Clare Short

Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. She was the Member of Parliament for Birmingham Ladywood from 1983 to 2010; for most of this period she was a Labour Party MP, but she resigned the party whip in 2006 and served the remainder of her term as an Independent. She stood down as a Member of Parliament at the 2010 general election.[1] Short was Secretary of State for International Development in the Cabinet of then-Prime Minister Tony Blair from 3 May 1997 until her resignation from that post on 12 May 2003. Shortly before her retirement from Parliament in 2010, she was strongly rebuked by her own party when she announced her support for a hung parliament,[2] a situation that subsequently occurred at the 2010 general election.


Clare Short
Clare Short at the Energy Conference 2015 crop
Short speaking at the EITI Energy Conference, January 2015
Secretary of State for International Development
In office
2 May 1997 – 12 May 2003
Prime MinisterTony Blair
Preceded byLynda Chalker (as Minister for Overseas Development)
Succeeded byThe Baroness Amos
Shadow Minister for Overseas Development
In office
25 July 1996 – 2 May 1997
LeaderTony Blair
Preceded byJoan Lestor
Succeeded byAlastair Goodlad (as Shadow Secretary of State for International Development)
Shadow Secretary of State for Transport
In office
19 October 1995 – 25 July 1996
LeaderTony Blair
Preceded byMichael Meacher
Succeeded byAndrew Smith
Shadow Minister for Women
In office
21 October 1993 – 19 October 1995
LeaderJohn Smith
Tony Blair
Preceded byMo Mowlam
Succeeded byTessa Jowell
Member of Parliament
for Birmingham Ladywood
In office
10 June 1983 – 12 April 2010
Preceded byJohn Sever
Succeeded byShabana Mahmood
Personal details
Born15 February 1946 (age 73)
Birmingham, Warwickshire, England
Political partyIndependent (2006–present)
Other political
affiliations
Labour (1983–2006)
Spouse(s)
Alex Lyon
(m. 1981; died 1993)
Alma materUniversity of Leeds
WebsiteOfficial website

Biography

Early life

Clare Short was born in Birmingham, England, in 1946 to Irish Catholic parents from County Armagh, Northern Ireland.[3][4][5] She would later be supportive of peaceful Sinn Féin initiatives, although she was never a supporter of IRA violence, some of the worst of which was inflicted in a 1974 bombing of her home city of Birmingham. [6][7]

Short was briefly married to a fellow Keele University student at eighteen after she had a baby when she was seventeen.[8] The couple's son was given up for adoption, and did not make contact with his mother until 1996. She discovered that her son, Toby, was a Conservative supporter who worked as a solicitor in the City of London, and that she was a grandmother to his three children. Her second marriage, to former Labour minister Alex Lyon, ended when he died from Alzheimer's disease in 1993. Short is a paternal cousin of Canadian actor Martin Short. [9]

Completing her degree in political science at the University of Leeds, she became a civil servant working for the Home Office. Working as Private Secretary to the Conservative minister Mark Carlisle gave her the idea that she "could do better" than many of the MPs she dealt with, and at the 1983 UK general election she was elected as MP for Ladywood, Birmingham; the area where she grew up.

Member of Parliament

"After Dark", 2 February 1991, "Counting the Cost of a Free Press"
Appearing on television discussion After Dark "Counting the Cost of a Free Press" in 1991

At the start of her career, she was firmly on the left-wing of the Labour Party. She gained some notoriety shortly after her election in 1983 when she implied the government's Employment minister Alan Clark was drunk at the despatch box. [10]Clark's colleagues on the government benches in turn accused Short of using unparliamentary language and the Deputy Speaker, Ernest Armstrong, asked her to withdraw her accusation.[11] Clark later admitted in his diaries that Short had been correct in her assessment.

In 1986, Clare introduced a Private Members Bill in the House of Commons which proposed banning Page 3 photographs of topless models featured in The Sun and other British tabloid newspapers.[12] For this she was nicknamed by The Sun "killjoy Clare."[13] One paper bought and published alleged photographs of Short in her nightwear from her ex-husband. She stated they were pictures of somebody else's body with her face superimposed.[14] Clare gave a definitive account of her attitude towards tabloid nudity and the negative role that pornography plays more generally in society in her introduction to the book Dear Clare (1991), which presents a selection of the many letters of support she received from women in response to her campaign. [15][16]

She supported John Prescott in the Labour Party Deputy Leadership election in 1988 (against Eric Heffer and the incumbent Roy Hattersley), leaving the Socialist Campaign Group, along with Margaret Beckett, as a result of Tony Benn's decision to challenge Neil Kinnock for the party leadership. She supported Margaret Beckett for the Labour leadership in 1994 against Tony Blair and John Prescott. She also called for the withdrawal of British troops from Northern Ireland.

In 1989 she raised the issue of abuse of police procedure and fabrication of evidence at the West Midlands Serious Crime Squad, relaying concerns of Birmingham solicitors that many miscarriages of justice had taken place.[17]

She rose through the ranks of the Labour Front Bench, despite twice resigning from it – over the Prevention of Terrorism Act in 1988, and over the Gulf War in 1990. She became Shadow Minister for Women (1993-1995), Shadow Transport Secretary (1995-1996) and Opposition Spokesperson for Overseas Development (1996-1997).[18] Clare was also a member of Labour's National Executive Committee (NEC) from 1988-1997 and Chair of the NEC's Women's Committee (1993-1996).[19] At the 1995 Labour Party conference, Short denounced Liz Davies as "unsuitable" after Davies had been selected as a Parliamentary candidate by a constituency Labour Party in Leeds North-East. This was seen as an attempt to win the favour of the right-wing of the party, especially then-leader Tony Blair.[20] However, in 1996, Short was moved to the Overseas Development portfolio, a move which she saw as a demotion.[21] Short has also called for the legalisation of cannabis.

Secretary of State for International Development

After the 1997 general election, the Overseas Development Administration was given full departmental status as the Department for International Development, with Short as the first cabinet-level Secretary of State for International Development.[22] She retained this post throughout the first term of the Labour government, and beyond the 2001 UK general election into the second.

On her appointment to the DfID, journalists asked Short whether she would be "good" (in other words, not cause embarrassment to the government). She replied "I'm going to try to be good but I can't help it, I have to be me."[23] A few months later, the island of Montserrat (one of the United Kingdom's few remaining overseas territories) was devastated by a volcanic eruption which rendered half the island uninhabitable; when the 4,500 islanders asked for more help from the DfID, Short was reported to have remarked "they will be asking for golden elephants next" and refused to visit the island. This remark caused great offence to the Montserratians and others; Labour MP Bernie Grant said that "She sounds like a mouthpiece for an old nineteenth century colonial and Conservative government."[24]

Land reform in Zimbabwe

On 6 November 1997, Short sent a letter to Kumbirai Kangai, Minister of Agriculture in Zimbabwe, in which she stated that "we do not accept that Britain has a special responsibility to meet the costs of land purchase in Zimbabwe." She went on to write "We are a new government from diverse backgrounds, without links to former colonial interests. My own origins are Irish and, as you know, we were colonised, not colonisers." In the same letter she did, however, offer qualified support for land reform: "We do recognise the very real issues you face over land reform... we would be prepared to support a programme of land reform that was part of a poverty eradication strategy, but not on any other basis." This letter caused a rift with the Zimbabwean government, which asserted that the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979 had contained a continuing pledge from the United Kingdom government to assist in land reform.[25]

Position on the arms trade

In December 1997, Short signed the UK into the Ottawa Convention, banning the production, handling and use of anti-personnel mines.[26]

In 2001, she wrote that the "ready availability of small arms has a direct and negative impact upon levels of crime and conflict in developing countries. We (the DFID) are supporting various peace building and disarmament initiatives."[27] The following year, she claimed that Britain was "committed to combating small arms availability and misuse."[28]

Kosovo bombing

Short approved of the NATO bombing of the headquarters of Serbian state television, in which sixteen media workers were killed and sixteen others wounded, because the station was, as she put it, "a source of propaganda".[29]

Resignation

On 9 March 2003, Short repeatedly called Tony Blair "reckless" in a BBC radio interview[30] and threatened to resign from the Cabinet in the event of the UK Government going to war with Iraq without a clear mandate from the United Nations. This looked set to be a reprise of her previous resignation as party spokesperson during the Gulf War of 1991 as a protest against the Labour Party's stance, although in 1999 she had publicly supported the NATO attack on Serbia. However, on 18 March she announced that she would remain in the Cabinet and support the government's resolution in the House of Commons.

Short remained in the Cabinet for two months after her decision to back the 2003 Iraq War. She resigned on 12 May. Her letter stated: "In both the run-up to the war and now, I think the UK is making grave errors in providing cover for the US mistakes rather than helping an old friend... American power alone cannot make America safe... But undermining international law and the authority of the UN creates the risk of instability, bitterness and growing terrorism that will threaten the future for all of us."[31]

Bugging of the UN

On 26 February 2004, Short alleged on the BBC Today radio programme that British spies regularly intercept UN communications, including those of Kofi Annan, then Secretary-General.[32] The claim was made the day after the unexplained dropping of whistleblowing charges against former GCHQ translator Katharine Gun. Reacting to Short's statement, Tony Blair said "I really do regard what Clare Short has said this morning as totally irresponsible, and entirely consistent [with Short's character]." Blair also claimed that Short had put British security, particularly the security of its spies, at risk.[33] The same day, on the BBC's Newsnight programme, Short called Blair's response "pompous" and said that Britain had no need to spy on Kofi Annan. Blair did not explicitly deny the claims but Robin Cook, former Foreign Secretary, wrote that in his experience he would be surprised if the claims were true.

A few days later (on 29 February 2004) Short appeared on ITV's Jonathan Dimbleby programme. She revealed that she had been written to by Britain's senior civil servant, Cabinet Secretary Andrew Turnbull. Turnbull's confidential letter (which Short showed to Dimbleby, and which was quoted on the programme) formally admonished her for discussing intelligence matters in the media, and threatened "further action" if she did not desist from giving interviews on the issue. Turnbull wrote that she had made claims "which damage the interests of the United Kingdom", and that he was "extremely disappointed". The "further action" referred to in the letter has been interpreted as threatening either Short's expulsion from the Privy Council or legal action under the Official Secrets Act. Either course of action have been without recent precedent; at the time, no Privy Counsellor had been expelled since Sir Edgar Speyer was accused of collaborating with the Germans during the First World War. However, on 1 March 2004, a Downing Street spokesman refused to rule out such a step.

However, in the same interview on the Jonathan Dimbleby programme, Short backtracked on her claim about British agents bugging Annan. She admitted that the transcripts she saw of Annan's private conversations might have related to Africa and not to Iraq. Asked whether she could confirm that the transcripts related to Iraq, she said: "I can't, but there might well have been ... I cannot remember a specific transcript in relation, it doesn't mean it wasn't there." Short also admitted that her original claim, on the Today programme, that Britain had eavesdropped on Annan may have been inaccurate. Asked whether the material could have passed to the British by the Americans, she said: "It could. But it normally indicates that. But I can't remember that."[34]

Backbenches

Clare Short's book, An Honourable Deception?: New Labour, Iraq, and the Misuse of Power, was released by Free Press in November 2004.[35][36] It is an account of her career in New Labour, most notably her relationship with Prime Minister Tony Blair, the relationship between Blair and Gordon Brown and the build-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The book won Channel 4's Political Book of the Year Award for 2004.[37]

In December 2004, Short was reportedly critical of US efforts to dispense aid to countries devastated by a tsunami caused by a massive earthquake in the Indian Ocean. She was quoted as stating that the formation of a group of countries led by the United States for this purpose was a challenge to the role of the United Nations, which she believed was uniquely qualified for the task.

Announced retirement

On 12 September 2006, Short announced that she would not be standing at the next general election. In a brief statement, Short said she was "ashamed" of Tony Blair's government and backed proportional representation, which she hoped would be achieved through a hung parliament. The Labour Party Chief Whip referred the matter to the Labour Party National Executive Committee to consider disciplinary action.[38] On Friday 20 October, Short resigned the Labour whip and announced that she would sit as an Independent Labour MP.[39][40] Short received a written reprimand from Labour's Chief Whip shortly before the news of her resignation of the party whip was announced.[41]

After Gordon Brown succeeded Tony Blair as Prime Minister, Short said that the change offered "a new beginning", and hinted that she might re-join the parliamentary Labour Party if Brown changed the policies that had caused her to leave.[42]

Chilcot Inquiry

On 2 February 2010, Short appeared before the Chilcot Inquiry into Iraq. During this she repeatedly criticised Tony Blair, Attorney General Peter Goldsmith and others in the UK Government for allegedly deceiving her and other MPs in an attempt to obtain consent for the invasion of Iraq.[43][44][45]

Statements on Israel

Clare Short, Birmingham for Gaza, January 2009
Short speaking at a rally in Birmingham in January 2009, urging the crowd "not forget the crimes being committed against the people of Gaza" following the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict

Short has condemned Israel as being guilty of "bloody, brutal and systematic annexation of land, destruction of homes and the deliberate creation of an apartheid system." She has also stated that "the EU and Britain are colluding in this operation and the building of a new apartheid regime" because they give Israel privileged trade access.[46] Short has expressed support for a boycott of Israel, stating at the 2007 United Nations International Conference of Civil Society in Support of Israeli-Palestinian Peace that "The boycott worked for South Africa, it is time to do it again".[47][48] She also told the conference that Israel is "much worse than the original apartheid state" and that Israel "undermines the international community's reaction to global warming".[49][50]

Regarding the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, Short stated that "Israel is out of control and our Government and the US is giving them a green light to continue" and that "Britain clearly now just backs President (George W.) Bush in whatever he does, in automatically backing Israel in breaching international law, in disproportionate attacks on Lebanon and attacks on Gaza".[51]"

Relationship with al-Manar Television

According to The Guardian, Short accepted £1,580 worth of flights, hotel accommodation, food and travel expenses from al-Manar Television in Lebanon in 2008. Al-Manar is described by the US government as "the media arm of the Hezbollah terrorist network", and was classed as a specially designated terrorist entity by the US in 2006.

Short said her trip had been registered with Commons authorities and that the visit allowed her to see how reconstruction in southern Lebanon was proceeding after the country's conflict with Israel in 2006.[52]

Chairwoman of the EITI

On 1 March 2011 she was elected as Chairwoman of the EITI (the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative) at the EITI Global Conference in Paris.[53]

Policy work with Cities Alliance

Since 2006, Short has been a member of the Cities Alliance Policy Advisory Board and subsequently chaired the Policy Advisory Forum,[54] described as a "platform for public discussion, debate and knowledge sharing" on urban poverty and the role of cities.[55]

Birmingham Mayoral candidate

In January 2011 Short expressed an interest in becoming the Mayor of Birmingham, pending the outcome of a referendum on the creation of a directly-elected mayoralty in the city.[56] Ultimately the proposal was defeated at the public vote in May 2012.[57]

Ebor Lectures

On 21 May 2008, Short gave a lecture as part of the Ebor Lectures 2008 Series entitled "Apocalypse Now – Global Equity and Sustainable Living, the Preconditions for Human Survival". She spoke of the need to end the "throw-away society". She considered the changing conception of the world since the 1960s and emphasised the need for us to consider the consequences of today's environmental concerns for the generations of the future.[58]

Awards

In June 2009 Short received an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from the University of Ulster in recognition of her services to international development.[59]

Works

  • Short, Clare (2004). An Honourable Deception? New Labour, Iraq, and the Misuse of Power. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-6392-8.
  • Short, Clare (speech, 2001) Making Globalisation Work for the Poor: A Role for the United Nations Department for International Development, ISBN 1-86192-335-X
  • Short, Clare (1999). Debt Relief for Poverty Reduction. Department for International Development. ISBN 1-86192-100-4.
  • edited by Short, Clare, K. Tunks, D. Hutchinson (1991) Dear Clare...This Is What Women Feel About Page 3 Radius, ISBN 0-09-174915-8

Styles of address

  • 15 February 1946 – 1981: Miss Clare Short
  • 1981 – 10 June 1983: Mrs Clare Lyon
  • 10 June 1983 – 3 May 1997: Clare Short MP
  • 3 May 1997 – 12 April 2010: The Right Honourable Clare Short MP
  • 12 April 2010 – present: The Right Honourable Clare Short

References

  1. ^ Deedes, Henry (13 September 2006). "Short to stand down after 23 years as an MP". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  2. ^ Matthew Tempest and Hélène Mulholland (14 September 2006). "Short faces expulsion after calling for hung parliament". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  3. ^ "Clare Short: Divided she stands". BBC News. 22 March 2002. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  4. ^ "Family affair spanning the Irish Sea", by Kate Watson-Smyth, The Independent, 30 June 1997, hosted on FindArticles.com
  5. ^ "John J. Ray | What England Means to Me". Whatenglandmeanstome.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  6. ^ "This is my truth: interview with Laurie Taylor. | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  7. ^ "Irish terrorism and Irish peace. | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  8. ^ "Ministers turn their backs on marriage". Daily Mail. UK. 15 January 2001. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
  9. ^ McGrath, Nick (2012-10-19). "Martin Short: My family values". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  10. ^ "Something profound has been lost. | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  11. ^ "Sex Discrimination". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 20 July 1983. col. 483–484.
  12. ^ "Introduction to Dear Clare | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  13. ^ 'Dear Clare..This is What Women Feel About Page 3, Clare Short, Radius Publishing (1991).
  14. ^ Clare Short, Meeting Myself Coming Back, BBC Four, 29–31 August 2009
  15. ^ "Introduction to Dear Clare | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  16. ^ Clare., Short, (1991). Dear Clare - this is what women feel about page 3. Tunks, Kiri., Hutchinson, Diane. London: Hutchinson Radius. ISBN 0091749158. OCLC 22858719.
  17. ^ Hansard (January 1989a), "West Midlands Serious Crime Squad, HC Debate", Hansard, Parliament, 145, pp. 1155–60
  18. ^ "Biography | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  19. ^ "Biography | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  20. ^ "British Journalism Review Vol. 11, No. 3, 2000 – The political struggle around Orwell's stapler". Bjr.org.uk. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  21. ^ A peculiar sort of sacrifice from The Telegraph
  22. ^ "Biography | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  23. ^ Iain Martin, Maurice Chittenden, "Scots to fore as gentleman Tony completes his team," The Sunday Times (London); 4 May 1997.
  24. ^ Jon Hibbs, "Short calls for an end to Montserrat aid row", Daily Telegraph, 25 August 1997 Archived 21 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Chris McGreal, "Blair's worse than the Tories, says Mugabe," Mail and Guardian (Johannesburg), 22 December 1997
  26. ^ Mark Thomas, As used on the famous Nelson Mendela; Underground adventures in the arms & torture trade, Ebury Press, 2006
  27. ^ "UK Parliament". from the UK Parliament
  28. ^ "UK Parliament" from the UK Parliament
  29. ^ "Nato defends TV bombing". BBC News. 23 April 1999. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  30. ^ Clare Short's "reckless" interview from the BBC
  31. ^ "Clare Short's resignation letter". The Guardian. UK. 12 May 2003. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
  32. ^ "UK 'spied on UN's Kofi Annan'". BBC. 26 February 2004. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  33. ^ George Wright, Martin Nicholls and Matthew Tempest (26 February 2004). "Short claims UK spied on Annan". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  34. ^ Nicholas Watt (1 March 2004). "Top civil servant tells Short to shut up". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  35. ^ Clare., Short, (2005). An honourable deception? : New Labour, Iraq, and the misuse of power. London: Free. ISBN 0743263936. OCLC 58050529.
  36. ^ Sawhney, Hirsh (June 2006). "Blair's House of Cards: Clare Short in conversation with Hirsh Sawhney". The Brooklyn Rail.
  37. ^ "Books | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  38. ^ "Short faces expulsion after calling for hung parliament", Guardian, 12 September 2006
  39. ^ "Clare Short's letter of resignation from the Parliamentary Labour Party. | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  40. ^ "Short resigns Labour whip", Epolitix.com, 20 October 2006
  41. ^ "Written reprimand means Short won't be thrown out". Icbirmingham.icnetwork.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  42. ^ "Short hints at return to Labour". BBC News. 29 June 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  43. ^ Clare Short: Tony Blair lied and misled parliament in build-up to Iraq war, The Guardian, James Sturcke,2 February 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  44. ^ "The Chilcot Report will not give the people what they want. | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  45. ^ "Blair misled the country over Iraq. Something similar could happen again. | Clare Short". www.clareshort.org. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  46. ^ "Britain 'colluding' in Israel oppression". The Irish Times. 6 June 2007.
  47. ^ "UN summit: Boycott Israel". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  48. ^ Controversial UN-sponsored conference on Palestinians denounces Israeli occupation Archived 23 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine from the European Jewish Press.
  49. ^ Anthony Julius (2010). Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England. Oxford University Press. p. 752.
  50. ^ Robert S. Wistrich (2010). A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-6097-9. p. 541.
  51. ^ Government giving Israel 'green light', accuses Short, Daily Mail Online, 22 July 2006
  52. ^ James Ball (25 March 2011). "MPs accepted Middle East regimes' hospitality 107 times in a decade". London: Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  53. ^ "Paris 2011 | EITI". Eitiparis.org. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  54. ^ "Speakers". Global Forum on Local Development. UNCDF. 28 September 2010. Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  55. ^ "GOVERNANCE -- OLD". Cities Alliance. UNOPS. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  56. ^ "Clare Short 'interested in becoming Birmingham mayor'". BBC News. BBC. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  57. ^ "Birmingham voters reject elected mayor plan". BBC News. BBC. 4 May 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  58. ^ "Transition Town Totnes". Totnes.transitionnetwork.org. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  59. ^ MP Honoured For International Development Work Archived 12 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine University of Ulster

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Sever
Member of Parliament for
Birmingham Ladywood

19832010
Succeeded by
Shabana Mahmood
Political offices
Preceded by
The Baroness Chalker of Wallasey
as Minister of State for Overseas Development
Secretary of State for
International Development

1997–2003
Succeeded by
The Baroness Amos
100 Years of Girl Guides

100 Years of Girl Guides is a BBC television documentary. It was shown on the digital television station BBC Four on Sunday 16 August 2009 at 21:00. The programme was presented by Dominic West and followed the story of the Girl Guides from its beginnings up to the centenary in September 2009.

The show interviews a number of former Girl Guides from veterans to such household names as Kelly Holmes, Clare Short, Kate Silverton and Rhona Cameron.

1990 Labour Party (UK) Shadow Cabinet election

Elections to the Labour Party's Shadow Cabinet took place on 24 October 1990. Under the rules then in effect, the Commons members of the Parliamentary Labour Party elected 18 members of the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet, who were then assigned portfolios by the leader. The Commons members of the PLP separately elected the Chief Whip, and the Labour peers elected the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. In addition, the Leader of the Labour Party and Deputy Leader (Neil Kinnock and Roy Hattersley, respectively) were members by virtue of those offices.

As a result of the election, Joan Lestor lost her seat in the Shadow Cabinet, and was replaced by Ann Taylor; all other members were re-elected.

† Multiple candidates tied for position.

1991 Labour Party (UK) Shadow Cabinet election

Elections to the Labour Party's Shadow Cabinet took place on 23 October 1991. Under the rules then in effect, the Commons members of the Parliamentary Labour Party elected 18 members of the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet, who were then assigned portfolios by the leader. The Commons members of the PLP separately elected the Chief Whip, and the Labour peers elected the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. In addition, the Leader of the Labour Party and Deputy Leader (Neil Kinnock and Roy Hattersley, respectively) were members by virtue of those offices.

The election did not result in any changes to the Shadow Cabinet.

† Multiple candidates tied for position.

1996 Labour Party (UK) Shadow Cabinet election

Elections to the Labour Party's Shadow Cabinet took place in July 1996. Under the rules then in effect, the Commons members of the Parliamentary Labour Party elected 19 members of the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet, who were then assigned portfolios by the leader. The Labour peers elected the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. In addition, the Leader of the Labour Party and Deputy Leader (Tony Blair and John Prescott, respectively) were members by virtue of those offices. The 19 elected members of the Shadow Cabinet were the ones with the largest number of votes. MPs were required to vote for at least four women, but women were not necessarily guaranteed places in the Shadow Cabinet.

† Multiple candidates tied for position.

Alex Lyon

Alexander Ward Lyon (15 October 1931 – 30 September 1993) was a British Labour politician.

Birmingham Ladywood (UK Parliament constituency)

Birmingham, Ladywood is a constituency of part of the city of Birmingham, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Shabana Mahmood of the Labour Party.

Clare (given name)

Clare is a given name, the Medieval English form of Clara. The related name Clair was traditionally considered male, especially when spelled without an 'e', but Clare and Claire are usually female.

It is very often associated with the Irish County Clare. That name was derived from the Irish word ('Clár') given to a small bridge that crossed the River Fergus near the town of Ennis in what is now County Clare.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is a global standard for the good governance of oil, gas and mineral resources. It seeks to address the key governance issues in the extractive sectors.

The EITI Standard requires information along the extractive industry value chain from the point of extraction, to how the revenue makes its way through the government and its contribution to the economy.

This includes how licenses and contracts are allocated and registered, who the beneficial owners of those operations are, what the fiscal and legal arrangements are, how much is produced, how much is paid, where the revenue is allocated, and its contributions to the economy, including employment.

The EITI Standard is implemented in 52 countries around the world. Each of these countries is required to publish an annual EITI Report to disclosing information on: contracts and licenses, production, revenue collection, revenue allocation, and social and economic spending.

Every country goes through a quality-assurance mechanism, called Validation, at least every three years. Validation serves to assess performance towards meeting the EITI Standard and promote dialogue and learning at the country level. It also safeguards the integrity of the EITI by holding all EITI implementing countries to the same global standard.

Each implementing country has its own national secretariat and multi-stakeholder group made up of representatives from the country’s government, extractive companies and civil society. The multi-stakeholder group takes decisions on how the EITI process is carried out in the country.

The EITI Standard is developed and overseen by an international multi-stakeholder Board, consisting of representatives from governments, extractives companies, civil society organisations, financial institutions and international organisations.

The current Chair of the EITI is Fredrik Reinfeldt, former Prime Minister of Sweden. The previous chairs have been Clare Short (2011-2016), former UK Secretary of State for International Development and Peter Eigen (2009-2011). The EITI International Secretariat is located in Oslo, Norway and is headed by Eddie Rich.

Gymslip

A gymslip is a sleeveless tunic with a pleated skirt most commonly seen as part of a school uniform for girls. The term "gymslip" primarily refers to the school uniform; otherwise the term pinafore dress (British English) or jumper dress (American English) is usually preferred.

The introduction of the gymslip as female athletic wear is credited to Mary Tait, a student of Martina Bergman-Österberg, a pioneer of women's physical education in Britain. Gymslips were worn by gymnasts and athletes from the 1880s to the 1920s, as they were more mobile than traditional female attire, but still modest enough to keep the underwear hidden during sporting activity. Even in this modest attire, gymslips as athletic wear were still worn strictly out of public view.When not worn as athletic wear, gymslips or pinafore dresses are generally worn over a blouse and replace a skirt. A blazer may be worn over the top. First emerging in the 1900s, by the 1920s it had become compulsory in many private, convent and high schools, and thus became commonly worn by girls as part of their school uniform, together with a blouse.Although now largely replaced by modern-style uniforms, gymslips are still synonymous in Britain with schoolgirls, leading to the slang term "gymslip mum" to describe a teenage pregnancy. Well-known modern depictions of gymslips include the St. Trinians films, and less traditionally, schoolgirl uniform pornography, a use given more public recognition when in 1991 politician Clare Short condemned the fetish, saying "the Page 3 girl in a gymslip may be over 16, but the imagery is clearly intended to present schoolgirls as sexual objects".

John Sever

Eric John Sever (born 1 April 1943) is a former Labour Party politician in England.

Sever was elected Member of Parliament for Birmingham Ladywood in a by-election in 1977. He served until 1983, when he was deselected as Labour candidate in favour of Sir Albert Bore, but subsequent parliamentary boundary changes led to Bore being replaced by Clare Short who had been selected as candidate in the neighbouring constituency of Birmingham Handsworth which was largely merged with the Birmingham Ladywood constituency. Sever stood in Meriden, but lost by 15,018 votes.

List of MPs elected in the 1983 United Kingdom general election

This is a list of Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the 49th Parliament of the United Kingdom in the 1983 general election, held on 9 June 1983. This Parliament was dissolved in 1987.

Notable newcomers to the House of Commons included Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, Michael Howard, Paddy Ashdown, Edwina Currie, Clare Short, Charles Kennedy, Peter Lilley, Jeremy Corbyn, Neil Hamilton, Colin Moynihan and Michael Fallon. Gerry Adams was also elected, but did not take his seat.

List of MPs elected in the 2005 United Kingdom general election

This is a list of Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, held on 5 May 2005.

The list is arranged by constituency. New MPs elected since the general election and changes in party allegiance are noted at the bottom of the page.

Notable newcomers to the House of Commons included Nick Clegg, Douglas Carswell, Jo Swinson, Daniel Kawczynski, Philip Davies, Ed Miliband, Ed Balls, Michael Gove, Chris Huhne, Sadiq Khan, Danny Alexander, Jeremy Hunt, Nadine Dorries, Justine Greening, James Brokenshire, David Mundell, Jeremy Wright, David Gauke, Stephen Crabb, Theresa Villiers, Greg Clark, Greg Hands, Mark Harper, Kerry McCarthy, Maria Miller, David Jones, Natascha Engel, Grant Shapps, Tim Farron, Mark Durkan, Emily Thornberry, Peter Bone, Philip Hollobone, and Alasdair McDonnell.

During the 2005-10 Parliament, Michael Martin and John Bercow served as Speaker, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown served as Prime Minister, and Michael Howard and David Cameron served as Leader of the Opposition. This Parliament was dissolved on 12 April 2010.

List of Question Time episodes

The following is a list of episodes of Question Time, a British current affairs debate television programme broadcast by BBC Television.

Page 3

Page 3 was a feature in the British tabloid newspaper The Sun for over 44 years, from November 1970 until January 2015. It consisted of a large photograph of a topless female glamour model, often known as a "Page 3 girl," usually published on the third page of the print edition.

When The Sun became a tabloid on 17 November 1969, it began intermittently publishing images of clothed glamour models on its third page. The editors introduced nudity on 17 November 1970 when they printed an image of 22-year-old model Stephanie Khan in her "birthday suit" to celebrate the newspaper's first anniversary as a tabloid. Topless Page 3 girls soon became a regular feature in The Sun and are credited with helping to boost the newspaper's circulation significantly in the 1970s and 1980s. Some Page 3 girls became household names. Samantha Fox, who appeared on Page 3 from 1983 to 1986, became one of the most photographed British women of the 1980s, and famously earned more than then-prime minister Margaret Thatcher while still in her teens. Britain's other "red top" tabloids introduced competing features under different names. The Daily Star called its topless models "Starbirds." The Daily Mirror also experimented with topless models, although it scrapped the feature in the 1980s.

Page 3 generated considerable controversy throughout its run. Critics often argued that Page 3 objectified and demeaned women. Others believed that images of topless glamour models were inappropriate for a generally circulated national newspaper. Campaigners regularly advocated for legislation to ban Page 3 or tried to convince newspaper owners and editors to voluntarily eliminate the feature or modify it so that models no longer appeared topless. Campaigns against Page 3 proved fruitless for many years, with The Sun often branding opponents of the feature, such as Labour MP Clare Short, as killjoys. However, pressure increasingly mounted on the publication to end the feature after activists launched a No More Page 3 campaign in 2012.

The Irish edition of The Sun ceased publishing topless Page 3 models in August 2013, citing cultural differences between Ireland and the UK. The decision was subsequently taken to drop Page 3 from the UK edition as well. On 19 January 2015, another News UK title, The Times, reported that it "understands that Friday's edition of [The Sun] was the last that will carry an image of a glamour model with bare breasts on that page." However, after several days of publishing images of clothed glamour models, The Sun on 22 January 2015 stated on its front page that "We've had a mammary lapse" and featured a topless photograph of 22-year-old Nicole Neal on Page 3. This seeming intent to restore topless models caused a media and social media backlash, after which no further Page 3 images appeared in the print edition. The Sun continued the feature online via its Page3.com website until March 2017, at which point it ceased to update the website with new content. As of September 2018, the Page3.com website has been removed. The Daily Star has continued to print topless models on Page 3.

Shadow Cabinet of John Smith

John Smith was Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Official Opposition from 18 July 1992 until his death on 12 May 1994. Smith became leader upon succeeding Neil Kinnock, who had resigned following the 1992 general election—for the fourth successive time, the Conservatives had won and Labour lost.

Prior to being Leader of the Opposition, Smith had been a member of the Government of James Callaghan as President of the Board of Trade (1978–1979), and served under his predecessor Neil Kinnock's Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer (1987–1992).

Smith's tenure as Leader of the Opposition saw the Government's policies of the implementation of the Citizen's Charter, progress in the Northern Ireland peace negotiations, and the creation and centralisation of the European Union. Smith died suddenly on 12 May 1994, and was replaced as Acting Leader by Margaret Beckett, who served until 21 July 1994.

Shadow Cabinet of Tony Blair

Tony Blair, as Leader of the Labour Party, was Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom from his election as Leader on 21 July 1994 until he became Prime Minister on 2 May 1997. He announced his first Shadow Cabinet on 20 October 1994.

The Poor Clare (short story)

The Poor Clare is a short story by English Victorian writer Elizabeth Gaskell. First serialised in three installments in 1856 Charles Dickens' popular magazine Household Words, The Poor Clare is a gothic ghost story about a young woman unwittingly cursed by her own grandmother.

Valerie Amos, Baroness Amos

Valerie Ann Amos, Baroness Amos, (born 13 March 1954) is a British politician and diplomat who served as the eighth UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator. Before her appointment to the UN, she served as British High Commissioner to Australia. She was created a Labour Life Peer in 1997, becoming Leader of the House of Lords and Lord President of the Council.

When Amos was appointed Secretary of State for International Development on 12 May 2003, following the resignation of Clare Short, she became the first black woman to sit in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. She left the Cabinet when Gordon Brown became Prime Minister. In July 2010 Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon announced Baroness Amos's appointment to the role of Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator. She took up the position on 1 September 2010 and remained in post until 29 May 2015. In September 2015 Amos was appointed Director of SOAS, University of London, becoming the first black woman to lead a university in the United Kingdom.

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