Civil War News was a set of collectible trading cards issued in the early 1960s by Topps. The set featured the colorful artwork of Norman Saunders, as well as three other artists, and was characterized by vivid colors; graphic depictions of violence, death and blood (number 21 "Painful Death" being a prime example) and exaggerations of warfare. On the reverse, each card contained a brief history of a campaign battle or person presented in a newspaper article-like fashion, complete with headline.
The complete set consists of 88 cards, including a checklist, and was first printed for the United States market in 1962 to coincide with the centennial of the American Civil War. A similar series with the same artwork was later issued in Canada and A&BC produced a similar set in England, plus a French-language version for sale in France. A Spanish-language version was issued by Topps in 1968, with predominantly different artwork. The cards were issued five to a wax pack and were accompanied by facsimiles of paper currency of the Confederate States of America. The original selling price was a nickel per package. Topps later issued the cards in cellophane-wrapped strips ("cello packs").
Note: Since 1989 a monthly newspaper titled Civil War News has been published by Historical Publications, Inc. in Tunbridge, Vermont. See website.
The 32nd Indiana Monument, also known as the August Bloedner Monument, honors the Union soldiers of the 32nd Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment, also known as Indiana's "1st German" regiment, who died in the Battle of Rowlett's Station on December 17, 1861, near Munfordville, Kentucky. Originally placed at Fort Willich, near Munfordville, in January 1862, the monument was moved to Cave Hill National Cemetery at Louisville, Kentucky, in June 1867. Due to its fragile condition, the monument was removed from the national cemetery in 2008. After undergoing conservation treatment at the University of Louisville, it was placed on display at the Frazier History Museum lobby in August 2010. Although it is no longer in its original location, the 32nd Indiana Monument is generally considered to be the oldest surviving memorial to the American Civil War. A replacement monument at Cave Hill National Cemetery was dedicated in December 2011.Battle of Rowlett's Station
The Battle of Rowlett's Station (also known as Battle of Woodsonville or Green River) was a land battle in the American Civil War, fought at the railroad whistle-stop of Rowlett's in Hart County, Kentucky, on December 17, 1861. The outcome was inconclusive, although the Union Army continued to hold its objective, a railroad bridge across the Green River.Civil War Roundtable
Civil War Roundtables (also referred to as Round Tables or CWRTs) are independent organizations that share a common objective in promoting and expanding interest in the study of the military, political and sociological history of the American Civil War. The oldest such group in the United States is The Civil War Round Table of Chicago, which was founded in 1941 and is based in Chicago, Illinois. The second and perhaps third oldest are the Civil War Round Table of Milwaukee (founded in 1947) and the Civil War Round Table of the District of Columbia (founded in 1951). There are hundreds of such organizations throughout the U.S., with some in other countries as well.
There is no national organization to coordinate and publicize the activities of the individual roundtables, although most follow a similar format of holding a monthly meeting (some include a dinner on site or at a nearby restaurant) to make announcements about local Civil War history-related events and to host a presentation by a guest speaker (usually a scholar, professor, author or artist, park ranger, battlefield preservationist, reenactor, or other expert). The meetings might also feature raffles, book signings, door prizes, auctions, fund raisers, and similar activities. Some CWRTs sponsor battlefield preservation events, battle walks, excursions, tours, and other "sanctioned" events.
Many roundtables charge an annual membership fee to help defray expenses, and others cover costs by charging for individual dinner meetings or presentations. Several smaller CWRT groups do not charge any set fees, but instead "pass the hat." Many are IRS 501(c)(3) entities and accept donations or contributions that are tax deductible to the extent permitted by law.
Since 2004, Matthew Borowick has been writing a column in the Civil War News about round tables. The column provides "best practices" information about the formation, management and administration of round tables. In 2010, he published The Civil War Round Table Handbook, a compilation of those columns. Mr. Borowick as well as Walter Rueckel and Mike Powell of the Brunswick CWRT, John Bamberl of the Scottsdale CWRT, and Michael Movius of the Puget Sound CWRT, have hosted conferences attended by representatives from various roundtables based throughout the U.S. and Canada to discuss methods to increase collaboration among roundtables and related groups.Eastern Front of the Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War spread to the east in May 1918, with a series of revolts along the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway, on the part of the Czechoslovak Legion and officers of the Russian Army. Provisional anti-Bolshevik local governments were formed in many parts of Siberia and other eastern regions during that summer. The Red Army mounted a counter-offensive in the autumn, and in 1919 defeated the White commander Aleksandr Kolchak in Siberia. Smaller-scale conflicts in the region went on until 1923.Edward H. Bonekemper
Edward Henry Bonekemper III (1942-2017) was a military historian, teacher, and writer. Bonekemper wrote frequently about slavery, the American Civil War, and Union and Confederate generals. Bonekemper was a frequent speaker at Civil War Roundtables and at the Smithsonian Institution.Foods of the American Civil War
Foods of the American Civil War were the provisions during the American Civil War with which both the Union and Confederate armies struggled to keep their soldiers provisioned adequately.Fort Evans
Fort Evans is a Civil War-era rectangular earthen fort located in Leesburg, Virginia. It was the first of three forts constructed in 1861 to protect Leesburg from possible invasion after Virginia seceded from the Union.Georgian Civil War
The Georgian Civil War comprised inter-ethnic and intranational conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993), as well as the violent military coup d'état of December 22, 1991 – December 31, 1993, against the first democratically elected President of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1993).
While the Gamsakhurdia rebellion was eventually defeated, the South Ossetia and Abkhazia conflicts resulted in the de facto secession of both regions from Georgia. As a result, both conflicts have lingered on, with occasional flare-ups.Göktürk civil war
The Göktürk civil war (or Turkic interregnum) was an important crisis in Central Asia during the 580s, which resulted in the split of the Göktürk Khaganate and the creation of separate western and eastern khaganates.Kansas in the American Civil War
At the outbreak of the American Civil War in April 1861, Kansas was the newest U.S. state, admitted just months earlier in January. The state had formally rejected slavery by popular vote and vowed to fight on the side of the Union, though ideological divisions with neighboring Missouri, a slave state, had led to violent conflict in previous years and persisted for the duration of the war.
While Kansas was a rural frontier state distant from the major theaters of war and its Unionist government was never seriously threatened by Confederate military forces, several engagements did occur within its borders, as well as countless raids and skirmishes between local irregulars, including the Lawrence Massacre by pro-Confederate guerrillas under William Quantrill in August 1863. Later the state witnessed the defeat of Confederate General Sterling Price by Union General Alfred Pleasonton at the Battle of Mine Creek, the second-largest cavalry action of the war.
The decision of how Kansas would enter the Union was a pivotal one which forced the entire country to confront the political and social turmoil generated by the question of abolition and contributed to the strong division in sentiment that eventually erupted into war. The early violence there presaged the coming national conflict, and throughout the war Kansas remained a staunchly loyal Union stronghold at the western edge of a border region otherwise populated by uneven governments and mixed sympathies.Lebanese Civil War
The Lebanese Civil War (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities. As of 2012, approximately 76,000 people remain displaced within Lebanon. There was also an exodus of almost one million people from Lebanon as a result of the war.Before the war, Lebanon was multisectarian, with Sunni Muslims and Christians being the majorities in the coastal cities, Shia Muslims being mainly based in the south and the Beqaa Valley to the east, and with the mountain populations being mostly Druze and Christian. The government of Lebanon had been run under a significant influence of the elites among the Maronite Christians. The link between politics and religion had been reinforced under the mandate of the French colonial powers from 1920 to 1943, and the parliamentary structure favored a leading position for the Christians. However, the country had a large Muslim population and many pan-Arabist and left-wing groups opposed the pro-western government. The establishment of the state of Israel and the displacement of a hundred thousand Palestinian refugees to Lebanon during the 1948 and 1967 exoduses contributed to shifting the demographic balance in favor of the Muslim population. The Cold War had a powerful disintegrative effect on Lebanon, which was closely linked to the polarization that preceded the 1958 political crisis, since Maronites sided with the West while leftist and pan-Arab groups sided with Soviet-aligned Arab countries.Fighting between Maronite and Palestinian forces (mainly from the Palestine Liberation Organization) began in 1975, then Leftist, pan-Arabist and Muslim Lebanese groups formed an alliance with the Palestinians. During the course of the fighting, alliances shifted rapidly and unpredictably. Furthermore, foreign powers, such as Israel and Syria, became involved in the war and fought alongside different factions. Peace keeping forces, such as the Multinational Force in Lebanon and UNIFIL, were also stationed in Lebanon.
The 1989 Taif Agreement marked the beginning of the end of the fighting. In January 1989, a committee appointed by the Arab League began to formulate solutions to the conflict. In March 1991, parliament passed an amnesty law that pardoned all political crimes prior to its enactment. In May 1991, the militias were dissolved, with the exception of Hezbollah, while the Lebanese Armed Forces began to slowly rebuild as Lebanon's only major non-sectarian institution. Religious tensions between Sunnis and Shias remained after the war.Len Brown (comics)
Len Brown (born October 7, 1941) is an American writer, editor, radio personality and comic book scripter, best known as the co-creator of T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents and Mars Attacks.Born in Brooklyn, Brown began working in the Product Development Department of Topps Chewing Gum shortly after he graduated from high school. As a creative editor, working with department head Woody Gelman, Brown developed ideas for both sports and non-sports cards, a position which put him in contact with leading comic book artists, who illustrated Topps humor cards. During his 41 years at Topps, Brown contributed to such series as Civil War News, Garbage Pail Kids and Wacky Packages.List of massacres during the Algerian Civil War
Many massacres were committed during the Algerian Civil War that began in 1991. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them, while for others no group has claimed responsibility. In addition to generating a widespread sense of fear, the massacres effected migration from and depopulation of the worst-affected areas. The number of massacres peaked in 1997, with a smaller peak in 1994, and they were particularly concentrated in the areas between Algiers and Oran, with very few occurring in the east or in the Sahara.
This list is not exhaustive and covers only events in which over 50 civilians or prisoners were killed; with the number of smaller massacres being far more numerous. Sources frequently disagree on the number of deaths.National Museum of Civil War Medicine
The National Museum of Civil War Medicine is a U.S. historic education institution located in Frederick, Maryland. Its focus involves the medical, surgical and nursing practices during the American Civil War (1861-1865).New Jersey in the American Civil War
The state of New Jersey in the United States provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union during the American Civil War. Though no major battles were fought in New Jersey, soldiers and volunteers from New Jersey played an important part in the war, including Philip Kearny and George B. McClellan, who led the Army of the Potomac early in the Civil War and unsuccessfully ran for President of the United States in 1864 against his former commander-in-chief, Abraham Lincoln.Orange County, Virginia
Orange County is a county located in the Central Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,481. Its county seat is Orange.Orange County is home to Montpelier, the 2,700-acre (1,100 ha) estate of James Madison, the 4th President of the United States and oft-hailed "Father of the Constitution." The county celebrated its 275th anniversary in 2009.Packet boat
Packet boats were medium-sized boats designed for domestic mail, passenger, and freight transportation in European countries and their colonies, including North American rivers and canals. They were used extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries and featured regularly scheduled service.
When such ships were put into use in the 18th century on the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain and its colonies, the services were called the packet trade.Pistol sword
A pistol sword is a sword with a pistol or revolver attached, usually alongside the blade. It differs from a rifle with a bayonet in that the weapon is designed primarily for use as a sword, and the firearm component is typically considered a secondary weapon designed to be an addition to the blade, rather than the sword being a secondary addition to the pistol. In addition, the two components of these weapons typically cannot be separated, unlike most bayonet-fixed rifles.South Yemen Civil War
The South Yemen Civil War, colloquially referred to as The Events of '86, or more simply as The Events, was a failed coup d'etat and armed conflict which took place in January 1986 in South Yemen. The civil war developed as a result of ideological and tribal tensions between two factions of the ruling Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP), centred on Abdul Fattah Ismail and Ali Nasir Muhammad for the leadership of the YSP. The conflict quickly escalated into a costly civil war that lasted eleven days and resulted in thousands of casualties. Additionally, the conflict resulted in the demise of much of the Yemeni Socialist Party's most experienced leadership cadre, contributing to the country's eventual unification with North Yemen in 1990.