The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a military decoration during the Roman Republic and the subsequent Principate, regarded as the second highest to which a citizen could aspire (the Grass Crown being held in higher regard). It took the form of a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. It was reserved for Roman citizens who saved the lives of fellow citizens by slaying an enemy on a spot held by the enemy that same day. The citizen saved must admit it; no one else could be a witness.
After Sulla's constitutional reforms, any recipient of the Civic Crown was entitled entry into the Roman Senate. Furthermore, the recipient was required by law to wear his crown at every public gathering, and was applauded even by men much senior to himself. It later became a prerogative for Roman Emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown (originating with Augustus, who was awarded it for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars).
The Camp Crown (Latin: corona castrensis, "crown of the castrum"), also known as Vallary Crown, was a gold crown surmounted with replicas of the stakes of a palisade. It was a Roman military award, given to the first man who penetrated into an enemy camp or field during a combat.In heraldry a camp crown is mounted atop the shields of coats of arms or emblems of a few units belonging to some armies.
The Palisado crown is a variant used in English Heraldry defined by palisades, high fences consisting of pointed stakes, that are affixed to the outside of the rim.Christopher Nesham
Christopher (John Williams) Nesham (1771 –4 November 1853), admiral, born in 1771, was son of Christopher Nesham, a captain in the 63rd regiment, by his wife Mary Williams, sister of William Peere Williams-Freeman, admiral of the fleet.
Nesham entered the navy in January 1782 on board HMS Juno, with Captain James Montagu, and in her was present at the action off Cuddalore on 20 June 1783. On his return to England in 1785, he was for some time aboard HMS Edgar, guardship at Portsmouth, commanded by Captain Adam Duncan, afterwards Lord Duncan, and aboard the frigate HMS Druid until March 1788.
He was then sent to a college in France, and was still there at the outbreak of the revolution. He was at Vernon, in Normandy, in October 1789, when a furious mob fell upon a corn merchant, Planter by name, who had been charitable to the poor, but who, having sent flour to Paris, was accused of wishing to starve the town. The town-hall, where he had taken refuge, was stormed, and Planter was dragged down the stairs towards the lamp-post at the corner of the building. Attempts were made to fasten a rope round his neck. Nesham, however, with two others, remained by Planter and warded off the blows aimed at him as well as themselves. Knocked down, Nesham sprang up again and vigorously resisted the mob. Planter was at length got away from the lamp-post into an adjoining street, and, a door being thrown open, was finally pushed in and saved. One of the first acts of the municipality on the restoration of order was to confer citizenship on Nesham (17 November). He was shortly afterwards summoned to Paris, January 1790, when he was presented by the assembly with a uniform sword of the national guard, and a civic crown was placed on his head.In June 1790 he was appointed to HMS Salisbury, bearing the flag of Vice-admiral Milbanke, who had, as his flag-captain, Edward Pellew, afterwards Viscount Exmouth. On 17 November 1790 he was promoted to be lieutenant, and during the next two years served in the Channel Fleet under the immediate command of Keats and Robert Moorsom. In 1793 he was appointed to the 50-gun HMS Adamant, in which he served on the West Indian, Newfoundland, and home stations. In 1797 he was her first lieutenant in the North Sea, when, during the mutiny and through the summer, she carried the flag of Vice-admiral Richard Onslow. She afterwards took part in the battle of Camperdown. He was next, 13 April 1801, invested with the command (which he retained until posted 29 April 1802 of the sloop HMS Suffisante.
On 29 April 1802 he was advanced to post rank, and from October 1804 to February 1805 was captain of HMS Foudroyant, in the Bay of Biscay, with the flag of his kinsman and connection, Rear-admiral Sir Thomas Graves. In March 1807 he was appointed to HMS Ulysses of 44 guns, which he took out to the West Indies, and commanded at the reduction of Marie Galante, in March 1808. In July 1808 he was moved into HMS Intrepid of 64 guns, and in her, in the following February, took part in the capture of Martinique, where he served on shore under the immediate command of Commodore Sir George Cockburn, and superintended the transport of the heavy guns and mortars. On 15 April 1809 the Intrepid suffered severely in an unsuccessful attack on two French frigates under the guns of Fort Mathilde of Guadeloupe; and in December she returned to England and was paid off.
In 1830–1 Nesham commanded HMS Melville of 74 guns, in the Mediterranean. He retired as a rear-admiral on 10 January 1837, but was replaced on the active list on 17 August 1840. He became vice-admiral on 9 November 1846, and admiral on 30 July 1852. He died at Exmouth on 4 November 1853, aged 82.Nesham was twice married: first, in 1802, to his cousin, Margaret Anne, youngest daughter of Thomas, first lord Graves; she died in 1808; secondly, in 1833, to Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Colonel Nicholas Bayly, brother of the first Earl of Uxbridge, of the present creation. He left issue by both marriages.Claire Lacombe
Claire Lacombe (4 August 1765-?) was a French actress and revolutionary. She is best known for her contributions during the French Revolution. Though it was only for a few years, Lacombe was a revolutionary and a founding member of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women.Coat of arms of Madrid
The Coat of arms of Madrid, the capital of Spain, has its origin in the Middle Ages, but was redesigned in 1967. In 2004 a logo it includes a shield similar to the symbol of the city and its council.
The shield is argent, a bear sable supported on a strawberry tree vert fructed gules; on a bordure azure seven stars argent. The shield is adorned with a large open royal crown of gold and precious stones, with eight rosettes (five visible) alternating with eight pearls; this crown is commonly used in Spanish heraldry for territorial and municipal arms.The image of the bear and the strawberry tree is also a component of the badge of the football club Atlético Madrid.Coat of arms of Peru
The Coat of arms of Peru is the national symbolic emblem of Peru. Four variants are used: the Coat of arms per se (Escudo de Armas); the National Coat of arms, or National Shield (Escudo Nacional); the Great Seal of the State (Gran Sello del Estado); and the Naval Coat of arms (Escudo de la Marina de Guerra).Coat of arms of the Community of Madrid
The Coat of arms of the Community of Madrid was adopted in 1983. The field is crimson red with two yellow or golden castles with seven five-pointed white or silver stars on top, arranged four and three. The crest is the Spanish Royal Crown.The red field symbolizes historic Castile, of which Madrid had long been part, and the two castles represent the two Castilian communities and Madrid as their union. The seven stars come from the coat of arms of the capital representing the constellation Ursa Minor, which is visible from the city. The five points of the stars refer to the five provinces which abut the Community. The royal crown symbolizes Madrid as the royal seat.Coat of arms of the Second Spanish Republic
The Coat of arms of the Second Spanish Republic was the emblem of the Second Spanish Republic, the democratic government that existed in Spain between April 14, 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country, and April 1, 1939, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered to Francoist forces at the end of the Spanish Civil War.
The National flag of the Second Spanish Republic would have the coat of arms in the middle of the central yellow band. There was no coat of arms in the Spanish Republican Civil Ensign.Diadem
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty. The word derives from the Greek διάδημα diádēma, "band" or "fillet", from διαδέω diadéō, "I bind round", or "I fasten".The term originally referred to the embroidered white silk ribbon, ending in a knot and two fringed strips often draped over the shoulders, that surrounded the head of the king to denote his authority. Such ribbons were also used to crown victorious athletes in important sports games in antiquity. It was later applied to a metal crown, generally in a circular or "fillet" shape. For example, the crown worn by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands was a diadem, as was that of a baron later (in some countries surmounted by three globes). The ancient Celts were believed to have used a thin, semioval gold plate called a mind (Old Irish) as a diadem. Some of the earliest examples of these types of crowns can be found in ancient Egypt, from the simple fabric type to the more elaborate metallic type, and in the Aegean world.A diadem is also a jewelled ornament in the shape of a half crown, worn by women and placed over the forehead (in this sense, also called tiara). In some societies, it may be a wreath worn around the head. The ancient Persians wore a high and erect royal tiara encircled with a diadem. Hera, queen of the Greek gods, wore a golden crown called the diadem.
The Priest king of the Indus Valley Civilization wore what is probably the oldest example of a Diadem approx. 3000BC.
By extension, "diadem" can be used generally for an emblem of regal power or dignity. The head regalia worn by Roman Emperors, from the time of Diocletian onwards, is described as a diadem in the original sources. It was this object that the Foederatus general Odoacer returned to Emperor Zeno (the Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire) after his expulsion of the usurper Romulus Augustus from Rome in 476 AD.Grass Crown
For the novel by Colleen McCullough see The Grass Crown (novel).The Grass Crown or Blockade Crown (Latin: corona graminea or corona obsidionalis) was the highest and rarest of all military decorations in the Roman Republic and early Roman empire. It was presented only to a general, commander, or officer whose actions saved a legion or the entire army. One example of actions leading to awarding of a grass crown would be a general who broke the blockade around a beleaguered Roman army. The crown took the form of a chaplet made from plant materials taken from the battlefield, including grasses, flowers, and various cereals such as wheat; it was presented to the general by the army he had saved.Hasta pura (military decoration)
The hasta pura or hasta donatica was a decoration for merit, awarded in Ancient Rome. The Roman sources do not concur about the precise character of the decoration. Some call it a decoration for valour, others mention that it had been awarded to civilians.
The hasta was a thrusting weapon that was not thrown as were the later pilum, verutum and lancea. A hasta pura was a spear made "without iron" and was in the earliest times the reward of a soldier the first time that he conquered in battle. Later it came to be awarded to a soldier who had struck down an enemy in a sally or skirmish.Tacitus records a hasta pura being given as a decoration, bestowed upon a soldier for saving the life of a fellow-citizen:
In this engagement Rufus Helvius, a common soldier, won the honour of saving a citizen's life, and was rewarded by Apronius with a torc and a spear. To these the emperor added the civic crown, complaining, but without anger, that Apronius had not used his right as proconsul to bestow this further distinction.
A civil servant called Tiberius Claudius Balbilus was awarded the hasta pura and perhaps also the corona aurea by Claudius during the triumph to celebrate the conquest of Britain in AD 44. As a friend and part of the Emperor’s retinue, it seems likely that his awards, as much as his military rank, were honorary.The hasta pura was also recorded as being given to the primus pilus when he had completed his period of service. Also, such a gift is sometimes recorded in funereal inscriptions.Some have taken "without iron" to mean that the hasta pura had no head at all. The main evidence in support of this conjecture is that representations on some coins show a blunt spear. However, other coins clearly show a sharp spearhead and those that do not may be explained by poorly made coins or poorly drawn representations of them in publications. The hasta pura is mentioned in the second part of the Claudius novels by Robert Graves. Graves calls the decoration an "arrow without a head", and refers to its award to Balbilus.Juncos, Puerto Rico
Juncos (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈhuŋkos]) is one of the 78 municipalities of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the eastern central region of the island, south of Canóvanas and Carolina; southeast of Gurabo; east of San Lorenzo; and west of Las Piedras. Juncos is spread over 9 wards and Juncos Pueblo (the downtown area and the administrative center of the city). It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Juncos was founded on the request of Tomás Pizarro on August 2, 1797, having previously been a village which evolved from a small ranch, the Hatillo de los Juncos. This ranch was part of the Hato del Valenciano, which gave its name to the Río Valenciano which bisects the city before joining the Río Gurabo to the north of the settlement.Latium
Latium (; Latin: [ˈla.ti.ũː]) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Latium was originally a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins or Latians. It was located on the left bank (east and south) of the River Tiber, extending northward to the River Anio (a left-bank tributary of the Tiber) and southeastward to the Pomptina Palus (Pontine Marshes, now the Pontine Fields) as far south as the Circeian promontory. The right bank of the Tiber was occupied by the Etruscan city of Veii, and the other borders were occupied by Italic tribes. Subsequently, Rome defeated Veii and then its Italic neighbours, expanding Latium to the Apennine Mountains in the northeast and to the opposite end of the marsh in the southeast. The modern descendant, the Italian Regione of Lazio, also called Latium in Latin, and occasionally in modern English, is somewhat larger still, but not as much as double the original Latium.
The ancient language of the Latins, the tribespeople who occupied Latium, was to become the immediate predecessor of the Old Latin language, ancestor of Latin and the Romance languages. Latium has played an important role in history owing to its status as the host of the capital city of Rome, at one time the cultural and political centre of the Roman Empire. Consequently, Latium is home to celebrated works of art and architecture.Laurel wreath
A laurel wreath is a round wreath made of connected branches and leaves of the bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), an aromatic broadleaf evergreen, or later from spineless butcher's broom (Ruscus hypoglossum) or cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus). It is a symbol of triumph and is worn as a chaplet around the head, or as a garland around the neck. The symbol of the laurel wreath traces back to Greek mythology. Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head, and wreaths were awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions. This includes the ancient Olympics — for which they were made of wild olive tree known as "kotinos" (κότινος), (sc. at Olympia) — and in poetic meets; in Rome they were symbols of martial victory, crowning a successful commander during his triumph. Whereas ancient laurel wreaths are most often depicted as a horseshoe shape, modern versions are usually complete rings.In common modern idiomatic usage it refers to a victory. The expression "resting on one's laurels" refers to someone relying entirely on long-past successes for continued fame or recognition, where to "look to one's laurels" means to be careful of losing rank to competition.Marcus Ostorius Scapula (consul 59)
Marcus Ostorius Scapula (died AD 65) was a Roman senator, who was active during the Principate. He was suffect consul in the second half of the year 59 as the colleague of Titus Sextius Africanus. He was the son of Publius Ostorius Scapula, governor of Roman Britain (47-52).Scapula first appears in history as a soldier in one of the units stationed in his father's province of Roman Britain. During a battle against the Iceni, the younger Ostorius Scapula saved a fellow soldier's life and was afterwards awarded the civic crown. It is possible he had been commissioned a military tribune; in any case, his career after this point until he achieved the consulate is unknown. In 62, Scapula was involved in a legal suit where the praetor Antistius Sosianus was accused of violating the lex maiestas by composing verses mocking Nero which Sosianus recited at a large gathering at Scapula's house. Although Scapula claimed he had heard nothing, several witnesses present at the time were produced who attested Sosianus had recited the verses, and the accused was found guilty and punished with exile.When Sosianus was recalled from exile three years later, according to Tacitus, he learned that the occupation of delator, or informer, was favored by the emperor Nero, and Sosianus accused Scapula of seeking to make himself emperor. Nero readily believed him. At the time Scapula was living on a remote estate on the Ligurian border, whence a centurion was dispatched to ensure Scapula's death. Thus pressured, Ostorius Scapula took his own life.Mural crown
A mural crown (Latin: corona muralis) is a crown or headpiece representing city walls or towers. In classical antiquity, it was an emblem of tutelary deities who watched over a city, and among the Romans a military decoration. Later the mural crown developed into a symbol of European heraldry, mostly for cities and towns, and in the 19th and 20th centuries was used in some republican heraldry.Naval crown
The Naval Crown (Latin: corona navalis) was a gold crown surmounted with small replicas of the prows of ships. It was a Roman military award, given to the first man who boarded an enemy ship during a naval engagement.
In heraldry a naval crown is mounted atop the shields of coats of arms of the naval vessels and other units belonging to some navies. It is made up of a circlet with the sails and sterns of ships alternating on top.Newcastle Light Rail
The Newcastle Light Rail is a light rail system in Newcastle, New South Wales, running from Newcastle Interchange through the central business district to Pacific Park. Major construction commenced in September 2017 with the line opening on 17 February 2019. It is operated by Newcastle Transport.Siege of Mytilene (81 BC)
The Siege of Mytilene occurred in 81 BC on the island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea. Mytilene had been in revolt against Rome and was suspected of actively or tacitly aiding so called pirates in the region. Suetonius credits Marcus Minucius Thermus with the victory, but the siege may have been conducted by or in coordination with Lucius Licinius Lucullus.
Julius Caesar began his military service during the siege after his pardon by Sulla during the proscriptions of 82 BC. It was during the siege that Caesar was awarded the Civic Crown, a considerable honour in the Roman military.