Cixi, Zhejiang

Cixi (Mandarin pronunciation ), alternately romanized as Tzeki, is a county-level city under the jurisdiction of the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, in the north of Zhejiang province, China. At the 2010 census, its population was 1,462,383. Its urban agglomeration built-up (or metro) area, largely contiguous with Cixi plus the county-level city of Yuyao, had 2,473,042 inhabitants.



Hangzhou Bay Bridge
Hangzhou Bay Bridge
Cixi City in Ningbo City
Cixi City in Ningbo City
Ningbo City in Zhejiang
Ningbo City in Zhejiang
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Sub-provincial cityNingbo
 • County-level city1,360.63 km2 (525.34 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,360.63 km2 (525.34 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,861.43 km2 (1,104.80 sq mi)
 (2010 census)
 • County-level city1,462,383[1]
 • Urban
 • Urban density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code(s)330282


Cixi is a city with a rich culture and a long history. It was part of the state of Yue in the Spring and Autumn period (770-476 B.C.). The county was set up in the Qin Dynasty. At first it was called “Gouzhang” and has been using the name of “Cixi” since the Kaiyuan reign of the Tang Dynasty (738 A.D.).


Cixi City is located on the south of the economic circle of Yangtze River Delta, and is 60 km (37 mi) from Ningbo in the east, 148 km (92 mi) from Shanghai in the north and 138 km (86 mi) from Hangzhou in the west.


Cixi has a subtropical monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of 16℃.


Cixi has an effective public transportation system. Highway connections are provided to all major cities, typical travel times are 1.5 hours or less by car, including access to the four major airports, Ningbo Lishe International Airport, Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport, Shanghai Hongqiao Airport, and Shanghai Pudong International Airport. Shanghai and Ningbo are also the closest sea ports.


Cixi is an important manufacturing city in northern Zhejiang province.The Hangzhou Bay New District is located in the city.


Cixi is accelerating the construction of a mid-scale modern city, covering a total land area of 1,361 km2 (525 sq mi) with a population of 2.04 million, including 1.04 million registered permanent residents and 1 million temporary residents. Fifteen towns and five subdistricts are under the jurisdiction of Cixi City and there are 325 administrative villages including committees and communities.


The city houses many Yue Kiln Sites, which are widely regarded as one of the origin of Chinese porcelain.

Celadon pieces in Yue Kiln Sites

Cixi has the tradition of advocating culture and emphasizing education, with several thousand years of historical relics and profound cultural background which cultivated three regional cultures, i.e. “celadon, reclamation and immigration”. Shanglin Lake celadon has been sold overseas as a “Maritime Silk Road” to the world, historical tideland reclamation area has become one of the areas with the most abundant land reserve resources in Zhejiang Province, and the immigration culture has several years of history.

Cixi was listed as the "demonstration base for community digital learning in the national city and countryside" by the Ministry of Education in 2010 and 2011.

Notable people

See also


  1. ^

External links

Coordinates: 30°10′N 121°14′E / 30.167°N 121.233°E

Bakersfield, California

Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, California, United States. It covers about 151 sq mi (390 km2) near the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley and the Central Valley region. Bakersfield's population is around 380,000, making it the 9th-most populous city in California and the 52nd-most populous city in the nation. The Bakersfield–Delano Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Kern County, had a 2010 census population of 839,631, making it the 62nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States. The more built-up urban area that includes Bakersfield and areas immediately around the city, such as East Bakersfield, Oildale, and Rosedale, has a population of over 520,000. Bakersfield is a charter city.

The city is a significant hub for both agriculture and energy production. Kern County is the most productive oil-producing county and the fourth-most productive agricultural county (by value) in the United States. Industries include natural gas and other energy extraction, aerospace, mining, petroleum refining, manufacturing, distribution, food processing, and corporate regional offices. The city is also the birthplace of the country music genre known as the Bakersfield sound.

Battle of Cixi

The Battle of Cixi (no relation to the reigning Empress at the time) or Battle of Tzeki (慈溪之戰) was a victory for Qing imperial forces led by American soldier of fortune Frederick Townsend Ward against Taiping Rebels in late Qing Dynasty China. By 1862 Ward, who recently scored several victories for the imperial forces, had raised an army for the defense of Shanghai. On 20 September he attacked the walled city of Cixi (Tzeki) ten miles outside Ningbo. During the attack Ward was mortally wounded but remained in the field until victory was assured. He died the next day and command of his army: British COL Forrester, (Ward's second in command), declined the honor to lead the Forces!

That led to Henry Burgevine, a Carolinian who took over as CO of the Command's Forces. It took many weeks before Burgevine would take to the field. He drank a lot at night, he was certainly confronted by the huge task before him, and it was truly much greater than he could bear. Burgevine did not get along well with the other senior leaders, however he tried his best and did lead the forces out, but circumstances overwhelmed him. The Russians tried to interfere, sensing perhaps a vacuum was occurring in China, and their forces might intercede. That was quashed by the British Forces and financial interests that funded the Ever Victorious Army. Burgevine struggled under the difficulty of taking over from a personality such as General Ward. Burgvine found himself thrust into a leadership position, and had no one like Ward to lean upon, and he himself realized he was intellectually ill-suited for the task at hand.Burgevine was no Ward, however he took over leadership, but his personal behavior and temperament was in conflict with the good order and discipline necessary to lead a mixed group of mercenary forces in this ever-changing war. It was unlike any other Civil War the world had ever experienced! Even to this day and time. His uncouth behaviour got him into great deal of trouble, as he could not lead as Ward had led the Ever Victorious Army (EVA) throughout all previous Battles. logistics. Arguments with late pay created a situation in which he used force to get the money the forces needed, and that developed into an international incident which blew up tremendously and led to the leadership being taken over by the British, which led to the group being re-formed under new leadership by a British Major Charles G. Gordon (Chinese Gordon).

Battle of Tzeki

The Battle of Tzeki, Cixi, or Tsz'kí was fought between British and Chinese forces in Tzeki (Cixi), Zhejiang province, China on 15 March 1842 during the First Opium War.

China National Highway 329

China National Highway 329 (G329) runs from Hangzhou to Shenjiamen in Zhejiang. It is 292 kilometres in length and runs east from Hangzhou, going through Shaoxing and Ningbo.

Frederick Townsend Ward

Frederick Townsend Ward (November 29, 1831 – September 22, 1862) was an American sailor and soldier of fortune known for his military service in Imperial China during the Taiping Rebellion.

Gongniu Group Corporation

Gongniu Group Corporation, founded in 1995, is one of China’s largest manufacturer of electrical and electronic products. It is headquartered in Cixi, Zhejiang, China

Jiang Xuemo

Jiang Xuemo (Chinese: 蒋学模; 24 March 1918 – 18 July 2008) was a Chinese economist, translator and professor at Fudan University. During his 70-year academic career, Jiang has published more than 30 academic monographs, edited more than 10 textbooks and books on political economy, and translated more than 10 literary and economic works. He was the first Chinese to translate The Count of Monte Cristo. He was a member of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

Lu Yongxiang (engineer)

Lu Yongxiang (Chinese: 路甬祥; pinyin: Lù Yǒngxiáng; born 1942) is a Chinese engineer and politician. He served as President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Vice Chairman of the National People's Congress.

Lu Zhangong

Lu Zhangong (simplified Chinese: 卢展工; traditional Chinese: 盧展工; pinyin: Lú Zhǎngōng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lo Tian-kang; born May 1952) is a Chinese politician. He is, since 2013, a Vice Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, and previously served as the Communist Party Secretary of Fujian and Henan provinces, and Governor of Fujian.

Ming Prefecture (Zhejiang)

Mingzhou or Ming Prefecture (738–1194) was a zhou (prefecture) in imperial China located in modern northeastern Zhejiang, China, around modern Ningbo. The prefecture was called Yuyao Commandery from 742 to 758.Located on the coast of the East China Sea and the southern bank of Hangzhou Bay (which connects it to Hang Prefecture and the Grand Canal), Ming Prefecture was one of the most important international ports during the Tang (618–907), Wuyue (907–978) and Song (960–1279) dynasties. Cargo ships to and from Japan, Silla (57 BC – 935 AD), Goryeo (918–1392), and Liao (907–1125) frequented this prefecture. Ming Prefecture also administered Zhoushan, an island archipelago off the Zhejiang coast, including Zhoushan Island.

Plum Blossom Award

The China Theatre Plum Blossom Award (simplified Chinese: 中国戏剧梅花奖; traditional Chinese: 中國戲劇梅花獎; pinyin: Zhōngguó Xìjù Méihuā Jiǎng), more commonly the Plum Blossom Award, is the highest theatrical award in China. It is awarded by the China Theatre Association.

Rosh HaAyin

Rosh HaAyin (Hebrew: רֹאשׁ הָעַיִן Hebrew pronunciation: [ˌroʃ häˈʔä.in], lit., Fountainhead;) is a city in the Central District of Israel. To the west of Rosh HaAyin is the fortress of Antipatris and the source of the Yarkon River. To the southeast is the fortress of Migdal Afek (Migdal Tzedek). In 2017, it had a population of 50,453.

Rou Shi

Rou Shi (Chinese: 柔石; Wade–Giles: Jou Shih; 28 September 1902-7 February 1931) was a prominent left-wing Chinese writer and member of the May Fourth Movement. Executed on either 7 or 8 February 1931 by the Kuomintang government in Shanghai for his pro-Communist activities, he is considered one of the Five Martyrs of the League of Left-Wing Writers.

Shao Zhanwei

Shao Zhanwei (Chinese: 邵占维; February 1956 – March 6, 2013) was a Chinese politician from Cixi, Zhejiang. He was the Mayor of Hangzhou between 2010 and 2013, and the Mayor of Wenzhou between 2007 and 2010. He had a master's degree from Nanjing University of Science and Technology. He worked in Ningbo for most of his career, serving successively as the secretary-general of the city government, the head of administration at the Port of Ningbo, the executive vice mayor of Ningbo. He died in office in 2013, when he suffered a heart attack in Beijing while attending the 2013 National People's Congress.

Tong Zhipeng

Tong Zhipeng (Chinese: 童志鵬; 12 August 1924 – 19 December 2017) was a Chinese telecommunications engineer.

He was born in Cixi, Zhejiang and earned a bachelor's degree from Shanghai Jiao Tong University before receiving a doctorate from the University of Wisconsin. Tong returned to China and helped develop the nation's telecommunications infrastructure. He was elected an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering in 1997.

Xie Shileng

Xie Shileng (Chinese: 谢世楞; 20 May 1935 – 7 November 2018) was a Chinese port and coastal engineer who served as an assistant chief engineer of the First Navigational Engineering Survey and Design Institute of the Ministry of Transport.

Yu Songlie

Yu Songlie (Chinese: 余松烈; pinyin: Yú Sōngliè; 13 March 1921 – 20 April 2016) was a Chinese agricultural scientist, educator and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE). He is known as one of the founders of wheat cultivation science in China.

Zhao Wenhua

Zhao Wenhua (Chinese: 趙文華; died 1557) was a Chinese public official during the reign of Ming dynasty's Jiajing Emperor.

After initial setbacks in his career, Zhao became a close confidant to Grand Secretary Yan Song, eventually becoming a vice minister. At the time, the Chinese coast was plagued by a series of raids by Chinese smugglers. Zhao disagreed with how the military was handling the situation and made his own recommendations, which the military ignored. After the Emperor lost confidence in Minister of War Nie Bao, he tasked Zhao with solving the crisis himself.

Zhao quickly came into conflict with other officials that were already at the coast, and went on to orchestrate the removal of several of them, as well as a prominent court official. Zhao rose to the rank of Minister of Works and positioned his protege Hu Zongxian as supreme commander, a role that Hu excelled in. Zhao, however, had earned the disdain of other figures in the court, and his disregard for etiquette alienated even Yan Song. After being accused of accepting bribes, exaggerating his victories, and diverting lumber meant for the Forbidden Palace towards the construction of his own personal estate, Zhao lost the Emperor's favor and was removed from his post. He died shortly thereafter. While the official history attributed it to a hernia, another source indicated that he committed suicide by poison.

Both he and Yan Song are listed as "Treacherous Ministers" (奸臣傳) in the official historical work History of Ming.

Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinCíxī
Sub-provincial cities
Prefecture-level cities


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