Clara Schumann (/ˈʃuːmɑːn/; née Clara Josephine Wieck; 13 September 1819 – 20 May 1896) was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished composers and pianists of the Romantic era. She exerted her influence over a 61-year concert career, changing the format and repertoire of the piano recital, while also having composed a body of work including various piano concertos, chamber works, and choral pieces. She was married to composer Robert Schumann, and together they encouraged and maintained a close relationship with Johannes Brahms. She was the first to perform publicly any work by Brahms, notably the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel. She was also an influential piano educator at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt.
Portrait by Franz von Lenbach, 1878
Clara Josephine Wieck
13 September 1819
|Died||20 May 1896 (aged 76)|
(m. 1840; died 1856)
Clara Josephine Wieck was born in Leipzig on 13 September 1819 to Friedrich Wieck and Marianne Wieck (née Tromlitz). Marianne Tromlitz was a famous singer in Leipzig at the time and was singing solos on a weekly basis at the well-known Gewandhaus in Leipzig. The differences between her parents were irreconcilable, in large part due to her father's unyielding nature. After an affair between Clara's mother and Adolph Bargiel, her father's friend, the Wiecks divorced in 1824 and Marianne married Bargiel. Five-year-old Clara remained with her father while Marianne and Bargiel eventually moved to Berlin, limiting contact between Clara and her mother to written letters and an occasional visit.
From an early age, Clara's career and life were planned down to the smallest detail by her father. She received daily one-hour lessons (in piano, violin, singing, theory, harmony, composition, and counterpoint) and had to practice for two hours, using the teaching methods her father had developed, largely at the expense of her broader general education, although she still studied religion and languages under her father's control. In 1828, at the age of nine, Clara Wieck performed at the Leipzig home of Dr. Ernst Carus, director of the mental hospital at Colditz Castle. There, she met another gifted young pianist who had been invited to the musical evening, Robert Schumann, who was nine years older. Schumann admired Clara's playing so much that he asked permission from his mother to stop studying law, which had never interested him much, and take music lessons with Clara's father. While taking lessons, he rented a room in the Wieck household, staying about a year. He would sometimes dress up as a ghost and scare Clara, and this created a bond.
In 1830, at the age of eleven, Clara left on a concert tour to Paris via other European cities, accompanied by her father. She gave her first solo concert at the Leipzig Gewandhaus. In Weimar, she performed a bravura piece by Henri Herz for Goethe, who presented her with a medal with his portrait and a written note saying: "For the gifted artist Clara Wieck". During that tour, Niccolò Paganini was in Paris, and he offered to appear with her. However, her Paris recital was poorly attended, as many people had fled the city due to an outbreak of cholera.
An anonymous music critic, describing Clara Wieck's 1837–1838 Vienna recitals, said: "The appearance of this artist can be regarded as epoch-making... In her creative hands, the most ordinary passage, the most routine motive acquires a significant meaning, a colour, which only those with the most consummate artistry can give."
From December 1837 to April 1838, Clara Wieck performed a series of recitals in Vienna when she was 18. Franz Grillparzer, Austria's leading dramatic poet, wrote a poem entitled "Clara Wieck and Beethoven" after hearing Wieck perform the Appassionata sonata during one of these recitals. Wieck performed to sell-out crowds and laudatory critical reviews; Benedict Randhartinger, a friend of Franz Schubert, gave Wieck an autographed copy of Schubert's Erlkönig, inscribing it "To the celebrated artist, Clara Wieck." Frédéric Chopin described her playing to Franz Liszt, who came to hear one of Wieck's concerts and subsequently "praised her extravagantly in a letter that was published in the Parisian Revue et Gazette Musicale and later, in translation, in the Leipzig journal Neue Zeitschrift für Musik." On 15 March, Wieck was named a Königliche und Kaiserliche Kammervirtuosin ("Royal and Imperial Chamber Virtuoso"), Austria's highest musical honor.
Robert Schumann was a little more than nine years older than Clara. He moved into the Wieck household as a piano student of Friedrich's by the end of 1830 when she was only 11 and he was 20. In 1837 when she was 18, he proposed to her and she accepted. Then Robert </ref> Wieck was strongly opposed to the marriage, as he did not much approve of Robert, and refused his permission. Robert and Clara had to go to court and sue Friedrich. The judge's decision was to allow the marriage, which notably took place on September 12, 1840, the day before Clara's 21st birthday, when she would have attained what would come to be known as majority status. They maintained a joint musical diary. See "Family Life" section for specific detail.
She and Robert first met violinist Joseph Joachim in November 1844, when he was just 14 years old. A year later she wrote in her diary that in a concert on November 11, 1845 "little Joachim was very much liked. He played a new violin concerto of Mendelssohn's, which is said to be wonderful". In May 1853 they heard Joachim play the solo part in Beethoven's violin concerto. Clara wrote that he played "with a finish, a depth of poetic feeling, his whole soul in every note, so ideally, that I have never heard violin-playing like it, and I can truly say that I have never received so indelible an impression from any virtuoso." From that time there was a friendship between Clara and Joachim, which "for more than forty years never failed Clara in things great or small, never wavered in its loyalty."
Over her career, Clara gave "over 238" concerts with Joachim in Germany and Britain, "more than with any other artist." "The two were particularly noted for their playing of Beethoven's sonatas for violin and piano."
Also in the spring of 1853, the then unknown 20-year-old Brahms met Joachim (only a few years older, but by then an acknowledged virtuoso) in Hanover, made a very favorable impression on him, and got from him a letter of introduction to Robert Schumann. Brahms went and presented himself at the Schumanns' home in Düsseldorf. He played some of his own piano solo compositions. Both Schumanns were deeply impressed. Robert published an article highly lauding Brahms. Clara wrote in the diary that Brahms "seemed as if sent straight from God." During Robert's last years of life confined to an asylum (see below), Brahms was a strong presence in Clara's life, and a series of letters were shared between the two, known to contain Brahms' strong feelings for Clara. Their relationship has been interpreted as bordering between friendship and love.
Robert attempted suicide in February 1854 and then was committed to an asylum for the last two years of his life. In March 1854, Brahms, Joachim, Albert Dietrich, and Julius Otto Grimm spent time with Clara, playing music for or with her to divert her mind from the tragedy. Robert died July 29, 1856.
Clara first went to England in April 1856, while Robert was still living (but unable to travel). She was invited to play in a London Philharmonic Society concert by conductor William Sterndale Bennett, a good friend of Robert's. Clara was displeased with the little time spent on rehearsals: "They call it a rehearsal here, if a piece is played through once." She wrote that musical "artists" in England "allow themselves to be treated as inferiors." She was happy, though, to hear the cellist Alfredo Piatti play with "a tone, a bravura, a certainty, such as I never heard before." In May 1856 she played Robert's Piano Concerto in A minor with the New Philharmonic Society conducted by a Dr. Wylde, who Clara said had "led a dreadful rehearsal" and "could not grasp the rhythm of the last movement." Still, she returned to London the following year and performed in Britain in over 15 years of her career.
In October–November 1857 Clara and Joachim took a recital tour together to Dresden and Leipzig. St. James's Hall, London, which opened in 1858, hosted a series of "Popular Concerts" of chamber music, of which programs from 1867 through 1904 are preserved. Joachim visited London annually beginning in 1866. Clara also spent a few months of many years in London and participated in Popular Concerts with Joachim and Piatti. Most often on the same concert programmes would be second violinist Joseph Ries and violist J. B. Zerbini. George Bernard Shaw, the leading playwright and also a music critic, wrote that the Popular Concerts helped greatly to spread and enlighten musical taste in England. Playing chamber music bypassed the issues Clara had with English orchestra conductors.
In January 1867 Clara and Joachim took a tour to Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland, along with Piatti, Ries, and Zerbini, two English sisters named Pyne, one a singer, and a Mr. Saunders who managed all the arrangements. Clara was accompanied by her oldest daughter Marie, who wrote from Manchester to her friend Rosalie Leser that in Edinburgh Clara "was received with tempestuous applause and had to give an encore, so had Joachim. Piatti, too, is always tremendously liked." Marie also wrote that "For the longer journeys we had a saloon [car], comfortably furnished with arm-chairs and sofas... the journey ... was very comfortable." On this occasion, the musicians were not "treated as inferiors"!
During her lifetime, Clara Schumann was an internationally renowned concert pianist. Over 1,300 concert programs from Schumann's performances throughout Europe between 1831 through 1889 have been preserved. She championed the works of her husband, Robert Schumann, and other contemporaries Johannes Brahms, Frédéric Chopin, and Felix Mendelssohn.
In her early years, her repertoire, selected by her father, was showy and popular and in the style common to the time, with works by Kalkbrenner, Henselt, Thalberg, Herz, Pixis, Czerny, and her own compositions. In 1835, she performed her Piano Concerto in A minor with the Leipzig Gewandhaus, led by Felix Mendelssohn. Her only other piano concerto, a Konzersatz in F minor (1847), was left unfinished. In 1841, she premiered Robert Schumann's Piano Concerto in Dresden.
Her busiest years as a performer were between 1856 and 1873, after Robert Schumann's death. During this period, she experienced success as a performer in Great Britain, where her 1865 performance of Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5 was met "with enormous applause." As a chamber musician, she often concertized with violinist Joseph Joachim and played songs frequently on recitals in the later years of her career.
She was initially interested in the works of Liszt, but later developed an outright hostility to him. She ceased to play any of his works; she suppressed her husband's dedication to Liszt of his Fantasie in C major when she published Schumann's complete works, and she refused to attend a Beethoven centenary festival in Vienna in 1870 when she heard that Liszt and Richard Wagner would be participating.
She was particularly scathing of Wagner. Of Tannhäuser, she said that he "wears himself out in atrocities", described Lohengrin as "horrible", and she wrote that Tristan und Isolde was "the most repugnant thing [she had] ever seen or heard in all my life". She also wrote that Wagner had spoken of Robert, Mendelssohn, and Brahms in a "scornful" way.
She held Anton Bruckner, whose 7th Symphony she h, in very low esteem. She wrote to Brahms, describing it as "a horrible piece". She was more impressed with Richard Strauss's early Symphony in F minor in 1887.
Brahms played his Symphony No.1 for her before its premiere. She gave some advice about the Adagio and he took it. She wrote to him and expressed her appreciation, but mentioned her dissatisfaction with the ending of the third and fourth movements.
In July 1875 she consulted a doctor about an arm injury. Having massaged the arm, the doctor advised her to practice only for one hour a day. She rested for eighteen months before returning to the concert stage in March 1875. She was not fully recovered, however, and experienced more neuralgia in her arm again in May, reporting that she "could not write on account of [her] arm" in 1876. Despite her injury, she still performed actively in the 1870s and gave a concert tour in the United States in 1874. She performed Beethoven’s concerto with conductor Woldemar Bargiel, her half-brother by her mother's second marriage, and had tremendous success in Berlin in 1877. She also had concert engagements in England and Holland.
In 1878 she was appointed teacher of the piano at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, a post she held until 1892 and in which she contributed greatly to the improvement of modern piano playing technique.
Clara Schumann played her last public concert in Frankfurt on 12 March 1891. The last work she played was Brahms's Variations on a Theme by Haydn, in the piano-duet version. Her partner was James Kwast.
Robert Schumann gave Clara Schumann a diary book on the day of their marriage. Robert Schumann wrote the first diary entry to indicate that this diary should act as an autobiography of the Schumann family's personal lives, especially for the Schumann couple, and their desires and accomplishments in the arts. It also functioned as a record of Robert and Clara's artistic endeavors and growth; she fully accepted the diary in her many written entries.This diary resembled Clara Schumann's love for Robert with absolute loyalty, as a desire to combine two lives into one artistically, although this life-long goal may have contained risks.
During their lives, Clara and Robert remained as joint partners in both family life and their careers, with periodic vague divisions between family life and career. Clara premiered many works by Robert, from solo piano works to the piano versions of the introductions of Robert's orchestral works.
Clara Schumann often took charge of finances and general household affairs. Part of her responsibility included making money, which she did by giving concerts, although she continued to play throughout her life not only for the income, but because she was a concert artist by training and by nature. However, the huge burden of duties in family lives continued to increase over time and had narrowed her ability as an artist. As Robert Schumann's wife, she was limited in her explorations and displays of her artistic abilities, while her husband flourished in his artistic development.
She was the main breadwinner for her family, and the sole one after Robert was hospitalized and then died, through giving concerts and teaching, and she did most of the work of organizing her own concert tours. She hired a housekeeper and a cook to keep house while she was away on her long tours. She refused to accept charity when a group of musicians offered to put on a benefit concert for her.
Clara and Robert had eight children:
During the May Uprising in Dresden in 1849, she famously walked into the city through the front lines, defying a pack of armed men who confronted her, rescued her children, then walked back out of the city through the dangerous areas again. On the evening of May 3, Robert and Clara heard that the revolution against the Saxon king Friedrich Augustus II for not accepting the "constitution for a German Confederation" had arrived in Dresden. Most of the family left and hid in a "neighbourhood security brigade", and on May 7 Clara bravely went back to Dresden on foot to rescue her 3 children who had been left with a maid (she was also pregnant at this time).
Clara's life was punctuated by tragedy. In 1854, her husband Robert had a mental collapse, attempted suicide, and was committed, at his request, to an insane asylum for the last two years of his life. Her eldest son Ludwig suffered from mental illness like his father and, in her words, had eventually to be "buried alive" in an institution. She herself became deaf in later life and she often needed a wheelchair.
Not only did her husband predecease her, but also four of her children. Clara's first son Emil died in infancy in 1847, aged only one. Her daughter Julie died in 1872, leaving two small children aged only 2 and 7; Clara took on the responsibility of raising her grandchildren. In 1879, her son Felix died, aged 25. Clara was also required to raise Felix's children as he was no longer married. In 1891, her son Ferdinand died, at the age of 42.
Clara and Robert's oldest child, their daughter, Marie, was of great support and help to Clara. When she was of age, she took over the position of household cook. It was Marie who dissuaded Clara from continuing to burn letters she had written to Brahms and he had returned, requesting that she destroy them. Another daughter, Eugenie, who had been too young when he died to remember her father, wrote a book on the Schumanns and Brahms.
As part of the broad musical education given to her by her father, Clara Wieck learned to compose, and from childhood to middle age she produced a good body of work. Clara wrote that "composing gives me great pleasure... there is nothing that surpasses the joy of creation, if only because through it one wins hours of self-forgetfulness, when one lives in a world of sound". At age fourteen she wrote her piano concerto, with some help from Robert Schumann, and performed it at age sixteen at the Leipzig Gewandhaus with Mendelssohn conducting.
As she grew older, however, she became more preoccupied with other responsibilities in life and found it hard to compose regularly, writing, "I once believed that I possessed creative talent, but I have given up this idea; a woman must not desire to compose—there has never yet been one able to do it. Should I expect to be the one?" Robert also expressed concern about the effect on Clara's composing output:
Clara has composed a series of small pieces, which show a musical and tender ingenuity such as she has never attained before. But to have children, and a husband who is always living in the realm of imagination, does not go together with composing. She cannot work at it regularly, and I am often disturbed to think how many profound ideas are lost because she cannot work them out.
In fact, Clara's compositional output decreased notably after she reached the age of thirty-six. The only completed compositions that exist from later in her life do not have opus numbers and are: Vorspiele (Improvisations), 1895, and cadenzas written to two concertos, one by Mozart and the other by Beethoven. Today her compositions are increasingly performed and recorded. Her works include songs, piano pieces, a piano concerto, a piano trio, choral pieces, and three Romances for violin and piano. Inspired by her husband's birthday, the three Romances were composed in 1853 and dedicated to Joseph Joachim, who performed them for George V of Hanover. He declared them a "marvellous, heavenly pleasure".
Although for many years after her death Clara Schumann was not widely recognized as a composer, as a pianist she made an impression which lasts until today. She was one of the first pianists to perform from memory, making that the standard for concertizing. Trained by her father to play by ear and to memorize, she gave public performances from memory as early as age thirteen, a fact noted as something exceptional by her reviewers.
She was also instrumental in changing the kind of programs expected of concert pianists. In her early career, before her marriage to Robert, she played what was then customary, mainly bravura pieces designed to showcase the artist's technique, often in the form of arrangements or variations on popular themes from operas, written by virtuosos such as Thalberg, Herz, or Henselt. And, as it was also customary to play one's own compositions, she included at least one of her own works in every program, works such as her Variations on a Theme by Bellini (Op. 8) and her popular Scherzo (Op. 10). However, as she became a more independent artist, her repertoire contained mainly music by leading composers.
Clara Schumann's influence also spread through her teaching, which emphasized a singing tone and expression, with technique entirely subordinated to the intentions of the composer. One of her students, Mathilde Verne, carried her teaching to England where she taught, among others, Solomon; while another of her students, Carl Friedberg, carried the tradition to the Juilliard School in America, where his students included Malcolm Frager and Bruce Hungerford.
Clara was also instrumental in getting the works of Robert Schumann recognized, appreciated and added to the repertoire. She promoted him tirelessly, beginning when his music was unknown or disliked, when the only other important figure in music to play Schumann occasionally was Liszt, and continuing until the end of her long career.
Clara Schumann has been depicted on screen numerous times. Possibly the best known is by Katharine Hepburn in the 1947 film Song of Love, in which Paul Henreid played Robert Schumann and Robert Walker starred as a young Johannes Brahms.
In 1954 Loretta Young portrayed her on The Loretta Young Show: The Clara Schumann Story in Season 1, Episode 26 (first aired 21 March 1954) in which she supports the composing career of her husband Robert, played by George Nader, alongside Loretta Young, Shelley Fabares and Carleton G. Young.
An image of Clara Schumann, from an 1835 lithograph by Andreas Staub, was featured on the 100 Deutsche Mark banknote from 2 January 1989 until the adoption of the euro, on 1 January 2002. The back of the banknote shows a grand piano she played, and the exterior of the Hoch Conservatory, where she taught. The great hall of the conservatory's new building is named after her.
4 Pièces caractéristiques by Clara Schumann was composed between 1834 and 1836, and published in 1836. The entire work is labeled as opus 5, and is written for solo piano. The pieces are as follows.
I. Impromptu: Le Sabbat is written in a time signature of 3/8. It is in A minor and the tempo marking is "Allegro furioso."
II. Caprice à la Boléro is written in a time signature of 3/4. It begins in E minor with a tempo marking of "Presto." After the opening statement, it transitions to E major with a tempo marking of "più tranquillo e dolce." The E minor theme and tempo return, and the piece concludes with an E major variation of the original E minor theme and tempo.
III. Romance is written in a time signature of 3/4. It begins in B major with a tempo marking of "Andante con sentimento." It transitions to D major with a tempo marking of "con anima." It concludes in B minor with a tempo marking of "a tempo dolente."
IV. Scene Fantastique: Le Ballet des Revenants is written in a time signature of 4/4. It begins in B minor with a tempo marking of "Allegro ma non troppo." It transitions to 2/4 with a marking of "L'istesso tempo." From there, it stays in 2/4 but transitions to G major and B minor in turn. The concluding section's key signature is B minor, but the section is functionally in B major via the use of accidentals. That concluding section is marked "più moderato."The Pièces caractéristiques were recorded by Jozef De Beenhouwer for the Classic Produktion Osnabrück label in 2001 as part of Clara Schumann: Complete Piano Works (cpo 9997582)Brahms-Institut
Brahms-Institut acquired the largest private collection of Johannes Brahms engravings, manuscripts and first and early prints in 1990. In addition to Brahms, the focus is on Robert and Clara Schumann, Theodor Kirchner, Joseph Joachim, and some lesser known performers and composers of the era. In addition to music manuscripts, the collection also includes correspondence, photos, and drawings.Breitkopf
Breitkopf may refer to:
Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf, (1695-1777) founder of Breitkopf & Härtel
Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf, (1719-1794) son of Bernhard Cristoph Breitkopf
Michael Breitkopf, member of German band Die Toten Hosen
Breitkopf & Härtel, a German music publishing houseDavid Watkin (cinematographer)
David Watkin BSC (23 March 1925 – 19 February 2008) was a British cinematographer, an innovator who was among the first directors of photography to experiment heavily with the usage of bounce light as a soft light source. He worked with such film directors as Richard Lester, Peter Brook, Tony Richardson, Mike Nichols, Ken Russell, Franco Zeffirelli, Sidney Lumet and Sydney Pollack.
In 1985, Watkin won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography for his work on Out of Africa. He received lifetime achievement awards in 2004 from the British Society of Cinematographers and the cinematographic-centric Camerimage Film Festival in Łódź, Poland.
In Chariots of Fire, he "helped create one of the most memorable images of 1980s cinema: the opening sequence in which a huddle of young male athletes pounds along the water's edge on a beach" to the film's theme music by Vangelis.Friedrich Wieck
Johann Gottlob Friedrich Wieck (18 August 1785 – 6 October 1873, aged 88) was a noted German piano teacher, voice teacher, owner of a piano store, and author of essays and music reviews. He is remembered as the teacher of his daughter, Clara, a child prodigy who was undertaking international concert tours by age eleven and who later married her father's pupil Robert Schumann, in defiance of her father's extreme objections. As Clara Schumann, she became one of the most famous pianists of her time. Another of Wieck's daughters, Marie Wieck, also had a career in music, although not nearly so illustrious as Clara's. Other pupils included Hans von Bülow.Hoch Conservatory
Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium - Musikakademie was founded in Frankfurt am Main on 22 September 1878. Through the generosity of Frankfurter Joseph Hoch, who bequeathed the Conservatory one million German gold marks in his testament, a school for music and the arts was established for all age groups. Instrumental to the foundation, prosperity and success of the conservatory was its director Joachim Raff who did most of the work including setting the entire curriculum and hiring all its faculty. It has played an important role in the history of music in Frankfurt. Many distinguished have taught there: in the late 19th century, with such teachers as Clara Schumann on the faculty, the conservatory achieved international renown. In the 1890s about 25% of the students were from other countries: 46 were from England and 23 from the United States.
In the 1920s, under director Bernhard Sekles, the conservatory was far ahead of its time: Sekles initiated the world's first Jazz Studies (directed by Mátyás Seiber) and in 1931 the Elementary Music Department.
Today Dr. Hoch's conservatory offers instruction in the Music Education for Youth and Adults (ANE) program, the Elementary Music Department (Basisabteilung), and the Pre-College-Frankfurt (PCF) program, which provides preparation for future studies at a Hochschule or conservatory. There are also Ballet, Early Music and New Music departments. The following qualifications are available: Diplom in Music and Diplomas in Music Pedagogy in all instruments, voice, music theory, composition, performance, and Elementary Music Pedagogy.
The German Federal Bank honored the conservatory on the reverse side of the former 100 DM bill with a picture of the original conservatory building, unfortunately bombed in World War II. Clara Schumann is pictured on the front side of the same bill.Ilona Eibenschütz
Ilona Eibenschütz (8 May 1872 in Budapest, Hungary – 21 May 1967 in London, England) was a Hungarian pianist.
She received her first instruction in music from her cousin Albert Eibenschütz. Franz Liszt is said to have played at a concert with her when she was five years old. She later studied with Carl Marek, and from 1878 to 1885 at the Leipzig Conservatory under Hans Schmitt, and then, from 1885 to 1890, with Clara Schumann in Frankfurt. There she met Johannes Brahms in 1886, and she was close to him until his death in 1897. She heard him play his own music on various occasions, and in 1926, she wrote (as Mrs. Carl Derenburg) for The Musical Times, "[Brahms] played as if he were improvising, with heart and soul, sometimes humming to himself, forgetting everything around him. His playing was altogether grand and noble, like his compositions."
In the summer of 1893, Brahms privately premiered his piano pieces, op. 118 and op. 119, to Eibenschütz. She later wrote, "It was of course the most wonderful thing for me to hear these pieces as nobody yet knew anything about them. I was the first to whom he played them."
Her teacher Clara Schumann was Brahms's closest personal and musical friend, but expressed reservations privately to Brahms about Eibenschütz's playing, writing to Brahms on 1 February 1894 that "she goes too quickly over everything." (The translation is by Jerrold Northrup Moore in his booklet notes to the Pearl CD, "Pupils of Clara Schumann" - Pearl CDS 99049 - which includes recordings of Eibenschütz.)
Starting in 1884, at the age of 12, she annually made a concert tour through Germany, Austria, France, Russia, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, playing before the Queen of Denmark at Copenhagen, before the Czar and Czarina of Russia at the Gatschina Palace, and before the Emperor of Austria at Vienna, by whom she was granted an imperial stipend for five years. Her debut with the Berlin Philharmonic was on 7 November 1890.List of compositions by Clara Schumann
This list of compositions by Clara Schumann is divided first into those compositions with opus number and those without. Works without opus number are further divided into Lieder, part songs, canon (music), chamber and orchestra works, solo piano works, and cadenzas written for other composers' concertos. Indicated dates for works with opus number refer to publication date. Indicated dates for works without opus number refer to when Schumann created the work.Piano Trio (Clara Schumann)
The Piano Trio in G minor, opus 17 by Clara Schumann was written in 1846, and was the only piano trio she wrote. The trio was composed during her presence in Dresden 1845-1846. During the development of the Trio, she was going through hardships in life. Her fourth child, Emil had died a few years back and her husband Robert Schumann was extremely ill. This trio was completed during the summer of 1846 when they traveled to Norderney in attempts to improve Robert's health conditions. While in Norderney, Clara suffered from miscarriage. A year after the composition of her piano trio, Robert composed his first piano trio, op.63. It is seen that Clara's trio has had great influences on Robert's trio as they both share many interesting similarities. Their works were frequently paired at concerts.Clara Schumann's compositions include 29 Lieders (songs), choral music, solo piano pieces, 1 piano concerto, chamber and orchestra works. The Piano Trio has been called "probably" the "masterpiece" among her compositions. The work is written for a piano trio comprising piano, violin, and cello. It was her first attempt writing music for other instruments other than the voice and piano.Serenades (Brahms)
The two Serenades, Op. 11 and 16, represented two of the earliest efforts by Johannes Brahms to write orchestral music. They both date from after the 1856 death of Robert Schumann when Brahms was residing in Detmold and had access to an orchestra.Brahms had a goal of reaching Ludwig van Beethoven's level in writing symphonies, and worked long and hard on his Symphony No. 1, completing it only in 1876 when he was 43 years old. As preliminary steps in composing for orchestra, he chose early on to write some lighter orchestral pieces, these Serenades. The second was first sent to Clara Schumann, who was delighted by it.Six Pieces for Piano, Op. 118 (Brahms)
The Six Pieces for Piano, Op. 118, are some of the most beloved compositions that Johannes Brahms wrote for solo piano. Completed in 1893 and dedicated to Clara Schumann, the collection was the penultimate composition published during Brahms' lifetime. It was also his penultimate work composed for piano solo. Consistent with Brahms's other late keyboard works, Op. 118 is more introspective than his earlier piano pieces, which tended to be more virtuosic in character. The six pieces are:
Intermezzo in A minor. Allegro non assai, ma molto appassionato
Intermezzo in A major. Andante teneramente
Ballade in G minor. Allegro energico
Intermezzo in F minor. Allegretto un poco agitato
Romanze in F major. Andante
Intermezzo in E♭ minor. Andante, largo e mestoSymphony No. 4 (Schumann)
The Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Op. 120, composed by Robert Schumann, was first completed in 1841. Schumann heavily revised the symphony in 1851, and it was this version that reached publication.
Clara Schumann, Robert's widow, later claimed on the first page of the score to the symphony—as published in 1882 as part of her husband's complete works (Robert Schumanns Werke, Herausgegeben von Clara Schumann, published by Breitkopf & Härtel)—that the symphony had merely been sketched in 1841 but was only fully orchestrated ("vollständig instrumentiert") in 1851. However, this was untrue, and Johannes Brahms, who greatly preferred the earlier version of the symphony, published that version in 1891 despite Clara's strenuous objections.Three Romances for Violin and Piano
The Three Romances for Violin and Piano, Op. 22 of Clara Schumann, were written in 1853 and first published in 1855.