Clan

A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship[1] and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. Clans in indigenous societies tend to be exogamous, meaning that their members cannot marry one another. Clans preceded more centralized forms of community organization and government, and exist in every country. Members may identify with a coat of arms or other symbol to show they are an independent clan. The kinship-based bonds may also have a symbolic ancestor, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan's unity. When this "ancestor" is non-human, it is referred to as a totem, which is frequently an animal.

The word clan is derived from the Gaelic clann[1] meaning "children" or "progeny"; it is not from the word for "family" in either Irish[2][3] or Scottish Gaelic. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word was introduced into English in around 1425, as a label for the nature of the society of the Scottish Highlands.[4]

Clans as political units

In different cultures and situations, a clan usually has different meaning than other kin-based groups, such as tribes and bands. Often, the distinguishing factor is that a clan is a smaller part of a larger society such as a chiefdom, or a state. In some societies, clans may have an official leader such as a chief, matriarch,[5] or patriarch; in others, leadership positions may have to be achieved, or people may say that "elders" make decisions.

Examples include Irish, Scottish, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese clans, which exist as kin groups within their respective nations. Note, however, that tribes and bands can also be components of larger societies. However, the early Norse clans, the ætter, are often translated as house or line. The Biblical 'tribes' of Israel were composed of many clans.[6] Arab clans are sub-tribal groups within Arab society. Native American and First Nations peoples also had clans. For instance, Ojibwa bands are smaller parts of the Ojibwa people or tribe people in North America. The many Native American peoples are distinguished by language and culture, and most have clans and bands as the basic kinship organizations. In some cases tribes recognized each other's clans; for instance, both the Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes of the Southeast United States had fox and bear clans, whose membership could supersede the tribe.

Apart from these different historical traditions of kinship, conceptual confusion arises from colloquial usages of the term. In post-Soviet countries, for example, it is quite common to speak of "clans" in reference to informal networks within the economic and political sphere. This usage reflects the assumption that their members act towards each other in a particularly close and mutually supportive way approximating the solidarity among kinsmen. Polish clans differ from most others as they are a collection of families who bear the same coat of arms, as opposed to claiming a common descent (see Polish heraldry). There are multiple closely related clans in the Indian sub-continent, especially south India.

Clans by continent or region

The Irish Gaelic term for clan is fine [ˈfʲɪnʲə]; líon tí is a term for "family" in the sense of "household"; and muintir is a term for "family" in the sense of "kinsfolk".[3]

Africa
Americas
  • Anishinaabe
  • Cherokee
  • Iroquois
  • Omaha clans
  • Asia
  • Central Asian
  • Baloch
  • Bon-gwan (names)
  • Chinese (family name)
  • Punti
  • Japanese
  • Kazakh
  • Manchu (names)
  • Mongolian
  • Ng
  • Ngoche
  • Pashtun
  • South Asia
  • Ahir
  • Angami Naga
  • Ao Naga
  • Arain
  • Bhuiyar
  • Bunt
  • Gakhars
  • Gurjar (Gujjar)
  • Jat
  • Khatri
  • Kshatriya
  • Maratha
  • Meena
  • Mukkulathor
  • Nai
  • Nair (Malayala Kshatriya)
  • Patel
  • Rajput
  • Tarkhan
  • Vellalar
  • Yadav
  • Middle East
  • Arab
  • Israelite
  • Parthian
  • Syriac
  • Eurasiaa
  • Armenian
  • Bashkir
  • Chechen Teips
  • Nakhchivani
  • Turkish
  • Russia
  • Yeraz
  • Europe
  • Spanish
  • Irish
  • Irish and Scottish septs
  • Irish and Scottish Chiefs of the Name
  • Norse
  • Polish
  • Scottish (Scottish clan chief)
  • Armigerous
  • Albanian
  • Montenegrin
  • Sippe
  • German
  • French
  • Oceania
  • Rapa Nui
  • Māori
  • a Meaning the transcontinental area between Asia and Europe.

    See also

    References

    1. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Clan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 419–421.
    2. ^ Dineen, Patrick S. (1927). Foclóir Gaeďilge agus Béarla an Irish-English Dictionary. Dublin and Cork, Ireland: The Educational Company of Ireland.
    3. ^ a b Ó Dónaill, Niall (1992). Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla. Dublin, Ireland: An Gúm. ISBN 1-85791-037-0.
    4. ^ "Clan", Online Etymology Dictionary
    5. ^ "Definition of MATRIARCH". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-03-02.
    6. ^ See, for example, 1 Chronicles 4 and Numbers 26 in the Old Testament.
    Adriano Celentano

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    Celentano is also recognized for being particularly perceptive of changes in the music business. He is credited for having introduced Rock'n'Roll to Italy – a genre that had great appeal on young people of that time. As an actor, Celentano has appeared in about 40 films, mostly comedies.

    BattleTech

    BattleTech is a wargaming and military science fiction franchise launched by FASA Corporation in 1984, acquired by WizKids in 2001, and owned since 2003 by Topps. The series began with FASA's debut of the board game BattleTech (originally named BattleDroids) by Jordan Weisman and L. Ross Babcock III and has since grown to include numerous expansions to the original game, several board games, role playing games, video games, a collectible card game, a series of more than 100 novels, and an animated television series.

    Clan Campbell

    Clan Campbell (Scottish Gaelic: Na Caimbeulaich [na ˈkʰaimbəl̪ˠɪç]) is a Highland Scottish clan. Historically one of the largest and most powerful of the Highland clans, their lands were in Argyll and the chief of the clan became the Earl and later Duke of Argyll.

    Clan Donald

    Clan Donald, also known as Clan MacDonald (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Dòmhnaill [ˈkʰl̪ˠãũn̪ˠ ˈt̪õː.ɪʎ]), is a Highland Scottish clan and one of the largest Scottish clans. The Lord Lyon King of Arms who is the Scottish official with responsibility for regulating heraldry in that country, issuing new grants of coats of arms, and serving as the judge of the Court of the Lord Lyon, recognizes under Scottish law the High Chief of Clan Donald. Historically the chiefs of the Clan Donald held the title of Lord of the Isles until 1493 and two of those chiefs also held the title of Earl of Ross until 1476.

    There are also numerous branches to the Clan Donald and several of these have chiefs recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms; these are: Clan Macdonald of Sleat, Clan Macdonald of Clanranald, Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, Clan MacDonald of Keppoch, and Clan MacAlister. There are also notable historic branches of Clan Donald without chiefs so-recognised, these are: the Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg, Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and the MacDonalds of Ardnamurchan. The MacDonnells of Antrim are a cadet branch of the MacDonalds of Dunnyveg but do not belong to the Scottish associations and have a chief officially recognised in Ireland.

    Clan MacLeod

    Clan MacLeod (; Scottish Gaelic: Clann MhicLeòid [ˈkʰl̪ˠãũn̪ˠ vĩçkʲˈʎɔːtʲ]) is a Highland Scottish clan associated with the Isle of Skye. There are two main branches of the clan: the MacLeods of Harris and Dunvegan, whose chief is MacLeod of MacLeod, are known in Gaelic as Sìol Tormoid ("seed of Tormod"); the Clan MacLeod of Lewis and Raasay, whose chief is Macleod of The Lewes (Scottish Gaelic: Mac Ghille Chaluim), are known in Gaelic as Sìol Torcaill ("seed of Torcall"). Both branches claim descent from Leòd, who lived in the 13th century.

    Darod

    The Darod (Somali: Daarood, Arabic: دارود‎) is a Somali clan. The forefather of this clan was Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti, more commonly known as Darood. The Darod clan is the largest Somali clan in the Horn of Africa, with a wide traditional territory.The Darod in Somalia mainly live in the regions of Jubbaland, Puntland region and The Ogaden and the North Eastern Province (parts of Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively) with an ancillary presence in pockets of southern Soin ande and southwestern Gedo rehabit.

    Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers)

    Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) is the debut studio album by American hip hop group Wu-Tang Clan, released on November 9, 1993 by Loud Records. Recording sessions took place during 1992 and 1993 at Firehouse Studio in New York City, and the album was produced by the group's de facto leader RZA. Its title originates from the martial arts film The 36th Chamber of Shaolin (1978).

    The distinctive sound of Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) created a blueprint for hardcore hip hop during the 1990s, and helped return New York City hip hop to national prominence. Its sound also became greatly influential in modern hip hop production, while the group members' explicit, humorous, and free-associative lyrics have served as a template for many subsequent hip hop records. Serving as a landmark release in the era of hip hop known as the East Coast Renaissance, its influence helped lead the way for several other East Coast hip hop artists, including Nas, The Notorious B.I.G., Mobb Deep, and Jay-Z.

    Despite its raw, underground sound, the album had surprising chart success, peaking at #41 on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 30,000 copies in the 1st week. By 1995, it was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America and has sold over 2 million copies in the United States. Initially receiving positive reviews from most music critics, Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) is widely regarded as one of the most significant albums of the 1990s, as well as one of the greatest hip hop albums ever.

    FaZe Clan

    FaZe Clan (formerly FaZe Sniping) is an American esports and entertainment organization that competes in various video game tournaments. The organization was founded as a gaming clan on YouTube by players known as Housecat, ClipZ, and Resistance in 2010, who all created "trickshot" videos for the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. In 2012, with the release of Call of Duty: Black Ops II, the organization decided to expand into competitive play.

    In 2016, a new era for FaZe began when the organization bought a Counter-Strike: Global Offensive professional team. This moment marked the beginning of FaZe Clan expanding into various esports. This movement is referred to as "FaZe 2.0" by FaZe members and fans. The FaZe CS:GO team went on to become one of the most successful rosters for the 2017/2018 seasons.

    FaZe Clan is the most popular esports organization in the world, based on the organization's social media following. As of November 28, 2018, FaZe Clan and its members together have 82 million YouTube subscribers, 11.2 billion YouTube views, 11.3 million Twitch followers, 130 million Twitch views, 43.1 million Twitter followers, 45.8 million Instagram followers, 2.8 million Facebook likes and followers.FaZe Clan has made $6,076,895.45 from esport tournament prize pools alone.

    Inzerillo Mafia clan

    The Inzerillo Mafia clan is a Sicilian Mafia clan, formerly among the most powerful in Sicily, and is associated with American boss Carlo Gambino and his family.

    In the modern era, the Inzerillo clan has been associated with the late John Gambino through heroin trafficking, and also has links to the current Gambino boss, Frank Cali.

    Jat people

    The Jat people (Hindi pronunciation: [dʒaːʈ]) (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community native to the Indian subcontinent, comprising what is today Northern India and Pakistan. Originally pastoralists in the lower Indus river-valley of Sindh,

    Jats migrated north into the Punjab region, Delhi, Rajputana, and the western Gangetic Plain in late medieval times. Primarily of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh faiths, they now live mostly in the Indian states of Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Sindh.

    Traditionally involved in peasantry, the Jat community saw radical social changes in the 17th century, when the Hindu Jats took up arms against the Mughal Empire during the late 17th and early 18th century. The Hindu Jat kingdom reached its zenith under Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur (1707–1763). The Jat community of the Punjab region played an important role in the development of the martial Khalsa Panth of Sikhism; they are more commonly known as the Jat Sikhs. By the 20th century, the landowning Jats became an influential group in several parts of North India, including Haryana, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi. Over the years, several Jats abandoned agriculture in favour of urban jobs, and used their dominant economic and political status to claim higher social status.Jats are classified as Other Backward Class (OBC) in seven of India's thirty-six States and UTs, namely Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. However, only the Jats of Rajasthan – excluding those of Bharatpur district and Dholpur district – are entitled to reservation of central government jobs under the OBC reservation. In 2016, the Jats of Haryana organized massive protests demanding to be classified as OBC in order to obtain such affirmative action benefits.

    Kim (Korean surname)

    Kim (occasionally romanized as Gim) is the most common surname in the Korean Peninsula, accounting for nearly 22% of the population. Kim is written as "김" gim in Korean. ("김" solely by itself has no specific meaning unless specified by its underlying hanja or derived from context.) The hanja for Kim can also be transliterated as Hangul: 금 geum "metal, iron, gold". The Kim family is also the ruling family in North Korea.

    Ku Klux Klan

    The Ku Klux Klan (), commonly called the KKK or the Klan and commonly misspelled as the Klu Klux Klan, is an American hate group. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States. Each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in later iterations—Nordicism and anti-Catholicism. Historically, the KKK used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations. In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were highly exaggerated by both friends and enemies.

    The first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s, then died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South during the Reconstruction Era, especially by using violence against African-American leaders. With numerous autonomous chapters across the South, it was suppressed around 1871, through federal law enforcement. Members made their own, often colorful, costumes: robes, masks and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities.The second group was founded in the South in 1915 and it flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Taking inspiration from D. W. Griffith's 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation, which mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy, often took a pro-Prohibition stance, and it opposed Catholics and Jews, while also stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the Pope and the Catholic Church. This second organization was funded by selling its members a standard white costume. It used K-words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others. It rapidly declined in the later half of the 1920s.

    The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name. They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement, often using violence and murder to suppress activists. It is classified as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center. As of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total Klan membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) puts it at 6,000 members total.The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism. Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, virtually every Christian denomination has officially denounced the KKK.

    Lee (Korean surname)

    Lee is the typical romanization of the common South Korean surname I (Hangul 이), North Korean surname Ri (리). The name is written identically to the Chinese name Li 李 in Hanja characters. It is the second-most-common surname in Korea, behind only Kim.

    Ol' Dirty Bastard

    Russell Tyrone Jones (November 15, 1968 – November 13, 2004), better known by his stage name Ol' Dirty Bastard (often abbreviated as O.D.B.), was an American rapper and producer. He was one of the founding members of the Wu-Tang Clan, a rap group primarily from Staten Island, New York, which first rose to mainstream prominence with their 1993 debut album Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers).His professional success was hampered by frequent legal troubles, including incarceration. He died on November 13, 2004, of a drug overdose, two days before his 36th birthday.Ol' Dirty Bastard was noted for his "outrageously profane, free-associative rhymes delivered in a distinctive half-rapped, half-sung style." His stage name was derived from the 1980 martial arts film Ol' Dirty and the Bastard (also called An Old Kung Fu Master, starring Yuen Siu-tien).

    Scottish clan

    A Scottish clan (from Gaelic clann, "children") is a kinship group among the Scottish people. Clans give a sense of shared identity and descent to members, and in modern times have an official structure recognised by the Court of the Lord Lyon, which regulates Scottish heraldry and coats of arms. Most clans have their own tartan patterns, usually dating from the 19th century, which members may incorporate into kilts or other clothing.

    The modern image of clans, each with their own tartan and specific land, was promulgated by the Scottish author Sir Walter Scott after influence by others. Historically, tartan designs were associated with Lowland and Highland districts whose weavers tended to produce cloth patterns favoured in those districts. By process of social evolution, it followed that the clans/families prominent in a particular district would wear the tartan of that district, and it was but a short step for that community to become identified by it.

    Many clans have their own clan chief; those that do not are known as armigerous clans. Clans generally identify with geographical areas originally controlled by their founders, sometimes with an ancestral castle and clan gatherings, which form a regular part of the social scene. The most notable gathering of recent times was "The Gathering 2009", which included a "clan convention" in the Scottish parliament.It is a common misconception that every person who bears a clan's name is a lineal descendant of the chiefs. Many clansmen although not related to the chief took the chief's surname as their own to either show solidarity, or to obtain basic protection or for much needed sustenance. Most of the followers of the clan were tenants, who supplied labour to the clan leaders. Contrary to popular belief, the ordinary clansmen rarely had any blood tie of kinship with the clan chiefs, but they took the chief's surname as their own when surnames came into common use in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Thus by the eighteenth century the myth had arisen that the whole clan was descended from one ancestor, with the Scottish Gaelic of "clan" meaning "children" or "offspring".

    Sicilian Mafia

    The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra (Italian: [ˈkɔːsa ˈnɔstra; ˈkɔːza -], Sicilian: [ˈkɔːsa ˈnɔʂː(ɽ)a]; "our thing"), is a Mafia-terrorist-type organized crime syndicate originating in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organisational structure and code of conduct. The basic group is known as a "family", "clan", or cosca. Each family claims sovereignty over a territory, usually a town or village or a neighbourhood (borgata) of a larger city, in which it operates its rackets. Its members call themselves "men of honour", although the public often refers to them as mafiosi. The Mafia's core activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, and the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions.Following waves of emigration, the Mafia has spread to other countries such as Canada and the United States.

    Tartan

    Tartan (Scottish Gaelic: breacan [ˈpɾʲɛxkən]) is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours. Tartans originated in woven wool, but now they are made in many other materials. Tartan is particularly associated with Scotland. Scottish kilts almost always have tartan patterns. Tartan is often called plaid in the United States, but in Scotland, a plaid is a tartan cloth slung over the shoulder as a kilt accessory, or a plain ordinary blanket such as one would have on a bed.

    Tartan is made with alternating bands of coloured (pre-dyed) threads woven as both warp and weft at right angles to each other. The weft is woven in a simple twill, two over—two under the warp, advancing one thread at each pass. This forms visible diagonal lines where different colours cross, which give the appearance of new colours blended from the original ones. The resulting blocks of colour repeat vertically and horizontally in a distinctive pattern of squares and lines known as a sett.

    The Dress Act of 1746 attempted to bring the warrior clans under government control by banning the tartan and other aspects of Gaelic culture. When the law was repealed in 1782, it was no longer ordinary Highland dress, but was adopted instead as the symbolic national dress of Scotland.

    Until the middle of the nineteenth century, the highland tartans were only associated with either regions or districts, rather than any specific Scottish clan. This was because like other materials, tartan designs were produced by local weavers for local tastes and would usually only use the natural dyes available in that area, as synthetic dye production was non-existent and transportation of other dye materials across long distances was prohibitively expensive.

    The patterns were simply different regional checked-cloth patterns, chosen by the wearer's preference—in the same way as people nowadays choose what colours and patterns they like in their clothing, without particular reference to propriety. It was not until the mid-nineteenth century that many patterns were created and artificially associated with Scottish clans, families, or institutions who were (or wished to be seen as) associated in some way with a Scottish heritage. The Victorians' penchant for ordered taxonomy and the new chemical dyes then available meant that the idea of specific patterns of bright colours, or "dress" tartans, could be created and applied to a faux-nostalgic view of Scottish history.

    Today tartan is no longer limited to textiles, but is used on non-woven mediums, such as paper, plastics, packaging, and wall coverings.

    Tokugawa Ieyasu

    Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康, January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, and abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. His given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen (東照大権現). He was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

    Wu-Tang Clan

    Wu-Tang Clan is an American hip hop group from Staten Island, New York City, originally composed of East Coast rappers RZA, GZA, Ol' Dirty Bastard, Method Man, Raekwon, Ghostface Killah, Inspectah Deck, U-God and Masta Killa. Longtime collaborator Cappadonna became an official member in 2007. Wu-Tang Clan are regarded as one of the most influential hip-hop groups of all time.

    Wu-Tang Clan has released four gold and platinum studio albums. Their 1993 debut album, Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers), is considered one of the greatest albums in hip hop history. The group has introduced and launched the careers of a number of affiliated artists and groups, collectively known as the Wu-Tang Killa Bees. In 2008, About ranked them "the No. 1 greatest hip hop group of all time". Kris Ex of Rolling Stone called Wu-Tang Clan "the best rap group ever". In 2004, NME hailed them as one of the most influential groups of the last ten years.

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