Civil engineer

A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering – the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.

Civil engineering is one of the oldest engineering disciplines because it deals with constructed environment[1] including planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures, and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems.[2]

The term "civil engineer" was established by John Smeaton in 1750 to contrast engineers working on civil projects with the military engineers,[3][4] who worked on armaments and defenses. Over time, various sub-disciplines of civil engineering have become recognized[5] and much of military engineering has been absorbed by civil engineering.[6] Other engineering practices became recognized as independent engineering disciplines, including chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering.

In some places, a civil engineer may perform land surveying; in others, surveying is limited to construction surveying, unless an additional qualification is obtained.

Civil engineer
Civil Engineering Students
Civil engineering students using a theodolite
NamesCivil engineer
Occupation type
Activity sectors
design and management of structures, transportation systems, and infrastructure
Competenciestechnical knowledge, management skills, mathematical analysis


Civil engineers usually practice in a particular specialty, such as construction engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, land development, transportation engineering, hydraulic engineering, and environmental engineering. Some civil engineers, particularly those working for government agencies, may practice across multiple specializations, particularly when involved in critical infrastructure development or maintenance.

While all civil engineers tend to spend at least some time working "on site", much of the modern civil engineering work is done in offices, working with plans or computers.

Work environment

Civil engineers generally work in a variety of locations and conditions. Many spend time outdoors at construction sites so that they can monitor operations or solve problems onsite.[2] The job is typically a blend of in-office and on-location work. Most work full-time.

Education and licensing

In most countries, a civil engineer will have graduated from a post-secondary school with a degree in civil engineering, which requires a strong background in mathematics and the physical sciences; this degree is typically a bachelor's degree, though many civil engineers study further to obtain master's, engineer, doctoral and post doctoral degrees. In many countries, civil engineers are subject to licensure. In some jurisdictions with mandatory licensing, people who do not obtain a license may not call themselves "civil engineers".


In Belgium, Civil Engineer (abbreviated Ir.) (French: Ingénieur Civil, Dutch: Civiel Ingenieur) is a legally protected title applicable to graduates of the five-year engineering course of one of the six universities and the Royal Military Academy. Their speciality can be all fields of engineering: civil, structural, electrical, mechanical, chemical, physics and even computer science.[7] This use of the title may cause confusion to the English speaker as the Belgian "civil" engineer can have a speciality other than civil engineering. In fact, Belgians use the adjective "civil" in the sense of "civilian", as opposed to military engineers.

The formation of the civil engineer has a strong mathematical and scientific base and is more theoretical in approach than the practical oriented industrial engineer (Ing.) educated in a five-year program at a polytechnic. Traditionally, students were required to pass an entrance exam on mathematics to start civil engineering studies. This exam was abolished in 2004 for the Flemish Community, but is still organised in the French Community.


In Scandinavian countries, civil engineer (civilingenjör (Swedish), sivilingeniør (Norwegian), civilingeniør (Danish)) is a first professional degree, approximately equivalent to Master of Science in Engineering, and a protected title granted to students by selected institutes of technology. As in English the word has its origin in the distinction between civilian and military engineers, as in before the start of the 19th century only military engineers existed and the prefix "civil" was a way to separate those who had studied engineering in a regular University from their military counterparts. Today the degree spans over all fields within engineering, like civil engineering, mechanical engineering, computer science, electronics engineering, etc.

There is generally a slight difference between a Master of Science in Engineering degree and the Scandinavian civil engineer degree, the latter's programme having closer ties with the industry's demands. A civil engineer is the most well-known of the two; still, the area of expertise remains obfuscated for most of the public. A noteworthy difference is the mandatory courses in mathematics and physics, regardless of the equivalent master's degree, e.g. computer science.

Although a 'college engineer' (högskoleingenjör, diplomingenjör/mellaningenjör (Swedish), høgskoleingeniør (Norwegian), diplomingeniør (Danish)) is roughly equivalent to a Bachelor of Science in Scandinavia, to become a 'civil engineer' one often has had to do up to one extra year of overlapping studies compared to attaining a B.Sc./M.Sc. combination. This is because the higher educational system is not fully adopted to the international standard graduation system, since it is treated as a professional degree. Today (2009) this is starting to change due to the Bologna process.

A Scandinavian "civilingenjör" will in international contexts commonly call himself "Master of Science in Engineering" and will occasionally wear an engineering class ring. At the Norwegian Institute of Technology (now the Norwegian University of Science and Technology), the tradition with an NTH Ring goes back to 1914, before the Canadian iron ring.

In Norway, the title "Sivilingeniør" is no longer issued after 2007, and has been replaced with "Master i teknologi". In the English translation of the diploma, the title will be "Master of Science", since "Master of Technology" is not an established title in the English-speaking world. The extra overlapping year of studies have also been abolished with this change to make Norwegian degrees more equal to their international counterparts.


In Spain, a civil engineering degree can be obtained after four years of study in the various branches of mathematics, physics, mechanics, etc. The earned degree is called Grado en Ingeniería Civil. Further studies at a graduate school include master's and doctoral degrees.

Before the current situation, that is, before the implementation of Bologna Process in 2010, a degree in civil engineering in Spain could be obtained after three to six years of study and was divided into two main degrees. In the first case, the earned degree was called Ingeniero Técnico de Obras Públicas (ITOP), literally translated as "Public Works Engineer" obtained after three years of study and equivalent to a Bachelor of Civil Engineering. In the second case, the academic degree was called Ingeniero de Caminos, Canales y Puertos (often shortened to Ingeniero de Caminos or ICCP), that literally means "Highways, Canals and Harbors Engineer", though civil engineers in Spain practice in the same fields as civil engineers do elsewhere. This degree is equivalent to a Master of Civil Engineering and is obtained after five or six years of study depending on the school granting the title.

The first Spanish Civil Engineering School was the Escuela Especial de Ingenieros de Caminos y Canales (now called Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos), established in 1802 in Madrid, followed by the Escuela Especial de Ayudantes de Obras Públicas (now called Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Técnica de Obras Públicas de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), founded in 1854 in Madrid. Both schools now belong to the Technical University of Madrid.

In Spain, a civil engineer has the technical and legal ability to design projects of any branch, so any Spanish civil engineer can oversee projects about structures, buildings (except residential structures which are reserved for architects), foundations, hydraulics, the environment, transportation, urbanism, etc.

In Spain, Mechanical and Electrical engineering tasks are included under the Industrial engineering degree.

United Kingdom

A chartered civil engineer (known as certified or professional engineer in other countries) is a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and has also passed membership exams. However a non-chartered civil engineer may be a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers or the Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors. The description "Civil Engineer" is not restricted to members of any particular professional organisation although "Chartered Civil Engineer" is.

Eastern Europe

In many Eastern European countries, civil engineering does not exist as a distinct degree or profession but its various sub-professions are often studied in separate university faculties and performed as separate professions, whether they are taught in civilian universities or military engineering academies. Even many polytechnic tertiary schools give out separate degrees for each field of study. Typically study in geology, geodesy, structural engineering and urban engineering allows a person to obtain a degree in construction engineering. Mechanical engineering, automotive engineering, hydraulics and even sometimes metallurgy are fields in a degree in "Machinery Engineering". Computer sciences, control engineering and electrical engineering are fields in a degree in electrical engineering, while security, safety, environmental engineering, transportation, hydrology and meteorology are in a category of their own, typically each with their own degrees, either in separate university faculties or at polytechnic schools.

United States

In the United States, civil engineers are typically employed by municipalities, construction firms, consulting engineering firms, architect/engineer firms, the military, state governments, and the federal government. Each state requires engineers who offer their services to the public to be licensed by the state.[8] Licensure is obtained by meeting specified education, examination, and work experience requirements. Specific requirements vary by state.

Typically licensed engineers must graduate from an ABET-accredited university or college engineering program with a minimum of bachelor's degree,[9] pass the Fundamentals of Engineering exam, obtain several years of engineering experience under the supervision of a licensed engineer, then pass the Principles and Practice of Engineering Exam. After completing these steps and the granting of licensure by a state board, engineers may use the title "Professional Engineer" or PE in advertising and documents. Most states have implemented mandatory continuing education requirements to maintain a license.[9]

Professional associations


The ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) represents more than 140,000 members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Official members of the ASCE must hold a bachelor's degree from an accredited civil engineering program and be a licensed professional engineer or have five years responsible charge of engineering experience.[10] Most civil engineers join this organization to be updated of current news, projects, and methods (such as sustainability) related to civil engineering; as well as contribute their expertise and knowledge to other civil engineers and students obtaining their civil engineering degree.


The ICE (Institution of Civil Engineers) founded in 1818, represents, as of 2008, more than 80,000 members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Its commercial arm, Thomas Telford Ltd, provides training, recruitment, publishing and contract services.


Founded in 1887, the CSCE (Canadian Society for Civil Engineering) represents members of the Canadian civil engineering profession. Official members of the CSCE must hold a bachelor's degree from an accredited civil engineering program. Most civil engineers join this organization to be updated of current news, projects, and methods (such as sustainability) related to civil engineering; as well as contribute their expertise and knowledge to other civil engineers and students obtaining their civil engineering degree. Local sections frequently host events such as seminars, tours, and courses.

See also


  1. ^ "What is Civil Engineering?". Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics: Columbia University. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Civil Engineers". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. May 2014. Retrieved December 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ Mark Denny (2007). "Ingenium: Five Machines That Changed the World". p. 34. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  4. ^ Florman, Samuel (1987). The Civilized Engineer. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-312-02559-5.
  5. ^ "Sub-disciplines of Civil Engineering | Faculty of Engineering". Islamic University of Madinah: Faculty of Engineering. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  6. ^ Singh, Amarjit (January 2007). "Civil Engineering: Anachronism and Black Sheep". Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice. 133: 18–30. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1052-3928(2007)133:1(18) – via ASCE Library.
  7. ^ "Faculté des Sciences Appliquées – Ingénieur Civil" (in French). University of Liège. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  8. ^ National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying; Licensure Archived 2012-11-01 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved November 24, 2010.
  9. ^ a b Civil Engineering; Requirements for Becoming a Civil Engineer, retrieved December 19, 2015.
  10. ^ About ASCE Archived 2010-12-13 at the Wayback Machine
349th Air Mobility Wing

The 349th Air Mobility Wing is an Air Reserve Component of the United States Air Force. It is assigned to the Fourth Air Force, Air Force Reserve Command, stationed at Travis Air Force Base, California. The 349th AMW is an associate unit of the 60th Air Mobility Wing, Air Mobility Command (AMC) and if mobilized the wing is gained by AMC.

The 349th Air Mobility Wing is the largest associate wing in the United States Air Force Reserve Command. 349th AMW personnel fly the C-5 Galaxy, C-17 Globemaster III and KC-10 Extender. The missions of the aircrews include airlifting personnel and material worldwide as well as aerial refueling a wide variety of aircraft.

The mission of the 349th AMW is to "...provide combat ready Airmen and expeditionary support to the war fighter." This makes the wing responsible for training almost 3,500 reservists who work side-by-side with their active duty counterparts in the 60th Air Mobility Wing, also stationed at Travis.

Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency

The Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) merged with the Air Force Real Property Agency and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment to form the Air Force Civil Engineer Center on 1 Oct. 2012. [1]

AFCESA was a Field Operating Agency (FOA) of the United States Air Force. The agency managed contracts that provided civil engineer support to help restore and modernize buildings and infrastructure at Air Force bases around the world.

Civil Engineer Corps

The Civil Engineer Corps (CEC) is a staff corps of the United States Navy. CEC officers are professional engineers and architects, acquisitions specialists and Seabee Combat Warfare Officers. They are responsible for executing and managing the planning, design, acquisition, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Navy's shore facilities. The Civil Engineer Corps is under the command of the Chief of Civil Engineers and Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Command. As of 19 October 2018, RADM John W. Korka relieved RADM Bret J. Muilenburg, and became the 45th commander of NAVFAC and Chief of Civil Engineers.CEC ranks range from CWO2 to RADM, though the community is phasing out Chief Warrant Officer ranks in favor of Limited Duty Officers. As of August 2018, the CEC Active-Component end-strength was 1,285 personnel composed of 1 RADM, 3 RDML's, 76 CAPT's, 166 CDR's, 278 LCDR's, 470 LT's, 171 LTJG's, and 120 ENS's, distributed worldwide. As of August 2018, the CEC Reserve-Component end-strength was 448 personnel, composed of 2 RDML's, 29 CAPT's, 80 CDR's, 142 LCDR's, 156 LT's, 9 LTJG's, and 25 ENS's, distributed worldwide. [1]

Construction engineering

Construction engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning, construction and management of infrastructures such as roads, tunnels, bridges, airports, railroads, facilities, buildings, dams, utilities and other projects.

Civil engineering is a related field that deals more with the practical aspects of projects. Construction engineers learn some of the design aspects similar to civil engineers as well as project site management aspects.

At the educational level, civil engineering students concentrate primarily on the design work which is more analytical, gearing them toward a career as a design professional. This essentially requires them to take a multitude of challenging engineering science and design courses as part of obtaining a 4-year accredited degree. Education for construction engineers is primarily focused on construction procedures, methods, costs, schedules and personnel management. Their primary concern is to deliver a project on time within budget and of the desired quality.

The difference between a construction engineer and a civil engineer is that construction engineering students take basic design courses as well as construction management courses.

Edward D. Muhlenberg

Edward Duchman Muhlenberg (May 15, 1831 – March 10, 1883) was an American civil engineer in the railroad industry and an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He commanded an artillery brigade at the Battle of Gettysburg while only a lieutenant. He played an important role in the defense of Culp's Hill against attacking Confederates.

James Baird (civil engineer)

James Baird (May 18, 1873 – May 16, 1953) was an American civil engineer, football player and coach. He played football for the University of Michigan from 1892 to 1895 and was captain of the 1894 team. He was also an assistant football coach at Michigan from 1897 to 1898. He worked for the George A. Fuller Co. for 23 years and eventually became its president. He later formed his own construction company called the James Baird Company. Baird directed the construction of many important buildings, including the Flatiron Building, Lincoln Memorial, Arlington Memorial Amphitheater, and Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

John Smeaton

John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. He was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed "civil engineer", and is often regarded as the "father of civil engineering". He pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete, using pebbles and powdered brick as aggregate. Smeaton was associated with the Lunar Society.

Lieutenant commander (United States)

Lieutenant commander (LCDR) is a mid-ranking officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (NOAA Corps), with the pay grade of O-4 and NATO rank code OF-3. The predecessors of the NOAA Corps, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps (1917-1965) and the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps (1965-1970), also used the lieutenant commander rank, and the rank is also used in the United States Maritime Service and the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps. Lieutenant commanders rank above lieutenants and below commanders, and rank is equivalent to a major in the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps.

Promotion to lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy is governed by United States Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980. DOPMA guidelines suggest 80% of lieutenants should be promoted to lieutenant commander after serving a minimum of three years at their present rank and after attaining nine to eleven years of cumulative commissioned service.While lieutenant commander is the U.S. Navy's first commissioned officer to be selected by board, they are still considered to be junior officers due to their origin as "lieutenant, commanding." This can be seen by the fact that lieutenant commanders do not wear the oak-leaf gold embellishment (colloquially known as "scrambled eggs") on their combination covers. This is in contrast to other branches, where majors wear the appropriate covers of field-grade officers.The United States Coast Guard used their own rank system until World War I. In 1916, discontent grew among Coast Guard Captains By law, they ranked below a lieutenant commander in the United States Navy despite similar roles and duties. Pursuant to the Appropriations Act of 1918, the Coast Guard adopted the Navy rank structure to prevent disagreements over seniority. There are two insignia used by lieutenant commanders. On service khakis and all working uniforms, lieutenant commanders wear a gold oak leaf collar device, similar to the ones worn by majors in the USAF and Army, and identical to that worn by majors in the Marine Corps. In all dress uniforms, they wear sleeve braid or shoulder boards bearing a single gold quarter-inch stripe between two gold half-inch strips (nominal size). In the case of officers of the U.S. Navy, Above or inboard of the stripes, they wear their specialty insignia (i.e., a star for officers of the line, crossed oak leaves for Civil Engineer Corps, etc.).

Insignia of lieutenant commanders in different uniformed services in the United States

List of civil engineers

This list of civil engineers is a list of notable people who have been trained in or have practiced civil engineering.

Mississippi Air National Guard

The Mississippi Air National Guard (MS ANG) is the air force militia of the State of Mississippi, United States of America. It is, along with the Mississippi Army National Guard, an element of the Mississippi National Guard.

As state militia units, the units in the Mississippi Air National Guard are not in the normal United States Air Force chain of command. They are under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Mississippi though the office of the Mississippi Adjutant General unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States. The Mississippi Air National Guard is headquartered in Jackson, and its commander is currently Major General William O. Hill.

Mott MacDonald

The Mott MacDonald Group is a consultancy with headquarters in the United Kingdom. It employs 16,000 staff in 150 countries. Mott MacDonald is one of the largest employee-owned companies in the world.

It was established in 1989 by the merger of Mott, Hay and Anderson with Sir M MacDonald & Partners. It has won more than 500 industry awards in the last five years and is among the top ranked firms in the annual league tables published by Engineering News Record and New Civil Engineer.

Mount Isto

Mount Isto is the highest peak in the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA. Located in the eastern Brooks Range, in what are known as the Romanzof Mountains, Mount Isto is 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Mount Hubley, the second tallest peak in the Brooks Range. Mount Isto is within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and was named in 1966 for Reynold E. (Pete) Isto, a civil engineer for the U.S. Geological Survey. In 2014, new measurement technology established that Mount Isto is the highest peak in the Brooks Range. Previously, Mount Chamberlin was believed to be the tallest, but it is now ranked third.

Mount Julian (Colorado)

For other mountains by this name, see Mount Julian (disambiguation).Mount Julian is a mountain summit in the northern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 12,933-foot (3,942 m) peak is located in the Rocky Mountain National Park Wilderness, 12.2 miles (19.7 km) west (bearing 268°) of the Town of Estes Park in Larimer County, Colorado, United States. The mountain was named in honor of Julian Hayden, a civil engineer who lived in Estes Park.

N. G. Krishna Murti

Nori Gopala Krishna Murti (1910–1995) was an Indian civil engineer, known for his contributions for the implementation of Koyna Hydroelectric Project. He was the chairman of Bhakra Dam Management Board and the vice-chairman of the International Congress on Large Dams. The Government of India awarded him the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, in 1963. He received the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, in 1972.

New Civil Engineer

New Civil Engineer is the monthly magazine for members of the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), the UK chartered body that oversees the practice of civil engineering in the UK. First published in May 1972, it is today published by Metropolis. Under its previous publisher, Ascential, who, as Emap, acquired the title and editorial control from the ICE in 1995, the ICE regularly discussed the magazine's content through an editorial advisory board and a supervisory board.Available in print and online after the appropriate subscription has been taken out (it is free for members of the ICE), the magazine is aimed at professionals in the civil engineering industry. It contains industry news and analysis, letters from subscribers, a directory of companies, with listings arranged by companies’ areas of work, and an appointments section. It also occasionally has details of university courses and graduate positions.

In 2013 it had a net circulation of more than 50,000 per issue. Two years later, this had dropped to 42,805, of which some 39,000 related to copies distributed to ICE members. Previously printed on a weekly basis the magazine switch to a monthly format in December 2015.New Civil Engineer was a co-founder of the British Construction Industry Awards.

In January 2017, Ascential announced its intention to sell 13 titles including New Civil Engineer; the 13 "heritage titles" were to be "hived off into a separate business while buyers are sought." The brands were purchased by Metropolis International Ltd (owner of the Property Week title since 2013) in a £23.5m cash deal, announced on 1 June 2017.

Ralph Brazelton Peck

Dr. Ralph Brazelton Peck (June 23, 1912 – February 18, 2008) was an eminent civil engineer specializing in soil mechanics. He was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1975 "for his development of the science and art of subsurface engineering, combining the contributions of the sciences of geology and soil mechanics with the practical art of foundation design".

Peck was born in Winnipeg to O.K. and Ethel Peck, and moved to the United States at age six. In 1934, he received his civil engineer degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and was given a three-year fellowship for graduate work in structures. On June 14, 1937, he married Marjorie Truby and obtained a Doctor of Civil Engineering degree.

After receiving his degree, he worked briefly for the American Bridge Company, then on the Chicago Subway, but Peck spent the majority of his teaching career (32 years) at the University of Illinois, initially in structures but later focused on geotechnical engineering under the influence of Karl Terzaghi, ultimately retiring in 1974. He continued to work until 2005 and was highly influential as a consulting engineer, with some 1,045 consulting projects in foundations, ore storage facilities, tunnel projects, dams, and dikes, including the Cannelton and Uniontown lock and dam construction failures on the Ohio River, the dams in the James Bay project, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, the Dead Sea dikes and the Rion-Antirion Bridge in Greece.

On May 8, 2008, the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo, Norway, opened the Ralph B. Peck Library. This Library is next to the Karl Terzaghi Library, also at NGI. Correspondence between these two men are part of the two working libraries. The Karl Terzaghi Library tells about the birth and growth of soil mechanics. The Ralph B. Peck Library tells about the practice of foundation engineering, and how one engineer exercised his art and science for more than sixty years. Diaries from between 1939 and 1941 containing Peck's work with the Chicago Subway are included along with papers and reports on many of his subsequent jobs.During his career Peck authored over 200 publications, and served as president of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering from 1969 to 1973. He received many awards, including:

1944 The Norman Medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers

1965 The Wellington prize of the ASCE

1969 The Karl Terzaghi Award

1975 The National Medal of Science, presented by President Gerald Ford

1988 The John Fritz MedalIn 1999, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) created the Ralph B. Peck Award to honor outstanding contributions to geotechnical engineering profession through the publication of a thoughtful, carefully researched case history or histories, or the publication of recommended practices or design methodologies based on the evaluation of case histories.

He died on February 18, 2008, from congestive heart failure.

Rapid Engineer Deployable Heavy Operational Repair Squadron Engineers

Rapid Engineer Deployable Heavy Operational Repair Squadron Engineer (RED HORSE) squadrons are the United States Air Force's heavy-construction units. Their combat engineering capabilities are similar to those of the U.S. Navy Seabees and U.S. Army heavy-construction organizations.

Robert Stevenson (civil engineer)

Robert Stevenson, FRSE, FGS, FRAS, FSA Scot, MWS (8 June 1772 – 12 July 1850) was a Scottish civil engineer and famed designer and builder of lighthouses.One of his finest achievements was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse.


Zunz (Hebrew: צוּנְץ‬, Yiddish: צונץ‎) is a Yiddish surname:

Edgard Zunz (1874–1939), Belgian pharmacologist

Leopold Zunz (Yom Tov Lipmann Tzuntz) (1794–1886), German Reform rabbi and writer, the founder of academic Judaic Studies (Wissenschaft des Judentums)

Sir Gerhard Jack Zunz (1923–2018), British civil engineer

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