Clam

Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs. The word is often applied only to those that are edible and live as infauna, spending most of their lives partially buried in the sand of the ocean floor. Clams have two shells of equal size connected by two adductor muscles and have a powerful burrowing foot.[1] Clams in the culinary sense do not live attached to a substrate (whereas oysters and mussels do) and do not live near the bottom (whereas scallops do). In culinary usage, clams are commonly eaten marine bivalves, as in clam digging and the resulting soup, clam chowder. Many edible clams such as palourde clams are oval or triangular;[2] however, razor clams have an elongated parallel-sided shell, suggesting an old-fashioned straight razor.[3]

Some clams have life cycles of only one year, while at least one may be over 500 years old.[4] All clams have two calcareous shells or valves joined near a hinge with a flexible ligament, and all are filter feeders.

Clam
Clams
Edible clams in the family Veneridae
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:

Anatomy

LittleNeck clams USDA96c1862
Littleneck clams, small hard clams, species Mercenaria mercenaria

A clam's shell consists of two (usually equal) valves, which are connected by a hinge joint and a ligament that can be external or internal. The ligament provides tension to bring the valves apart, while one or two adductor muscles can contract to close the valves. Clams also have kidneys, a heart, a mouth, a stomach, a nervous system and an anus. Many have a siphon.

As food

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A clam dish
Clams simmering in white wine sauce
Clams simmering in a white wine sauce

North America

In culinary use, within the eastern coast of the United States and large swathes of the Maritimes of Canada, the term "clam" most often refers to the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. It may also refer to a few other common edible species, such as the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria and the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica. Another species commercially exploited on the Atlantic Coast of the United States is the surf clam Spisula solidissima. Scallops are also used for food nationwide, but not cockles: they are more difficult to get than in Europe because of their habit of being farther out in the tide than European species.[5][6] Up and down the coast of the Eastern U.S., the bamboo clam, ensis directus, is prized by Americans for making clam strips although because of its nature of burrowing into the sand very close to the beach, it cannot be harvested by mechanical means without damaging the beaches.[7]

On the U.S. West Coast, there are several species that have been consumed for thousands of years, evidenced by middens full of clamshells near the shore and their consumption by nations including the Chumash of California, the Nisqually of Washington State and the Tsawwassen of British Columbia.[8][9][10][11] The butter clam, Saxidomus gigantea,[12] the Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, [13] gaper clams Tresus capax,[14] the geoduck clam, Panopea generosa [15] and the Pismo clam, Tivela stultorum [16] are all eaten as delicacies.

Clams can be eaten raw, steamed, boiled, baked or fried. They can also be made into clam chowder, clams casino, Clam cakes, stuffies, or they can be cooked using hot rocks and seaweed in a New England clam bake. On the West Coast, they are an ingredient in making cioppino and local variants of ceviche[17]

Japan

In Japan, clams are often an ingredient of mixed seafood dishes. They can also be made into hot pot, miso soup or Tsukudani. The more commonly used varieties of clams in Japanese cooking are the Shijimi (Corbicula japonica), the Asari (Venerupis philippinarum) and the Hamaguri (Meretrix lusoria).

Italy

In Italy, clams are often an ingredient of mixed seafood dishes or are eaten together with pasta. The more commonly used varieties of clams in Italian cooking are the Vongola (Venerupis decussata), the Cozza (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the Tellina (Donax trunculus). Though Dattero di mare (Lithophaga lithophaga) was once eaten, overfishing drove it to the verge of extinction (it takes 15 to 35 years to reach adult size and could only be harvested by smashing the calcarean rocks that form its habitat) and the Italian government has declared it an endangered species since 1998 and its harvest and sale are forbidden.

India

Clams are eaten more in the coastal regions of India, especially in the Konkan, Kerala, Bengal and coastal regions of Karnataka regions.

In Kerala clams are used to make curries and fried with coconut. In Malabar region it is known as "elambakka" and in middle kerala it is known as "kakka". Clam curry made with coconut is a dish from Malabar especially in the Thalassery region. On the south western coast of India, also known as the Konkan region of Maharashtra, clams are used in curries and side dishes, like Tisaryachi Ekshipi, which is clams with one shell on. Beary Muslim households in the Mangalore region prepare a main dish with clams called Kowldo Pinde. In Udupi and Mangalore regions it is famously called as "marvai" in local tulu language. It is used to prepare many delicious dishes like marvai sukka, marvai gassi, and marvai pundi.

Trinidad and Tobago

Local fishermen sell them in rural markets.

Religion

In Judaism, clams are considered non-kosher (treif) along with all other shellfish, which lack a fish's fins and scales.[18]

As currency

Some species of clams, particularly Mercenaria mercenaria, were in the past used by the Algonquians of Eastern North America to manufacture wampum, a type of sacred jewelry; and to make shell money.[19]

Species

Sphenoceramus steenstrupi
One of the world's largest clam fossils (187 cm), a Sphenoceramus steenstrupi specimen from Greenland in the Geological Museum in Copenhagen

Edible:

Not usually considered edible:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Clam". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2016.
  2. ^ "Clams recipes". BBC. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  3. ^ "Clam". Oxford Dictionaries – Dictionary, Thesaurus, & Grammar.
  4. ^ Danielle Elliot (14 November 2013). "Ming the Clam, World's Oldest Animal, Was Actually 507 Years Old". CBS News. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  5. ^ "harvesting cockles".
  6. ^ "Cockle". SeafoodSource. Diversified Communications. 23 January 2014.
  7. ^ "dredging of clams" (PDF).
  8. ^ "Shell Midden Analysis". science.jrank.org. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  9. ^ "Nisqually People and the River – Yelm History Project". www.yelmhistoryproject.com. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  10. ^ "What Did the Chumash Eat? | Synonym". Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  11. ^ "Tsawwassen First Nation History and Timeline". Tsawwassen First Nation. November 10, 2011.
  12. ^ "Plenty of clams, oysters in Puget Sound and Hood Canal". The Seattle Times. 2015-06-27. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  13. ^ Kelly, Mike. "Dig Those Razor Clams". North Coast Journal. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  14. ^ Lackner, Bill. "Oregon clam chowder". Coos Bay World. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  15. ^ "All About Geoduck: The Life of a (Delicious) Oversized Mollusk". www.seriouseats.com. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  16. ^ "Digging for Pismo clams at San Diego Beaches". Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  17. ^ "razor clams | Langdon Cook". langdoncook.com. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
  18. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 83 and 84
  19. ^ Kurlansky, Mark (2006), The Big Oyster: History on the Half Shell, Penguin Group, pp. 16, 30–31, ISBN 978-0-345-47638-8, OCLC 60550567.

External links

Atlantic jackknife clam

The Atlantic jackknife clam, Ensis leei , also known as the bamboo clam, American jackknife clam, or razor clam, is a large edible marine bivalve mollusc, found on the North American Atlantic coast, from Canada to South Carolina. The species has also been introduced to Europe. The name "razor clam" is also used to refer to different species such as the Pacific razor clam (Siliqua patula) or Razor shell (Ensis magnus).

Jacknife clams live in sand and mud and are found in intertidal or subtidal zones in bays and estuaries. Its streamlined shell and strong foot allow Jacknife clams to burrow quickly in wet sand. Jacknife clams are also able to swim by propelling jets of water out of their shells. The Jacknife clam gets its name from their shell's extremely sharp rim and the overall shape bearing a strong resemblance to an old fashioned straight razor. Beachgoers can be injured when the shell is accidentally stepped on.At low tide the position of the Atlantic jackknife clam is revealed by a keyhole-shaped opening in the sand; when the clam is disturbed, a small jet of water squirts from this opening as the clam starts to dig. This species' remarkable speed in digging can easily outstrip a human digger, making the clam difficult to catch. Thus the species is not often commercially fished, even though it is widely regarded as a delicacy: in coastal Massachusetts, they are sought after in the summer by locals to make home cooked clam strips and most towns have ordinances regulating how many can be taken at a time. The easiest way to catch jackknives is to pour salt on the characteristic breathing holes. The clam will try to escape the salt by coming up out of its hole, at which point you can gently grab the shell and pull it out of the ground.

Predators of Ensis directus other than humans include birds, such as the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) in North America and the Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) in Europe, and the nemertean worm Cerebratulus lacteus.The Atlantic jackknife clam is now also found in northwestern Europe, where it is regarded as a harmful exotic species. It was first recorded in Europe in 1978/79, in the Elbe estuary.The Atlantic jackknife clam has inspired a kind of biomimetic anchor in development by a team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, adapting the clam's digging method for use in keeping undersea cables and potentially watercraft anchored securely.

Atlantic surf clam

The Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima), also called the bar clam, hen clam, skimmer, or simply sea clam, is a very large, edible, saltwater clam or marine bivalve mollusk in the family Mactridae. It is commonly found in the western Atlantic Ocean. Reaching up to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) or more in length, it is much larger than the related surf clam, which resides in the eastern Atlantic waters off of Great Britain.

The shell of this species is a well-known object to beach-goers in the northeastern United States. People on the beach often pick up a large empty shell of this species, either to dig in the sand with, or take home to use as a decorative dish or ashtray.

The species is exported commercially as a food item.

Capri pants

Capri pants (also known as three quarter legs, capris, crop pants, clam-diggers, flood pants, jams, highwaters, or toreador pants) are pants that are longer than shorts but are not as long as trousers. They typically come down to between knee and calf or ankle length. Capris are popular with people in many countries; especially in the United States, Europe, Latin America, and Asia.

Chowder

Chowder is a type of soup or stew often prepared with milk or cream and thickened with broken crackers, crushed ship biscuit, or a roux. Variations of chowder can be seafood or vegetable. Crackers such as oyster crackers or saltines may accompany chowders as a side item, and cracker pieces may be dropped atop the dish. New England clam chowder is typically made with chopped clams and diced potatoes, in a mixed cream and milk base, often with a small amount of butter. Other common chowders include seafood chowder, which includes fish, clams, and many other types of shellfish; corn chowder, which uses corn instead of clams; a wide variety of fish chowders; and potato chowder, which is often made with cheese. Fish chowder, corn chowder, and clam chowder are especially popular in the North American regions of New England and Atlantic Canada.

Some people include Manhattan clam chowder as a type of chowder. Others dispute this classification, as it is tomato based rather than milk or cream based.

Clam, Charente-Maritime

Clam is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France.

Clam AntiVirus

Clam AntiVirus (ClamAV) is a free, cross-platform and open-source antivirus software toolkit able to detect many types of malicious software, including viruses. One of its main uses is on mail servers as a server-side email virus scanner. The application was developed for Unix and has third party versions available for AIX, BSD, HP-UX, Linux, macOS, OpenVMS, OSF (Tru64) and Solaris. As of version 0.97.5, ClamAV builds and runs on Microsoft Windows. Both ClamAV and its updates are made available free of charge.

Sourcefire, a maker of intrusion detection products and the owner of Snort, announced on 17 August 2007 that it had acquired the trademarks and copyrights to ClamAV from five key developers. Upon joining Sourcefire, the ClamAV team joined the Sourcefire VRT. In turn, Sourcefire was acquired by Cisco in 2013. The Sourcefire Vulnerability Research Team (VRT) became Cisco Talos, and ClamAV development remains there.

Clam chowder

Clam chowder is any of several chowder soups containing clams and broth. In addition to clams, common ingredients include diced potatoes, onions, and celery. Other vegetables are not typically used, but small carrot strips or a garnish of parsley might occasionally be added primarily for color. A garnish of bay leaves adds both color and flavor. It is believed that clams were used in chowder because of the relative ease of harvesting them. Clam chowder is usually served with saltine crackers or small, hexagonal oyster crackers.

The dish originated in the Eastern United States, but is now commonly served in restaurants throughout the country, particularly on Fridays when American Catholics traditionally abstained from meat. Many regional variations exist, but the two most prevalent are New England or "white" clam chowder and Rhode Island / Manhattan or "red" clam chowder.

Clam digging

Clam digging is a North American term for a common way to harvest clams (edible infaunal bivalve mollusks) from below the surface of the tidal sand flats or mud flats where they live. It is done both recreationally (for enjoyment or as a source of food) and commercially (as a source of income). Commercial digging in the U.S. and Canada is colloquially referred to as clamming, and is done by a clammer.Amateur clam digging is often done using a straight long-handled spading fork, or a spading shovel.

Commercial clamming for quahog clams, and the larger surf clams (soup clams) is primarily done offshore, via mechanical dredging. To harvest cultivated clam beds, aquaculturalists often use a much smaller version (hand pulled) from the offshore dredge. Another form of commercial clamming is done from a flat-decked boat using a clamrake with a telescopic handle. The head of these rakes have long tines attached to a "basket-like" cage in which the clams are collected.

In the Minas Basin area of Nova Scotia, digging for soft-shelled clams is usually done with a clam hack, a spading fork with its short handle bent perpendicularly away from the fork's head. A digger typically uses the hack by grasping the spine of the prongs in one hand and the handle of the fork in the other to push the hack down into the mud, clay, or sand and then pull it up and towards him/herself. This digging action opens up the substrate to expose the clams. Those clams legally long enough (44 mm or 1.7 in in Nova Scotia) are then taken by hand and put into a peck-size (9 litre) bucket that is used to measure the volume of clams collected.

Clam digging on the New England coast is done using a "clam hoe" (a pitchfork with the handle cut off about 18 in or 460 mm from the tines then bent about 70 degrees) and a "hod" or "roller" (a half bushel basket built using wood lathes or wire mesh) and hip waders (boot that extend up to the top of the legs). The use of other tools is prohibited in some areas.Another popular method for bay clamming is the use of specialized tongs from a boat. Operators use the long tongs to probe the sand for clams. Clam tongs appear very much like two clamrakes with teeth hinged like scissors.Digging for razor clams using a clam shovel or tube is a family and recreational activity in Oregon and Washington State.

Do the Clam

"Do the Clam" is a pop song recorded by Elvis Presley for his 1965 feature film Girl Happy. It was written by Sid Wayne, Ben Weisman, and Dolores Fuller.

Freshwater bivalve

Freshwater bivalves are one kind of freshwater molluscs, along with freshwater snails. They are bivalves which live in freshwater, as opposed to saltwater, the main habitat type for bivalves.

The majority of species of bivalve molluscs live in the sea, but in addition, a number of different families live in freshwater (and in some cases also in brackish water). These families belong to two different evolutionary lineages (freshwater mussels and freshwater clams), and the two groups are not closely related.

Freshwater bivalves live in many types of habitat, ranging from small ditches and ponds, to lakes, canals, rivers, and swamps.

Species in the two groups vary greatly in size. Some of the pea clams (Pisidium species) have an adult size of only 3 mm. In contrast, one of the largest species of freshwater bivalves is the swan mussel, in the family Unionidae; it can grow to a length of 20 cm, and usually lives in lakes or slow rivers.

Freshwater pearl mussels are economically important as a source of freshwater pearls and mother of pearl.

Geoduck

The Pacific geoduck (; Panopea generosa) is a species of very large, edible saltwater clam in the family Hiatellidae. The common name is derived from a Lushootseed (Nisqually) word gʷídəq.

The geoduck is native to the coastal waters of western Canada and the northwest United States. The shell of the clam ranges from 15 cm (5.9 inches) to over 20 cm (7.9 inches) in length, but the extremely long siphons make the clam itself much longer than this: the "neck" or siphons alone can be 1 m (3.3 feet) in length. The geoduck is the largest burrowing clam in the world. It is also one of the longest-living animals of any type, with a lifespan of up to 140 years; the oldest has been recorded at 168 years old.

Giant clam

The giant clams are the members of the clam genus Tridacna that are the largest living bivalve mollusks. There are actually several species of "giant clams" in the genus Tridacna, which are often misidentified for Tridacna gigas, the most commonly intended species referred to as “the giant clam”.

Tridacna gigas is one of the most endangered clam species. Antonio Pigafetta documented these in his journal as early as 1521. One of a number of large clam species native to the shallow coral reefs of the South Pacific and Indian oceans, they can weigh more than 200 kilograms (440 lb), measure as much as 120 cm (47 in) across and have an average lifespan in the wild of over 100 years. They are also found off the shores of the Philippines and in the South China Sea in the coral reefs of Sabah (Malaysian Borneo).

The giant clam lives in flat coral sand or broken coral and can be found at depths of as much as 20 m (66 ft). Its range covers the Indo-Pacific, but populations are diminishing quickly, and the giant clam has become extinct in many areas where it was once common. The maxima clam has the largest geographical distribution among giant clam species; it can be found off high- or low-elevation islands, in lagoons or fringing reefs. Its rapid growth rate is likely due to its ability to cultivate algae in its body tissue.Although larval clams are planktonic, they become sessile in adulthood. The creature's mantle tissues act as a habitat for the symbiotic single-celled dinoflagellate algae (zooxanthellae) from which the adult clams get most of their nutrition. By day, the clam opens its shell and extends its mantle tissue so that the algae receive the sunlight they need to photosynthesise.

Hard clam

The hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria), also known as a quahog (; or quahaug), round clam, or hard-shell (or hard-shelled) clam, is an edible marine bivalve mollusc that is native to the eastern shores of North America and Central America, from Prince Edward Island to the Yucatán Peninsula. It is one of many unrelated edible bivalves that in the United States are frequently referred to simply as clams, as in the expression "clam digging". Older literature sources may use the systematic name Venus mercenaria; this species is in the family Veneridae, the venus clams.

Confusingly, the "ocean quahog" is a different species, Arctica islandica, which, although superficially similar in shape, is in a different family of bivalves: it is rounder than the hard clam, usually has black periostracum, and there is no pallial sinus in the interior of the shell.

List of clam dishes

This is a list of clam dishes and foods, which are prepared using clams as a primary ingredient. Edible clams can be eaten raw, steamed, boiled, baked or fried.

List of seafood dishes

This is a list of notable seafood dishes. Seafood dishes are distinct food dishes which use seafood (fish, shellfish or seaweed) as primary ingredients, and are ready to be served or eaten with any needed preparation or cooking completed. Many fish or seafood dishes have a specific names (cioppino), while others are simply described (fried fish) or named for particular places (Cullen skink). Bisques are prepared with a variety of seafoods.

Pacific razor clam

The Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, is a species of large marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pharidae.

Soft-shell clam

Soft-shell clams (American English) or sand gaper (British English/Europe), scientific name Mya arenaria, popularly called "steamers", "softshells", "longnecks", "piss clams", "Ipswich clams", or "Essex clams" are a species of edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Myidae.

Sphaeriidae

The Sphaeriidae are a family of small to minute freshwater bivalve molluscs, in the order Veneroida; this family also includes the clams formerly placed in the Pisidiidae. In the US, they are commonly known as pea clams or fingernail clams.

Tribadism

Tribadism ( TRIB-ə-diz-əm) or tribbing, commonly known by its scissoring position, is a sex act in which a woman rubs her vulva against her partner's body for sexual stimulation, especially for ample stimulation of the clitoris. This may involve female-to-female genital contact or a female rubbing her vulva against her partner's thigh, stomach, buttocks, arm, or other body part (excluding the mouth). A variety of sex positions are practiced, including the missionary position.The term tribadism is usually used in the context of lesbian sex, and originally encompassed societal beliefs about women's capability of being penetrative sexual partners. Women accused of having been penetrative during sexual activity were subject to ridicule or punishment. In modern times, the term typically refers to various forms of non-penetrative sex (or frottage) between women. It may also involve vaginal penetration by use of the fingers, a dildo or double penetration dildo, or refer to a masturbation technique in which a woman rubs her vulva against an inanimate object such as a bolster to achieve orgasm.

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