 44 km; and the distance to Belo Horizonte is 399 km. It is surrounded by the municipality of Bocaiúva on three sides. Neighboring municipalities are: Montes Claros (N) ; Bocaiúva(E) (W) (S).The main economic activities are cattle raising, services, and agriculture. The GDP in 2005 was R$13 million, with 8 million from services, 1 million from industry, and 3 million from agriculture. There were 330 rural producers on 7,300 hectares of land. Only 08 farms had tractors. The main crops were mangoes, sugarcane, beans, and corn. There were 7,000 head of cattle (2006).Guaraciama suffers from periodic drought and poor highway communications. Its social indicators rank it in the bottom tier of municipalities in the state.

Municipal Human Development Index: 0.689 (2000)

State ranking: 595 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000

National ranking: 3,172 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000

Literacy rate: 77%

Life expectancy: 69 (average of males and females)The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics (considering 5,507 municipalities) Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place.

Jorge Claros

Jorge Aarón Claros Juárez (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxoɾxe ˈklaɾos]; born 8 January 1986) is a Honduran footballer, who plays for Alajuelense.

Juramento

Juramento is a municipality in the north of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. As of 2007 the population was 3,960 in a total area of 432 km². It became a municipality in 1953.

Juramento is located 42 km to the southeast of Montes Claros on BR-308 at an elevation of 682 meters. It belongs to the statistical microregion of Montes Claros. Neighboring municipalities are Francisco Sá, Montes Claros, Glaucilândia, and Botumirim.

Montes Claros

Montes Claros is a city located in northern Minas Gerais state, in Brazil. The population is 394,350 (2015 est.) in an area of 3569 km². It was made a seat of a municipality in 1831 and attained city status in 1857.

Montes Claros de Goiás

Montes Claros de Goiás is a municipality in western Goiás state, Brazil

Notion (ancient city)

Notion or Notium (Ancient Greek Νότιον, 'southern') was a Greek city-state on the west coast of Anatolia; it is about 50 kilometers (31 mi) south of Izmir in modern Turkey, on the Gulf of Kuşadası. Notion was located on a hill from which the sea was visible; it served as a port for nearby Colophon and Claros, and pilgrims frequently passed through on their way to the oracle of Apollo at Claros. There are still remains of the defense walls, necropolis, temple, agora, and theater. The ruins of the city are now found east of the modern town Ahmetbeyli in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

The earliest reference to Notion is in Herodotus, who includes it among the cities of Aeolis (of which it is the southernmost): "Kyme, which is called Phriconis, Larisai, Neon-teichos, Temnos, Killa, Notion, Aigiroëssa, Pitane, Aigaiai, Myrina, Grynei" (I:149). Its proximity to the Ionian city of Colophon needs explanation; we may "suppose either that the Ionian settlers negotiated their rights of passage up to their inland site or more probably that they reached it originally up one of the other river valleys." Robin Lane Fox, discussing the early rivalry between the cities, writes:

Relations between Colophon and nearby Notion were never easy and their bitter rivalry may help to explain the story of a quarrel between the two prophets at Claros. The Aeolian Greeks at Notion had a special relationship with Aeolian Mopsus, but the Ionian Greeks at Colophon had a special relationship with Calchas. It was, then, particularly appealing for the Aeolian controllers of Claros to claim that Mopsus had outwitted Calchas and caused his death on the site.

H. W. Parke suggests that in the seventh century BC "Claros was in the control of Notion, which must have remained a small Aeolian town dominated by its more powerful inland neighbour [Colophon], but also protected by it against the threat of Lydia. Notion itself was not big enough to send out colonies on its own." Persia conquered Colophon and Notion in the mid-sixth century BC, but they were liberated in the Greco–Persian Wars and joined the Delian League separately (Colophon paying three talents a year, the smaller Notion only a third of a talent).During the first years of the Peloponnesian War, Notion was split into factions, one of which called in mercenaries under Persian command; the Athenian admiral Paches ruthlessly restored the pro-Athenian faction to power, "and settlers were afterwards sent out from Athens, and the place colonized according to Athenian laws" (Thucydides III:34). Thereafter it served as an Athenian base. In 406 BC it was the site of the Spartan victory at the Battle of Notium. By the late fourth century BC it was joined in a sympoliteia (federal league) with Colophon and "by the Roman period the name of Notion dropped out of use completely."

Olhos-d'Água

Olhos-d'Água is a Brazilian municipality located in the north of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 4,991 people living in a total area of 2,086 km². The city belongs to the mesoregion of North of Minas and to the microregion of Bocaiúva. It became a municipality in 1997.Olhos-d'Água is located at an elevation of 759 meters in the valley of the Rio Tabatinga, a tributary of the Jequitinhonha River. It is southeast of the regional center Montes Claros. The distance to Bocaiúva is 50 km; the distance to Montes Claros is 110 km; and the distance to Belo Horizonte is 414 km. Neighboring municipalities are: Bocaiúva(N) and (W); Diamantina (S) and (E).The main economic activities are cattle raising, services, and agriculture. The GDP in 2005 was R$18 million, with 10 million from services, 2 million from industry, and 5 million from agriculture. There were 383 rural producers on 32,000 hectares of land. Only 15 farms had tractors. The main crops were mangoes, sugarcane, beans, and corn. There were 10,000 head of cattle (2006).Olhos-d'Água suffers from periodic drought, poor soils, and poor highway communications. Its social indicators rank it in the bottom tier of municipalities in the state.

Municipal Human Development Index: 0.669 (2000)

State ranking: 677 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000

National ranking: 3,477 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000

Literacy rate: 72%

Life expectancy: 72 (average of males and females)The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics (considering 5,507 municipalities) Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Montes Claros

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Montes Claros (Latin: Archidioecesis Montisclarensis) is a Latin rite Metropolitan archdiocese in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Its cathedral archiepiscopal see is the Catedral Metropolitana Nossa Senhora Aparecida, dedicated to Our Lady of Aparecida, in the city of Montes Claros.

State University of Montes Claros

The State University of Montes Claros (Portuguese: Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Unimontes) is a university in Brazil with its main campus at Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais.

Unimontes started out as independent colleges, supported by a foundation. Between 1989-1990, it became an integrated governmental university, financed by the state of Minas Gerais, and by Fadenor.

Unimontes has 10 campuses in cities that surround Montes Claros. The university has about 6000 alumni and 1008 teachers. Fadenor (a foundation that gives financial support to the university), has almost 15,000 students.

São João da Ponte

São João da Ponte is a municipality in the north of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. As of 2007, the population numbered 26,091 within the total area of 1,849 km². The elevation is 561 meters. It became a municipality in 1943.The city is part of the IBGE statistical microregion of Montes Claros; the distance to the city of Montes Claros is 107 kilometers. Neighboring municipalities are: Ibiracatu, Varzelândia, Verdelândia, Lontra, Japonvar, Janaúba, Patis, Montes Claros and Capitão Enéas.

The principal economic activities of the municipality include cattle raising (109,000 head in 2006) and agriculture, with the main crops being rice, sugarcane, corn, sorghum, and bananas. There are also a number of small transformation industries. The GDP of the municipality is R$ 64,761,000 (as of 2005). The rural area employs as many as 11,000 workers in 3,405 establishments; however, only about 127 of the farms have tractors. There are 466 automobiles in all of the municipality.

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