Civil service

The civil service is independent of government and is also composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency. A civil servant or public servant's first priority is to represent the interests of citizens.[1][2] The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown (national government) employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not.

Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration. Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" (sometimes called "Quangos") may also be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and possibly for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its civil service or public service.

An international civil servant or international staff member is a civilian employee who is employed by an intergovernmental organization. These international civil servants do not reside under any national legislation (from which they have immunity of jurisdiction) but are governed by internal staff regulations. All disputes related to international civil service are brought before special tribunals created by these international organizations such as, for instance, the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO.

Specific referral can be made to the International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) of the United Nations, an independent expert body established by the United Nations General Assembly. Its mandate is to regulate and coordinate the conditions of service of staff in the United Nations common system, while promoting and maintaining high standards in the international civil service.


In China

Exam cells-large
Imperial Civil Service Examination hall with 7500 cells in Guangdong, 1873
Sui Wendi Tang
Emperor Wen of Sui (r. 581–604), who established the first civil service examination system in China; a painting by the chancellor and artist Yan Liben (600–673).

The origin[3] of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China. The Imperial exam based on merit[4] was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree.[5]

Originally appointments to the bureaucracy were based on the patronage of aristocrats; During Han dynasty, Emperor Wu of Han established the xiaolian system of recommendation by superiors for appointments to office. In the areas of administration, especially the military, appointments were based solely on merit. This was an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics.[5] After the fall of the Han dynasty, the Chinese bureaucracy regressed into a semi-merit system known as the nine-rank system.

This system was reversed during the short-lived Sui dynasty (581–618), which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited through written examinations and recommendation. The first civil service examination system was established by Emperor Wen of Sui. Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD 605. The following Tang dynasty (618–907) adopted the same measures for drafting officials, and decreasingly relied on aristocratic recommendations and more and more on promotion based on the results of written examinations.The structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian[6] The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty.[7]

In theory, the Chinese civil service system provided one of the major outlets for social mobility in Chinese society, although in practice, due to the time-consuming nature of the study, the examination was generally only taken by sons of the landed gentry.[8] The examination tested the candidate's memorization of the Nine Classics of Confucianism and his ability to compose poetry using fixed and traditional forms and calligraphy. In the late 19th century the system came under increasing internal dissatisfaction, and it was criticized as not reflecting the candidate's ability to govern well, and for giving precedence to style over content and originality of thought. The system was finally abolished by the Qing government in 1905 as part of the New Policies reform package.

The Chinese system was often admired by European commentators from the 16th century onward.[9]

Modern civil service

In the 18th century, in response to economic changes and the growth of the British Empire, the bureaucracy of institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board greatly expanded. Each had its own system, but in general, staff were appointed through patronage or outright purchase. By the 19th century, it became increasingly clear that these arrangements were falling short. "The origins of the British civil service are better known. During the eighteenth century a number of Englishmen wrote in praise of the Chinese examination system, some of them going so far as to urge the adoption for England of something similar. The first concrete step in this direction was taken by the British East India Company in 1806."[10] In that year, the Honourable East India Company established a college, the East India Company College, near London to train and examine administrators of the Company's territories in India.[11] "The proposal for establishing this college came, significantly, from members of the East India Company's trading post in Canton, China."[10] Examinations for the Indian "civil service"—a term coined by the Company—were introduced in 1829.[12]

British efforts at reform were influenced by the imperial examinations system and meritocratic system of China. Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in Guangzhou, China argued in his Desultory Notes on the Government and People of China, published in 1847, that "the long duration of the Chinese empire is solely and altogether owing to the good government which consists in the advancement of men of talent and merit only," and that the British must reform their civil service by making the institution meritocratic.[10]

Charles Edward Trevelyan
Charles Trevelyan, an architect of Her Majesty's Civil Service, established in 1855 on his recommendations.

In 1853 the Chancellor of the Exchequer William Gladstone, commissioned Sir Stafford Northcote and Charles Trevelyan to look into the operation and organisation of the Civil Service. Influenced by the Chinese imperial examinations, the Northcote–Trevelyan Report of 1854 made four principal recommendations: that recruitment should be on the basis of merit determined through competitive examination, that candidates should have a solid general education to enable inter-departmental transfers, that recruits should be graded into a hierarchy and that promotion should be through achievement, rather than "preferment, patronage or purchase". It also recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine ("mechanical") work, and those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an "administrative" class.[13]

The report was well-timed, because bureaucratic chaos during the Crimean War was causing a clamour for the change. The report's conclusions were immediately implemented, and a permanent, unified and politically neutral civil service was introduced as Her Majesty's Civil Service. A Civil Service Commission was also set up in 1855 to oversee open recruitment and end patronage, and most of the other Northcote–Trevelyan recommendations were implemented over some years.[14]

The same model, the Imperial Civil Service, was implemented in British India from 1858, after the demise of the East India Company's rule in India through the Indian Rebellion of 1857 which came close to toppling British rule in the country.[15]

The Northcote–Trevelyan model remained essentially stable for a hundred years. This was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services (even under the stress of two world wars), and responding effectively to political change. It also had a great international influence and was adapted by members of the Commonwealth. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act established a modern civil service in the United States, and by the turn of the 20th century almost all Western governments had implemented similar reforms.

By country


Civil servants in Brazil (Portuguese: servidores públicos) are those working in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the federal, state, or municipal government and the government of Brasília, including congressmen, senators, mayors, ministers, the president of the republic, and workers in government-owned corporations.

Career civil servants (not temporary workers or politicians) are hired only externally on the basis of entrance examinations (Portuguese: concurso público).[16] It usually consists of a written test; some posts may require physical tests (such as policemen), or oral tests (such as professors, judges, prosecutors and attorneys). The rank according to the examination score is used for filling the vacancies.

Entrance examinations are conducted by several institutions with a government mandate, such as CESPE (which belongs to the University of Brasília) and the Cesgranrio Foundation (which is part of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro).

The labor laws and social insurance for civil servants are different from private workers; even between government branches (like different states or cities), the law and insurance differ.

The posts usually are ranked by titles, the most common are technician for high school literates and analyst for undergraduates. There's also higher post ranks like auditor, fiscal, chief of police, prosecutor, judge, attorney, etc.

The law does not allow servants to upgrade or downgrade posts internally; they need to be selected in separate external entrance examinations.


Historians have explored the powerful role of civil service since the 1840s.[17]

In Canada, the civil service at the federal level is known as the Public Service of Canada, with each of the ten provincial governments as well as the three territorial governments also having their own separate civil services. The federal civil service consists of all employees of the crown except for ministers' exempt staff, members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and members of the Canadian Armed Forces as they are not civil servants.[18] There are approximately 257,000 federal civil servants (2015),[18] and more than 350,000 employees at the provincial and territorial levels.[19]



One of the oldest examples of a civil service based on meritocracy is the Imperial bureaucracy of China, which can be traced as far back as the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC). However, the civil service examinations were practiced on a much smaller scale in comparison to the stronger, centralized bureaucracy of the Song dynasty (960–1279). In response to the regional military rule of jiedushi and the loss of civil authority during the late Tang period and Five Dynasties (907–960), the Song emperors were eager to implement a system where civil officials would owe their social prestige to the central court and gain their salaries strictly from the central government. This ideal was not fully achieved since many scholar officials were affluent landowners and were engaged in many anonymous business affairs in an age of economic revolution in China. Nonetheless, gaining a degree through three levels of examination—prefectural exams, provincial exams, and the prestigious palace exams—was a far more desirable goal in society than becoming a merchant. This was because the mercantile class was traditionally regarded with some disdain by the scholar-official class.

This class of state bureaucrats in the Song period were far less aristocratic than their Tang predecessors. The examinations were carefully structured in order to ensure that people of lesser means than what was available to candidates born into wealthy, landowning families were given a greater chance to pass the exams and obtain an official degree. This included the employment of a bureau of copyists who would rewrite all of the candidates' exams in order to mask their handwriting and thus prevent favoritism by graders of the exams who might otherwise recognize a candidate's handwriting. The advent of widespread printing in the Song period allowed many more examination candidates access to the Confucian texts whose mastery was required for passing the exams.


Hong Kong and Macau have separate civil service systems:


The civil service in France (fonction publique) is often incorrectly considered to include all government employees including employees of public corporations, such as SNCF.

Public sector employment is classified into three services; State service, Local service and Hospital service. According to government statistics there were 5.5 million public sector employees in 2011.[20][21]

Category Central Government Local Government Health service Total
Education 1,360.6 1,360.6
Police 284.4 40 324.4
Defence 280.7 280.7
Health & Social 241 1,153 1,394.0
Other 516.1 1,631 2,147.1
Total 2,441.8 1,912 1,153 5,506.8
% Civil servants[22] 62% 75% 72% -


The Public Service in Germany (Öffentlicher Dienst) employed 4.6 million persons as of 2011.[23] Public servants are organized into hired salaried employees (Beschäftigte) and appointed civil servants (Beamte). They are employed by public bodies (Körperschaften des öffentlichen Rechts), such as counties (Kreise), states, the federal government, etc. In addition to employees directly employed by the state another 1.6 million persons are employed by state owned enterprises[24]

Category Federal Government Regional Government Municipal Government Social Security Total
State employees 458 2,114.4 1,220.7 378.6 4,171.7
government owned enterprises 240.4 387.1 950.2 24.5 1,602.1
Total 698.4 2,501.5 2,170.9 403.1 5,733.8

Beamte has been a title for government employees for several centuries in German states, but became a standardized group in 1794. Soldiers other than conscripted soldiers are not Beamte but have similar rights. Judges are not Beamte but have similar rights too.[25] Public attorneys are all Beamte, while most (but not all) professors are Beamte. The group of Beamte have the most secure employment, and the amount they are paid is set by national pay regulations (Besoldungsordnungen). Beamte are prohibited from striking.

Beschäftigte work with individual contracts, while Beamte are appointed, employed, and removed by the Public Sector Service and Loyalty law (öffentlich-rechtliches Dienst- und Treueverhältnis). Most tasks can be either done by Beschäftigte or Beamte, however some specific tasks of official nature are supposed to be handled by Beamte since they are subject to a special loyalty obligation.

Beamte are divided into four levels:

  • Einfacher Dienst: ordinary civil service, corresponding to enlisted ranks in the military, now largely obsolete
  • Mittlerer Dienst: medium-level civil service, corresponding to non-commissioned officers in the military
  • Gehobener Dienst: senior civil service, including civil servant positions such as Inspektor and above, corresponding to commissioned officers from lieutenant to captain in the military
  • Höherer Dienst: higher civil service, including civil servant positions such as Rat (Councillor) and above as well as academic employees such as Professors, corresponding to major and above in the military

Gehobener Dienst and Höherer Dienst both require a university education or equivalent, at the very least a bachelor's or master's degree, respectively.


Controversies about the institution of the Civil Service in Greece are widespread. Typically, they concern the allegedly large numbers of public employees, the lack of adequate meritocracy in their employment, the strong ties that significant portions of public employees maintain with political parties and the clientelism that this relationship incubates, internal inequalities of wages among public employees, and inequalities of the high income of public employees relevant to that of private sector workers. The Civil Service payscale is also controversial given the conditions before the financial crisis that made being a civil servant a dream-job.


In India, the Civil Service is defined as "appointive positions by the Government in connection with the affairs of the Union and includes a civilian in a Defence Service, except positions in the Indian Armed Forces." The members of civil service serve at the pleasure of the President of India and Article 311 of the constitution protects them from politically motivated or vindictive action.

The Civil Services of India can be classified into three types—the All India Services, the Central Civil Services (Group A and B) and State/Provincial Civil Services. The recruits are university graduates (or above) selected through a rigorous system of examinations, called the Civil Services Examination (CSE) and its technical counterpart known as the Engineering Services Examination (ESE) both conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). The entry into the State Civil Services is through a competitive examination conducted by every state public service commission.

Senior positions in civil service are listed and named in the Order of Precedence of India.


The civil service of Ireland includes the employees of the Department of State (excluded are government ministers and a small number of paid political advisors) as well as a small number of core state agencies such as the Office of the Revenue Commissioners, the Office of Public Works, and the Public Appointments Service. The organisation of the Irish Civil Service is very similar to the traditional organization of the British Home Civil Service, and indeed the grading system in the Irish Civil Service is nearly identical to the traditional grading system of its British counterpart. In Ireland, public sector employees such as teachers or members of the country's police force, An Garda Síochána are not considered to be civil servants, but are rather described as "public servants" (and form the public service of the Republic of Ireland).


In Pakistan the FPSC (Federal Public Service Commission) conducts a competitive examination for the Central Superior Services of Pakistan and other civil-service posts; Pakistan inherited this system from the British Raj-era Indian Civil Service.

Pakistan has federal civil servants serving in federal government offices, with staff selected through the Federal Public Service Commission. Similarly, Pakistani provinces select their own public servants through provincial Public Service Commissions. The federal services have some quota against provincial posts, while provincial services have some quota in federal services.


The civil service in Spain (función pública) is usually considered to include all the employees at the different levels of the Spanish public administration: central government, autonomous communities, as well as municipalities. There are three main categories of Spanish public positions: temporary political posts ("personal funcionario eventual"), which require a simple procedure for hiring and dismissal and is associated to top level executives and advisors, statutory permanent posts ("funcionarios de carrera"), which require a formal procedure for access that usually involves a competition among candidates and whose tenants are subject to a special statutory relationship of work with their employers, and non statutory permanent posts ("personal laboral"), which also require a formal procedure for entry similar to the procedure required for the "funcionarios de carrera", but whose tenants are subject to normal working conditions and laws. Competitions differ notably among the state, the 17 autonomous communities and the city councils, and the "funcionarios de carrera" and "personal laboral" examinations vary in difficulty from one location to another.

As of 2013,[26] there were 2.6 million public employees in Spain, of which 571,000 were civil servants and 2 million were non-civil servants.

Category Employee type Central Government Regional Government Municipal University Total
Police Civil servants 147 25 172
Defence Civil servants 124 124
Health & Social Civil servants 321 321
other public employees 170 170
Other Civil servants 180 218 74 472
other public employees 119 330 75 524
Total Civil servants 451 908 218 74 1651
other public employees 119 399 330 75 923
Total 570 1307 548 149 2574

In December 2011, the government of Rajoy announced that civil servants have to serve a minimum 37.5 working hours per week regardless of their place or kind of service.[27]


The ROC constitution specifies that public servant cannot be employed without examination. The employment is usually lifelong (that is, until age about retirement).

United Kingdom

The number of civil servants employed in the UK in 2013 is 448,840
A breakdown by department of civil servants employed in the United Kingdom in 2013

The civil service in the United Kingdom only includes Crown (i.e. central government) employees, not parliamentary employees or local government employees. Public sector employees such as those in education and the NHS are not considered to be civil servants. Police officers and staff are also not civil servants. Total employment in the public sector in the UK was 6.04 million in 2012 according to the UK's Office for National Statistics.[28]

Category Central government Local government Health service Total
Police 278,000 278,000
Defence 193,000 193,000
Health & Social 364,000 1,565,000 1,929,000
Other 1,989,000 42,000 2,031,000
Total 2,182,000 2,290,000 1,565,000 6,037,000

Civil servants in the devolved government in Northern Ireland are not part of the Home Civil Service, but constitute the separate Northern Ireland Civil Service. Some employees of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office are members of HM Diplomatic Service, which is associated with but separate from the Civil Service.

United States

In the United States, the federal civil service was established in 1871. The Federal Civil Service is defined as "all appointive positions in the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the Government of the United States, except positions in the uniformed services." (5 U.S.C. § 2101). In the early 19th century, government jobs were held at the pleasure of the president — a person could be fired at any time. The spoils system meant that jobs were used to support the political parties. This was changed in slow stages by the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 and subsequent laws. By 1909, almost two thirds of the U.S. federal work force was appointed based on merit, that is, qualifications measured by tests. Certain senior civil service positions, including some heads of diplomatic missions and executive agencies, are filled by political appointees. Under the Hatch Act of 1939, civil servants are not allowed to engage in political activities while performing their duties.

The U.S. civil service includes the competitive service and the excepted service. The majority of civil service appointments in the U.S. are made under the competitive service, but the Foreign Service, the FBI, and other National Security positions are made under the excepted service. (U.S. Code Title V)

U.S. state and local government entities often have competitive civil service systems that are modeled on the national system, in varying degrees.

As of January 2007, the federal government, excluding the Postal Service, employed about 1.8 million civilian workers. The federal government is the nation's single largest employer, although it employs only about 12% of all government employees, compared to 24% at the state level and 63% at the local level.[29] Although most federal agencies are based in the Washington, D.C. region, only about 16% (or about 284,000) of the federal government workforce is employed in this region.[30]

As of 2014, there are currently 15 federal executive branch agencies and hundreds of subagencies.[31]

European Union

The European Civil Service administers the institutions of the European Union, of which the largest employer is the European Commission.

Civil servants are recruited directly into the institutions after being selected by competitions set by EPSO, the official selection office. They are allocated to departments, known as Directorates-General (DGs), each covering one or more related policy areas.

Civil service independence

Autocratic systems of government (such as monarchies) can favour appointments to administrative positions on the basis of nepotism, patronage and favoritism, with close relationships between political and administrative figures. Early Roman emperors, for example, set their household slaves and freedmen much of the task of administering the Empire,[32] sidelining the elected officials who continued the traditions of the Roman Republic. But the political appointment of bureaucrats can run the risk of tolerating inefficiency and corruption, with officials feeling secure in the protection of their political masters and possibly immune from prosecution for bribe-taking. Song-dynasty China (960–1279) standardised competitive examinations as a basis for civil-service recruitment and promotion, and in the 19th century administrations in France and Britain followed suit. Agitation against the spoils system in the United States of America resulted in increasing the independence of the civil service – seen as an important principle in modern times.[33] In Germany, the Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums of April 1933 re-affirmed the principle of an independent civil service by insisting on training[34] (along with political and racial credentials).[35]

Some governmental structures include a civil service commission (or equivalent) whose functions include maintaining the work and rights of civil servants at arm's length from potential politicisation or political interference.[36] Compare the governance-administrative integration of Stalin's Orgburo.

See also


By continent or region


North America

South America



Pay and benefits

United States


  1. ^ "Managing Conflict of Interest in the Public Service - OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2005. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
  2. ^ Edsall, Thomas B. (2011-12-14). "'Republic, Lost' - Campaign Finance Reform - Book Review". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
  3. ^ "China's Examination Hell: The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China". History Today. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  4. ^ "Imperial China: Civil Service Examinations" (PDF). Princeton University. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  5. ^ a b "Confucianism and the Chinese Scholastic System: The Chinese Imperial Examination System". California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Archived from the original on April 18, 2000. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
  6. ^ Paludan, Ann (1998). Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China. New York, New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05090-2
  7. ^ Roberts, J. A. G. (1999). A Concise History of China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00075-7.
  8. ^ "Chinese civil service". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
  9. ^ Brook, Timothy (1999). China and Historical Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64029-6.
  10. ^ a b c Bodde,, Derke. "China: A Teaching Workbook". Columbia University.
  11. ^ (Bodde 2005)
  12. ^ Mark W. Huddleston, William W. Boyer (1996). The Higher Civil Service in the United States: Quest for Reform. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. . ISBN 9780822974734.
  13. ^ Kazin, Edwards, and Rothman (2010), 142.
  14. ^ Walker, David (2003-07-09). "Fair game". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2003-07-09.
  15. ^ Naithani, Sadhana (2006). In quest of Indian folktales: Pandit Ram Gharib Chaube and William Crooke. Indiana University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-253-34544-8.
  16. ^ "Concurso Público In Brazil".
  17. ^ R. MacGregor Dawson, The Civil Service of Canada (1929); Jack Granatstein, The Ottawa Men: The Civil Service Mandarins, 1935-1957 (Oxford UP, 1982); J.E. Hodgetts, Pioneer Public Service: An Administrative History of United Canada, 1841-1867. (U of Toronto Press, 1955).
  18. ^ a b Government of Canada. "Population of the Federal Public Service". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  19. ^ "ENAP – Canadian governments compared > Provincial".
  20. ^ "Résultats de la recherche – Insee".
  21. ^ "Local Government employment statistics" (PDF).
  22. ^ "L'emploi dans la fonction publique en 2012 – Insee Première – 1496".
  23. ^ Index Gute Arbeit: Sonderauswertung Öffentlicher Dienst 2011 DGB (PDF, German)
  24. ^ "State employees as of June 2013". Archived from the original on 2015-02-21.
  25. ^ "Beihilfe für Richter gilt wie für Beamte –".
  26. ^ "Portales SEAT y SEFP:: Secretaría de Estado para las Administraciones Territoriales :: Secretaría de Estado de Función Pública ::" (PDF).
  27. ^ "Los funcionarios trabajarán 37,5 horas y su sueldo sigue congelado | Política | EL PAÍS". Retrieved 2014-02-18.
  28. ^ Statistics, David Matthews, Office for National. "Public Sector Employment, Q2 2011".
  29. ^ "2012 Census of Governments: Employment Summary Report" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  30. ^ "Federal Government, Excluding the Postal Service". Bureau of Labor Statistics. March 12, 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14.
  31. ^ "Louisiana State University Libraries – Federal Agency Index". 2009-09-15. Archived from the original on 2014-09-24. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
  32. ^ Compare: Boardman, John (2000). The Cambridge Ancient History: The High Empire, A.D. 70–192. The Cambridge Ancient History. 11 (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 195. Members of higher social groups, such as senators or equites, necessarily had more of an opportunity to influence the emperor, yet men of lower social status, for instance freedmen or slaves, could also make their mark on account of their constant proximity to the emperor.
  33. ^ Verheijen, Tony (2008). "Independent Civil Service Systems: a Contested Value?". In Grotz, Florian; Toonen, Th. A. J. (eds.). Crossing Borders: Constitutional Development and Internationalisation: Essays in Honour of Joachim Jens Hesse. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 249. ISBN 9783899495874. Retrieved 2018-04-30. The importance of a professional and impartial civil service has been a virtually uncontested notion ever since Woodrow Wilson's seminal work on the topic at the end of the 19th century. [...] An additional point highlighted by Joachim Jens Hesse in his frequent publications on the issue is the need to clearly enshrine the principle of an independent civil service in legislation [...].
  34. ^ "Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums". (in German). Wikisource. 2016 [1933]. Retrieved 2018-05-01. 2(1) Beamte, die seit dem 9. November 1918 in das Beamtenverhältnis eingetreten sind, ohne die für ihre Laufbahn vorgeschriebene oder übliche Vorbildung oder sonstige Eignung zu besitzen, sind aus dem Dienste zu entlassen. [Paragraph 2(1): Officials who have entered the civil service since 9 November 1918 without possessing the prescribed or normal education for their career or other qualification are to be dismissed from the service.]
  35. ^ Compare: Winkler, Heinrich August (2006) [2000]. Germany: 1933–1990. Germany: The Long Road West. 2. Translated by Sager, Alexander J. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9780199265985. Retrieved 2018-05-01. On 7 April 1933 the government promulgated a Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums). It was directed against all officials whom the ruling National Socialists considered unreliable: against so-called Parteibuchbeamte ('civil servants with party membership books') of the Weimar Republic, especially those who belonged to or were connected with a leftist group, and also against 'non-Aryan' officials. The law compelled them to retire, excepting only former front soldiers, fathers or sons of the fallen, and those who had attained the status of civil servant before 1 August 1914.
  36. ^ Compare: Peters, B. Guy; Pierre, Jon, eds. (2004). The Politicization of the Civil Service in Comparative Perspective: A Quest for Control. Routledge Studies in Governance and Public Policy. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781135996260. Retrieved 2018-05-01.

Further reading

  • Albrow, M., Bureaucracy (1970)
  • Armstrong, J. A., The European Administrative Elite (1973)
  • Bodde, D., Chinese Ideas in the West
  • Brownlow, Louis, Charles E. Merriam, and Luther Gulick, Report of the President's Committee on Administrative Management. (1937)
  • du Gay, P., In Praise of Bureaucracy: Weber, Organisation, Ethics (2000)
  • du Gay, P., ed., The Values of Bureaucracy (2005)
  • Hoogenboom, Ari, Outlawing the Spoils: A History of the Civil Service Reform Movement, 1865–1883. (1961)
  • Mathur, P.N., The Civil Service of India, 1731–1894: a study of the history, evolution and demand for reform (1977)
  • Rao, S. 2013. Civil service reform: Topic guide. Birmingham, UK: GSDRC, University of Birmingham.
  • Schiesl, Martin, The Politics of Efficiency: Municipal Administration and Reform in America, 1880–1920. (1977)
  • Sullivan, Ceri, Literature in the Public Service: Sublime Bureaucracy (2013)
  • Theakston, Kevin, The Civil Service Since 1945 (Institute of Contemporary British History, 1995)
  • Van Riper, Paul. History of the United States Civil Service (1958).
  • White, Leonard D., Introduction to the Study of Public Administration. (1955)
  • White, Leonard D., Charles H. Bland, Walter R. Sharp, and Fritz Morstein Marx; Civil Service Abroad, Great Britain, Canada, France, Germany (1935) online

External links

Bangladesh Civil Service

Bangladesh Civil Service (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ সিভিল সার্ভিস), more popularly known by its acronym BCS, is the civil service of the Government of Bangladesh. It originated from the Central Superior Services of Pakistan. Since independence it has been known by Act as Bangladesh Civil Service. Bangladesh Public Service Commission (BPSC) is the main policy setting and recruitment body of BCS. BCS has 27 cadre services. In the parliamentary democracy of Bangladesh, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. But the handful of ministers cannot be expected to deal personally with the manifold problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and civil servants carry out this policy.

Central Superior Services

The Central Superior Services (CSS; or Bureaucracy) is a permanent elite bureaucratic authority, and the civil service that is responsible for running the civilian bureaucratic operations and government secretariats and directorates of the Cabinet of Pakistan. The Prime Minister is the final authority on all matters regarding the civil service.

The civil service defined itself as "key wheels on which the entire engine of the state has to move." Derived from the colonial legacy of the former Indian Civil Service, the civil service came into its modern formation immediately after the establishment of Pakistan as a "Civil Service of Pakistan". During its time of formation, the bureaucracy produced Ghulam Ishaq Khan who would go on to become the President of Pakistan. It had influence on many of the state's defence, internal, foreign and financial policies. In 1971, it was re-organized and reestablished under "Chapter I: Part-XII, Article 240" of the Constitution of Pakistan which gave it foundation and constitutional status. The civil bureaucracy closely collaborated with the military establishments of Pakistani Armed Forces in issues concerning the national security. The bureaucracy consists of 12 directorates that provide vital office and secretariat related duties to the Government of Pakistan. The provincial bureaucracies are headed by the respective Chief Secretaries of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan. The highest attainable rank for an officer who serves in the country's bureaucracy is BPS-22 grade.

The Civil Service of Pakistan selects only 7.5% of the applicants by merit, education, qualification and experience while the 92.5% are selected by a quota system. The civil service exams are competitive and provides equal opportunities to males and females, depending on their qualifications. The CSS Examinations are held at the start of every year. The exams are conducted and supervised by the Federal Public Service Commission. CSS exams have a reputation of a very low pass percentage, in 2015, only 3% of the 12,176 participants cleared the multi-staged exam.

Civil Service (United Kingdom)

Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.

As in other states that employ the Westminster political system, Her Majesty's Home Civil Service forms an inseparable part of the British government. The executive decisions of government ministers are implemented by HM Civil Service. Civil servants are employees of the Crown and not of the British parliament. Civil servants also have some traditional and statutory responsibilities which to some extent protect them from being used for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may be called to account to Parliament.

In general use, the term civil servant in the United Kingdom does not include all public sector employees; although there is no fixed legal definition, the term is usually defined as a "servant of the Crown working in a civil capacity who is not the holder of a political (or judicial) office; the holder of certain other offices in respect of whose tenure of office special provision has been made; [or] a servant of the Crown in a personal capacity paid from the Civil List". As such, the civil service does not include government ministers (who are politically appointed), members of the British Armed Forces, the police, officers of local government authorities or quangos of the Houses of Parliament, employees of the National Health Service (NHS), or staff of the Royal Household. As at the end of March 2018 there were 430,075 civil servants in the Home Civil Service, this is up 2.5% on the previous year.There are two other administratively separate civil services in the United Kingdom. One is for Northern Ireland (the Northern Ireland Civil Service); the other is the foreign service (Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service). The heads of these services are members of the Permanent Secretaries Management Group.

Civil Service Commission of the Philippines

The Civil Service Commission of the Philippines (Filipino: Komisyon ng Serbisyo Sibil, abbreviated as CSC) is the Constitutional Commission of the Philippines with responsibility over the civil service. It is tasked with overseeing the integrity of government actions and processes. The commission was founded in 1900 through Act No. 5 of the Philippine Commission and was made a bureau in 1905.It has 16 regional offices throughout the country.

The other two Constitutional Commissions are the Commission on Elections and Commission on Audit.

Civil Service Rifles War Memorial

The Civil Service Rifles War Memorial is a First World War memorial located on the riverside terrace at Somerset House in central London, England. Designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and unveiled in 1924, the memorial commemorates the 1,240 members of the Prince of Wales' Own Civil Service Rifles regiment who were killed in the First World War. They were Territorial Force reservists, drawn largely from the British Civil Service, which at that time had many staff based at Somerset House.

Both battalions of the expanded Civil Service Rifles were disbanded shortly after the war; the regiment amalgamated with the Queen's Westminster Rifles, but former members established an Old Comrades Association to keep the regiment's traditions alive. The association began raising funds for a war memorial in 1920, and the Prince of Wales unveiled the memorial on 27 January 1924. It takes the form of a single rectangular column surmounted by a sculpture of an urn and flanked by painted stone flags, the Union Flag on one side and the regimental colour on the other. The base on which the column stands is inscribed with the regiment's battle honours, while an inscription on the column denotes that a scroll containing the names of the fallen was placed inside.

The memorial first stood in the quadrangle of Somerset House, which the Civil Service Rifles had used as a parade ground, but the civil service began to vacate Somerset House towards the end of the 20th century. As the building and its courtyard were re-purposed, the memorial was moved to the riverside terrace in the late 1990s. Members of the regiment continued to attend Remembrance Sunday ceremonies until at least the late 1980s, by which time many former members were in their nineties; the last known surviving member of the regiment attended a rededication ceremony in 2002. The memorial was designated a grade II listed building in 1987, which was upgraded to grade II* in November 2015 when it became part of a national collection of Lutyens' war memorials.

Civil Service of the People's Republic of China

The Civil Service of the People's Republic of China is the administrative system of the traditional Chinese government which consists of all levels who run the day-to-day affairs in mainland China. The members of the civil service are selected through competitive examination.

As of year 2009, China now has about 10 million civil servants and are managed under the Civil Service Law. Most of the civil servants work in government agencies and departments. State leaders and cabinet members, who normally would be considered politicians in political systems with competing political parties and elections, also come under the civil service in China. Civil servants are not necessarily members of the Communist Party, but 95 percent of civil servants in leading positions from division (county) level and above are Party members.

Civil Service of the Republic of Ireland

The Civil Service (Irish: An Státseirbhís) of Ireland is the collective term for the permanent staff of the departments of state and certain state agencies who advise and work for the Government of Ireland. It consists of two broad components, the Civil Service of the Government and the Civil Service of the State. Whilst these two components are largely theoretical they do have some fundamental operational differences.

Civil Service of the Russian Federation

The Civil Service of the Russian Federation (Russian: Государственная гражданская служба Российской Федерации) involves professional service activities of citizens of the Russian Federation for the enforcement power of the State. Alongside the military services, it forms part of the State Service of the Russian Federation.

Civil Services Examination (India)

The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is a nationwide competitive examination in India conducted by the Union Public Service Commission for recruitment to various Civil Services of the Government of India, including the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS), Indian Police Service (IPS) among others. Also simply referred as UPSC examination, it is conducted in three phases - a preliminary examination consisting of two objective-type papers (General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II also popularly known as Civil Service Aptitude Test or CSAT), and a main examination consisting of nine papers of conventional (essay) type, in which two papers are qualifying and only marks of seven are counted followed by a personality test (interview).

Civil Services of India

The Civil Services refer to the career bureaucrats who are the permanent executive branch of the Republic of India. The civil service system is the backbone of the administrative machinery of the country.In India's parliamentary democracy, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the people's elected representatives—cabinet ministers. But a handful of ministers cannot be expected to deal personally with the manifold problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants, who serve at the pleasure of the President of India, to carry it out. However, Article 311 of the constitution protects them from politically motivated or vindictive action.

Civil servants are employees of the Government of India or of the states, but not all employees of the Government are civil servants. As of 2010, there were 6.4 million government employees in India but fewer than 50,000 civil servants to administer them.Civil servants in a personal capacity are paid from the Civil List. Senior civil servants may be called to account by Parliament. The civil service system in India is rank-based and does not follow the tenets of the position-based civil services.The Government of India has also approved the formation of two new cadres of civil servants: the Indian Skill Development Service (2015) and the Indian Enterprise Development Service (2016).

European Civil Service

The European Civil Service is a generic term applied to all staff serving the institutions and agencies of the European Union (EU). Although recruitment is sometimes done jointly, each institution is responsible for its own internal structures and hierarchies.

Hong Kong Civil Service

The Hong Kong Civil Service is managed by 13 policy bureaux in the Government Secretariat, and 67 departments and agencies, mostly staffed by civil servants. The Secretary for the Civil Service (SCS) is one of the Principal Officials appointed under the Accountability System and a Member of the Executive Council. He heads the Civil Service Bureau (CSB) of the Government Secretariat and is responsible to the Chief Executive (CE) for civil service policies as well as the overall management and development of the civil service. His primary role is to ensure that the civil service serves the best interests of the community and delivers various services in a trustworthy, efficient and cost effective manner. The CSB assumes overall policy responsibility for the management of the civil service, including such matters as appointment, pay and conditions of service, staff management, manpower planning, training, and discipline.

Imperial examination

Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. Although there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty, the system became widely utilized as the major path to office only in the mid-Tang dynasty, and remained so until its abolition in 1905. Since the exams were based on knowledge of the classics and literary style, not technical expertise, successful candidates were generalists who shared a common language and culture, one shared even by those who failed. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule, while leaving clear problems resulting from a systemic lack of technical and practical expertise.

However, the Confucian examination syllabus has also been compared to the humanist education central to contemporary European government service.The examination helped to shape China's intellectual, cultural and political life. The increased reliance on the exam system was in part responsible for Tang dynasty shifting from a military aristocracy to a gentry class of scholar-bureaucrats. Starting with the Song dynasty, the system was regularized and developed into a roughly three-tiered ladder from local to provincial to court exams. The content was narrowed and fixed on texts of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy. By the Ming dynasty, the highest degree, the jinshi (Chinese: 進士), became essential for highest office. On the other hand, the initial degree, the shengyuan (生員), became vastly oversupplied, resulting in holders who could not hope for office, yet were still granted social privilege. Critics charged that the system stifled creativity and created officials who dared not defy authority, yet the system also continued to promote cultural unity. Wealthy families, especially from the merchant class, could opt into the system by educating their sons or purchasing degrees. In the 19th century, critics blamed the imperial system, and in the process its examinations, for China's lack of technical knowledge and its defeat by foreign powers.

The influence of the Chinese examination system spread to various neighboring East Asian countries, such as Japan (though briefly), Korea, Ryūkyū, as well as Vietnam. The Chinese examination system was introduced to the Western world in reports by European missionaries and diplomats, and encouraged the British East India Company to use a similar method to select prospective employees. Following the initial success in that company, the British government adopted a similar testing system for screening civil servants in 1855. Other European nations, such as France and Germany, followed suit. Modeled after these previous adaptations, the United States established its own testing program for certain government jobs after 1883.

Indian Civil Service (British India)

The Indian Civil Service (ICS), for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947

Its members ruled more than 300 million people in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma (then comprising British Raj). They were ultimately responsible for overseeing all government activity in the 250 districts that comprised British India. They were appointed under Section XXXII of the Government of India Act 1858, enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The ICS was headed by the Secretary of State for India, a member of the British cabinet.

At first almost all the top thousand members of the ICS, known as "Civilians", were British, and had been educated in the "best" British schools. By 1905, five per cent were from Bengal. In 1947 there were 322 Indians and 688 British members; most of the latter left at the time of partition and independence.Until the 1930s the Indians in the service were very few and were not given high posts by the British. Wainwright notes that by the mid-1880s, "the basis of racial discrimination in the sub-continent had solidified".At the time of the birth of India and Pakistan in 1947, the outgoing Government of India's ICS was divided between India and Pakistan. Although these are now organised differently, the contemporary Civil Services of India, the Central Superior Services of Pakistan, Bangladesh Civil Service and Myanmar Civil Service are all descended from the old Indian Civil Service.

Historians often rate the ICS, together with the railway system, the legal system, and the Indian Army, as among the most important legacies of British rule in India.

Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act

The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. 27, 22 Stat. 403) is a United States federal law enacted in 1883 that mandated that positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation. The act provided selection of government employees by competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation. It also made it illegal to fire or demote government officials for political reasons and prohibited soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property. To enforce the merit system and the judicial system, the law also created the United States Civil Service Commission. This board would be in charge of determining the rules and regulations of the act. The act also allowed for the president, by executive order, to decide which positions would be subject to the act and which would not. A result was the shift of the parties to reliance on funding from business, since they could no longer depend on patronage.

Permanent secretary

A Permanent secretary is the most senior civil servant of a British government ministry, charged with running the department on a day-to-day basis.

Permanent secretaries (known by other names in some departments; see below) are the non-political civil service heads (and "accounting officers") or chief executives of government departments, who generally hold their position for a number of years (thus "permanent") at a ministry as distinct from the changing political secretaries of state to whom they report and provide advice.

Scottish Government

The Scottish Government (Scottish Gaelic: Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots: Scots Govrenment) is the executive government of the devolved Scottish Parliament. The government was established in 1999 as the Scottish Executive under the Scotland Act 1998, which created a devolved administration for Scotland in line with the result of the 1997 referendum on Scottish devolution. The government consists of cabinet secretaries, who attend cabinet meetings, and ministers, who do not. It is led by the first minister, who selects the cabinet secretaries and ministers with approval of parliament.

Spoils system

In politics and government, a spoils system (also known as a patronage system) is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government civil service jobs to its supporters, friends, and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a merit system, where offices are awarded on the basis of some measure of merit, independent of political activity.

The term was used particularly in politics of the United States, where the federal government operated on a spoils system until the Pendleton Act was passed in 1883 due to a civil service reform movement. Thereafter the spoils system was largely replaced by a nonpartisan merit at the federal level of the United States.

The term was derived from the phrase "to the victor belong the spoils" by New York Senator William L. Marcy, referring to the victory of Andrew Jackson in the election of 1828, with the term spoils meaning goods or benefits taken from the loser in a competition, election or military victory.Similar spoils systems are common in other nations that traditionally have been based on tribal organization or other kinship groups and localism in general.

United States federal civil service

The United States federal civil service is the civilian workforce (i.e., non-elected and non-military public sector employees) of the United States federal government's departments and agencies. The federal civil service was established in 1871 (5 U.S.C. § 2101). U.S. state and local government entities often have comparable civil service systems that are modeled on the national system, in varying degrees.

According to the Office of Personnel Management, as of December 2011, there were approximately 2.79 million civil servants employed by the U.S. government. This includes employees in the departments and agencies run by any of the three branches of government (the executive branch, legislative branch, and judicial branch), such as over 600,000 employees in the U.S. Postal Service.

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