Civil Police (Brazil)

In Brazil, the Civil Police (Portuguese: Polícia Civil) is the name of the investigative state police forces.

The Civil Police are agencies of the public administration of the states and of the Federal District of Brazil, whose function is, in accordance with article 144 of the Federal Constitution of 1988, the exercise of the public security for the preservation of the public order, of the safety of the people and the patrimony.

Each of the state and the of Federal District has its own "Civil Police Department", which carries out detective work, forensics and criminal investigation, acting as a state bureau of investigation, while the "Military Police" carries out preventive police duties.

It aims at the exercise of functions of judiciary police and the exercise of activities of administrative and security police, which are indispensable to the preservation of the juridical order, to the (promotion of the) harmonic life of the community, and to guarantee citizens' rights and liberty.

Águia3
Police helicopter - Rio de Janeiro

Description

Viatura PCERJ 2010
A police car - Rio de Janeiro

The Civil Police of Brazil had origin in the General Intendancy of Police, created in Rio de Janeiro in 1808.

With the transference of the Portuguese Royal Family to Brazil in 1808, the Police started to be regulated, have structure and important social role.

The Police General Intendancy of the Court and the State of Brazil (Intendência Geral de Polícia da Corte e do Estado do Brasil, in Portuguese) was created by charter of D. João VI on May 10 of that year, centralizing the police attributes of competence belonging to several authorities such as Ouvidor Geral, the alcaydes, the quadrilheiros and the road and assaults captains.

The first Police General Superintendent was Councilor Paulo Fernandes Viana who organized the police administration in Rio de Janeiro city as it used to be in Lisbon.

The Police General Intendancy went through the phase of the Brazilian politic emancipation movement which finally culminated on September 7, 1822.

Civil Police had been gradually developing for all country during the governments Imperial and Republican. Today, the constitutional existence of the Civil Police and its attributions elapse of article 144, IV and 144 § 4°, of the Federal Constitution.

Organization

27 Civil Police Forces in Brazil, one for each State of the federacy exist. They are directed by a Head of Police, chosen amongst the Commission agents of Police of career.

The services of judiciary police are given through the Police stations of Police, agencies that have jurisdiction on small cities or quarters of the great cities.

Basic organic structure

  • Police Superior Council

A collegiate organ

  • Cabinet

Direct assistance of the Police Chief

  • Planning and Police Operations Department

Operational planning

  • General Office of Police

Fiscalization

  • Police State Academy

Professional formation

  • Police Departments

Operational organs

  • Administration Department

Administrative support

  • Technical-Scientific Department

Technical-scientific support (in same states, this is a separated organization)

Special investigations

Special Investigations Department, which is the information organ of the states police, is responsible for the highly complex police investigations; yet as its duty it has the dignitaries safety and the maintenance of the Special Operations Services (CORE, GOE and others) which uses highly trained policemen in dangerous tasks that the Police have to face daily.

Police inquiry

The function of Judiciary Police is exercised through the police inquiry, included in the Brazilian prosecution law in order to investigate the penal infractions and their responsibility. When concluded the inquiry is sent to the criminal judge.

Hierarchic degrees

Furgão da perícia
Mobile Forensic Unit - Rio de Janeiro

Police Authority

  • Delegated/Commissioner of Police (Delegado/Comissário)

Agents of the Authority

  • Notary of Police (Escrivão)
  • Agent, Investigator or Inspector (Agente, Investigador ou Inspetor)

Police Specialists

Note: In several Brazilian states, Police Specialists (Expert Criminal) direct an unattended Police Department, generally called "Scientific Police" or "Technical Police", responsible for criminal expertise at the respective state.

Civil police of Brazil

9ª Delegacia do Rio
Police station - Rio de Janeiro

Weaponry

Viatura - 2009
Rio de Janeiro

See also

External links

Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State

The Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State (Polícia Civil do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, in Portuguese) is the police force responsible for criminal investigations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Formed in 1808, it is subordinated to the state government and directed by a Chief of Police, chosen by the state's Governor.

Coordenadoria de Recursos Especiais

The Coordenadoria de Recursos Especiais (Portuguese for Coordination of Special Assets), best known by its acronym CORE, is the police tactical unit of the Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State. It was formed on 4 July 1969 and is comparable to São Paulo's GOE.

Federal Highway Police (Brazil)

The Brazilian Federal Highway Police (Polícia Rodoviária Federal or PRF) is a federal highway patrol, subordinate to the Ministry of Justice, whose main function is fighting crime on Brazilian federal roads and highways, as well as monitoring and supervising vehicular traffic, although it has also taken on duties that go beyond its original authority, such as action within Brazilian cities and forests in conjunction with other public safety agencies.

It was subordinate to the old National Department of Roadways (Departamento Nacional de Estradas de Rodagem or DNER), now the National Department of Transport Infrastructure (Departamento Nacional de Infra-Estrutura de Transportes or DNIT), until the publication of Law 8,028 of 12 April 1990, which redefined the structure of the Brazilian executive branch.

Its competences are defined by article 144 of the Federal Constitution and by Law 9,503 (Brazilian Traffic Code), by Decree 1655 of 3 October 1995 and by its internal regulation, approved by Ministerial Decree 1,375 of 2 August 2007.

The title patrolman given to the members was abolished in 1998, replaced by the title "police". Members of the PRF are divided into four classes: Third, Second, First and Special.

Since 2009, entry into the PRF already required a university education degree recognized by the Ministry of Education. Condition now described in Law 9,654.

Federal Ministerial Police

The Federal Ministerial Police (in Spanish: Policía Federal Ministerial, PFM) is a Mexican federal agency tasked with fighting corruption and organized crime, through an executive order by President Vicente Fox Quesada. The agency is directed by the Attorney General's Office (PGR) and may have been partly modeled on the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. PFM agents in action often wear masks to prevent themselves from being identified by gang leaders. PFM agents are uniformed when carrying out raids.

"Street-level" uniformed federal police patrols and transport terminal security are handled by the Federal Police, directed by the National Commission of Security (CNS).

GOE (Brazil)

Grupo de Operações Especiais (Portuguese for Special Operations Group), mostly known by its acronym GOE, is the police tactical unit of the Civil Police of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is comparable to Rio de Janeiro's CORE.

State bureau of investigation

A State Bureau of Investigation (SBI) is a state-level detective agency in the United States. They are plainclothes agencies which usually investigate both criminal and civil cases involving the state and/or multiple jurisdictions. They also typically provide technical support to local agencies in the form of laboratory and/or record services.

An SBI is a state's equivalent to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, but can include investigative jurisidiction similar to other federal law enforcement agencies as well. The SBIs investigate all manner of cases assigned to them by their state's laws and usually report to their state's attorney general, or in some cases to their state's governor.

SBIs can also exist either independently or within a state Department of Public Safety/Department of Justice (which is an umbrella agency coordinating and/or controlling the various state-level law enforcement agencies) or a state police force (which is a general law enforcement agency).

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