Cius

Cius (/ˈsaɪəs/; Greek: Kίος or Κῖος Kios), later renamed Prusias on the Sea (/ˈpruːʒəs/; Latin: Prusias ad Mare) after king Prusias I of Bithynia, was an ancient Greek city bordering the Propontis (now known as the Sea of Marmara), in Bithynia and formerly in Mysia (in modern northwestern Turkey), and had a long history, being mentioned by Herodotus, Xenophon, Aristotle, Strabo and Apollonius Rhodius. It was strategically placed at the head of a gulf in the Propontis, called the gulf of Cius, or Cianus Sinus. Herodotus calls it Cius of Mysia;[1] and also Xenophon,[2] from which it appears that Mysia, even in Xenophon's time, extended at least as far east as the head of the gulf of Cius. Pliny the Elder reports that Cius was a Milesian colony.[3] It was at the foot of Mount Arganthonius, and there was a myth that Hylas, one of the companions of Heracles on the voyage to Colchis, was carried off by the nymphs when he went to get water here; and also that Cius, another companion of Heracles, on his return from Colchis, stayed here and founded the city, to which he gave his name.[4] Pliny mentions a river Hylas and a river Cius here, one of which reminds us of the name of the youth who was stolen by the nymphs, and the other of the mythical founder. The Cius may be the channel by which the lake Ascania discharges its waters into the gulf of Cius; though Pliny speaks of the Ascanium flumen as flowing into the gulf, and we must assume that he gives this name to the channel which connects the lake and the sea. If the river Cius is not identical with this channel, it must be a small stream near Cius. As Ptolemy speaks of the outlets of the Ascanius,[5] it has been conjectured that there may have been two, and that they may be the Hylas and Cius of Pliny; but the plural ἐκβολαί does not necessarily mean more than a single mouth; and Pliny certainly says that the Ascanius flows into the gulf. However, his geography is a constant cause of difficulty. The position of Cius made it the port for the inland parts, and it became a place of much commercial importance. Pomponius Mela calls it the most convenient emporium of Phrygia, which was at no great distance from it.

Cius was taken by the Persians, after the burning of Sardis, in 499 BCE.[1] It joined the Aetolian League, and was destroyed by Philip V of Macedon in the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE), and given by him to Prusias I of Bithynia. Prusias, who had assisted Philip in ruining Cius, restored it under the name of Prusias (Προυσιάς).[6][7] It was sometimes called Prusias ἐπιθαλασσίη, or "on the sea," to distinguish it from other towns of the same name,[8][9] or πρὸς θάλασσαν. In the text of Memnon the reading is Cierus;[9] but Memnon, both in this and other passages, has confounded Cius and Cierus. But it is remarked that Cius must either have still existed by the side of the new city, or must have recovered its old name; for Pliny mentions Cius, and also Mela,[10] Zosimus,[11] and writers of a still later date. It was an important chain in the ancient Silk Road and became known as a wealthy town.

There are coins of Cius, with the legend Κιανων, belonging to the Roman imperial period; and there are coins of Prusias with the epigraph, Προυσιεων των προς θαλασσαν.

Cius became an early Christian bishopric. Its bishop, Cyrillus, took part in the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The names of many of his successors in the first millennium are known from extant contemporary documents. At first a suffragan of Nicomedia, it soon became an autocephalous archdiocese, being listed as such in Notitiae Episcopatuum from the 7th century onward.[12][13][14] No longer a residential bishopric, Cius is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[15]

Following the population exchange in 1923, the Greek refugees from Cius established the village of Nea Kios, in Argolis, Greece. There are only few remnants of the ancient town and its harbour today. Somewhat more to the west, the new modern town of Gemlik, Bursa Province, Turkey is found.

Cius
Cius is located in Turkey
Cius
Shown within Turkey
LocationTurkey
RegionBursa Province
Coordinates40°25′57″N 29°09′23″E / 40.432468°N 29.156389°ECoordinates: 40°25′57″N 29°09′23″E / 40.432468°N 29.156389°E
Moneta di cius, 350-330 ac ca, inv. 601
Coin of Cius

Notes

  1. ^ a b Herodotus. Histories. 5.122.
  2. ^ Xenophon. Hellenica. 1.4.7.
  3. ^ Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 5.32.
  4. ^ Strabo. Geographica. p. 564. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  5. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 5.1.
  6. ^ Strabo. Geographica. p. 563. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  7. ^ Polybius. The Histories. 16.21.
  8. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Προῦσα.
  9. ^ a b Memnon, ap. Phot. Cod. 224 c.43; Hoeschel's ed. of Photius
  10. ^ Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 1.19.
  11. ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, 1.35
  12. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 631-636
  13. ^ Raymond Janin, v. Cius, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 1024-1026
  14. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 443
  15. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 870

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Cius". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

References

External links

Ariobarzanes II of Cius

Ariobarzanes (in Greek Ἀριoβαρζάνης; ruled 363–337 BC) a Persian noble, succeeded his kinsman or father, Mithridates or alternatively succeeded another Ariobarzanes I of Cius, as ruler of the Greek city of Cius in Mysia, governing for 26 years between 363 BC and 337 BC for the Persian king. It is believed that it was he and his family which in mid-360s BC revolted from the rule of the Persian king Artaxerxes II, but ended up in defeat by 362 BC. He was succeeded as governor of Cius by Mithridates, possibly his son or possibly a kinsman such as a younger brother.

Ariobarzanes is called by Diodorus satrap of Phrygia, and by Nepos satrap of Lydia, Ionia, and Phrygia. Demosthenes speaks of Ariobarzanes of Phrygia and his two or three sons having been made Athenian citizens. He mentions him again in the following year and says that the Athenians had sent Timotheus to his assistance; but that when the Athenian general saw that Ariobarzanes was in open revolt against the Persian king, he refused to assist him.

Ariobarzanes of Phrygia

For the satrap of Persis and opponent of Alexander the Great, see Ariobarzanes (satrap of Persis).

Ariobarzanes (in Greek Ἀριoβαρζάνης), (Old Persian: Ariyabrdhna, Ariyaubrdhna) Ariobarzan or spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan, perhaps signifying "exalting the Aryans" (death: crucified in c. 362 BCE), sometimes known as Ariobarzanes I of Cius, was a Persian Satrap of Phrygia and military commander, leader of an independence revolt, and the first known of the line of rulers of the Greek town of Cius from which were eventually to stem the kings of Pontus in the 3rd century BCE.

Ariobarzanes was apparently a cadet member of the Achaemenid dynasty, possibly son of Pharnabazus II, and part of the Pharnacid dynasty which had settled to hold Dascylium of Hellespont in the 470s BCE. Cius is located near Dascylium, and Cius seemingly was a share of family holdings for the branch of Ariobarzanes.

Ariobarzanes' one predecessor was a (kinsman) named Mithradates (possibly Mithradates, Satrap of Cappadocia). The archaeologist Walther Judeich claims that Ariobarzanes was that Mithradates' son, but Brian C. McGing refutes that specific filiation. Seemingly, no classical source itself calls them son and father, the filiation being a later reconstruction on basis of successorship.

Arrhidaeus

Arrhidaeus or Arrhidaios (Greek: Ἀρριδαῖoς; lived 4th century BC), one of Alexander the Great's generals, was entrusted by Ptolemy to bring Alexander's body to Egypt in 323 BC, contrary to the wishes of Perdiccas who wanted the body sent to Macedonia. On the murder of Perdiccas in Egypt in 321 BC, Arrhidaeus and Peithon were appointed temporary commanders in chief, but through the intrigues of the queen Eurydice they were obliged soon afterwards to resign their office at Triparadisus in Northern Syria. On the division of the provinces which was decided by those attending Triparadisus, Arrhidaeus obtained the Hellespontine Phrygia. In 319 BC, after the death of Antipater, Arrhidaeus made an unsuccessful attack upon Cyzicus; and Antigonus gladly seized this pretext to require him to resign his satrapy. Arrhidaeus, however, refused to resign and shut himself up in Cius.

Bithynia

Bithynia (; Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea. It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the northeast along the Pontic coast, and Phrygia to the southeast towards the interior of Asia Minor.

Bithynia was an independent kingdom from the 4th century BC. Its capital Nicomedia was rebuilt on the site of ancient Astacus in 264 BC by Nicomedes I of Bithynia. Bithynia was bequeathed to the Roman Republic in 74 BC, and became united with the Pontus region as the province of Bithynia et Pontus. In the 7th century it was incorporated into the Byzantine Opsikion theme.

It became a border region to the Seljuk Empire in the 13th century, and was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Turks between 1325 and 1333.

Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies

From 1976 to 1996Ukrainian Canadian organizations had been urging governments to introduce Ukrainian studies at the secondary and post-secondary levels since the end of World War II. At that time, the very survival of Ukrainian language and culture appeared tenuous in the face of strong assimilatory pressures upon second- and third-generation Ukrainians in Canada, as well as the Soviet regime's brutal persecution of Ukrainians in their homeland.

The lobby for Ukrainian studies met with some success: Ukrainian language, literature and history courses were offered at several universities. Ukrainian Canadian organizations requested a more comprehensive program when the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism held its hearings in the mid-1960s, and were favourably received. In its 1970 report, the commission recommended that universities expand their programs in humanities and social sciences into cultures other than English and French. It also envisioned a much greater and more inclusive role for ethnocultural minorities in shaping Canadian public policy, an important shift in attitude toward minorities.

Encouraged, the Ukrainian Canadian community pressed on with its campaign on behalf of Ukrainian studies and assumed a leading position in the burgeoning multicultural movement. Dr. Manoly R. Lupul, a Harvard graduate and professor of the history of Canadian education at the University of Alberta, emerged as a driving force for the creation of an institute of Ukrainian studies and as a major spokesman for multiculturalism.

Through his active involvement with the Ukrainian Canadian Committee and the Ukrainian Professional and Business Club of Edmonton, Dr. Lupul met and found a sympathetic ally in Peter Savaryn, a lawyer and well-connected activist in Ukrainian community and Canadian political circles.

Elected president of the Ukrainian Canadian Professional and Business Federation in 1973, Dr. Lupul persuaded the federation to campaign for a university-related institute of Ukrainian studies as a priority and to mobilize financial support. The Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Foundation (later renamed the Canadian Foundation for Ukrainian Studies) was created to raise money. Respected specialists in Ukrainian studies backed the federation in its goal of establishing a Ukrainian studies centre.

Among them were Dr. Ivan Lysiak-Rudnytsky, professor of Ukrainian and East European history at the University of Alberta, Dr. George Luckyj, professor of Slavic languages and literatures at the University of Toronto, and Dr. Bohdan Bociurkiw, professor of political science at Carleton University in Ottawa.

Different locations were considered, but the University of Alberta won out. The proposed institute was endorsed by University of Alberta President Harry Gunning and by the province, largely owing to the persuasive efforts of Mr. Savaryn, who had influence within the university as a member of the Board of Governors and Senate, and in the Lougheed government as a prominent Conservative party official.

The project was assured of success when Dr. Albert Hohol, appointed Minister of Advanced Education after the 1975 spring election, enthusiastically promoted the idea and convinced cabinet to commit $350,000 in annual funding to the Institute. It was the largest allotment of public funds received by a Ukrainian community project outside Ukraine.

CIUS goals

In the summer of 1976, CIUS moved into its first temporary quarters, two offices borrowed from the Department of Educational Foundations in the university's Education Building, and set about meeting its objectives. These were:

to encourage program development in Ukrainian Canadian and Ukrainian studies at the undergraduate and graduate levels,

to serve as a resource centre for English-Ukrainian bilingual education,

to encourage research on Ukrainian Canadian and Ukrainian subjects,

to encourage publication of research on Ukrainian Canadian and Ukrainian subjects,

to facilitate coordination in program development in Ukrainian studies in Canada and avoid duplication in research and publications, and

to assist in the establishment of creative contacts among professors, scholars, writers, scientists and librarians by promoting and organizing meetings, seminars, lectures, conferences and tours.Teaching was not part of the Institute's mandate, even though many of the academic staff held joint appointments with other departments, such as Slavics and History, and taught on a part-time basis. Dr. Lupul was appointed the first director, while Drs. Rudnytsky and Luckyj became the two associate directors. Dr. Luckyj administered the Institute's Encyclopedia of Ukraine Project Office, housed in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of Toronto. Dr. Andrij Hornjatkevyc was hired as a special assistant to the director, holding a joint appointment with what is now the Division of Slavic and East European Studies, and Roman Senkus became an administrative assistant to Dr. Luckyj.

Bohdan Krawchenko, then a doctoral student and sessional lecturer in Soviet government, and Roman Petryshyn, also a doctoral student whose specialty was social trends among Ukrainians in Canada and Britain, were hired as CIUS' first two research associates. They were joined by Frances Swyripa (an authority on the history of Ukrainians and other ethnic groups, women, and western provinces in Canada), Dr. John-Paul Himka (a specialist in the social and political history of nineteenth-century Galicia), and Olenka Bilash (whose focus was bilingual education). CIUS was fortunate in being able to attract some of the finest young academics in Ukrainian studies, who have contributed significantly in their fields. CIUS staff have also played a prominent role in scholarly and community organizations.

The first advisory committee, made up of representatives of departments offering courses in Ukrainian studies, was appointed. The council of associates, consisting of 36 senior faculty from Ukrainian studies programs across Canada, had its first annual meeting in the spring of 1977. Its main focus was a report on the state of Ukrainian studies in Canada, prepared by Bohdan Krawchenko, which revealed a scarcity of courses in areas other than language and literature. The study of Ukrainians in Canada was also underdeveloped, a fact pointed out by Dr. Lupul in his first annual CIUS report a few months later.

During the next several years, the Institute sought to remedy this situation by awarding research grants and scholarships in neglected areas, as well as "seed" grants to encourage universities to initiate Ukrainian studies courses, especially in history and the social sciences. Direct financial assistance was provided to St. Andrew's College at the University of Manitoba, the University of British Columbia, Concordia University in Montreal, and York University in Toronto to set up new courses and cover partial salary costs. CIUS also worked closely with various University of Alberta departments to develop credit courses in political science, history and education.

Encyclopedia launched

From its inception, the Institute adopted a national mandate, maintaining a strong presence in the East through its Toronto Encyclopedia Project Office. The Encyclopedia of Ukraine project was launched on December 4, 1976, when a contract was signed between the fledgling CIUS, represented by Dr. Lupul, Dr. Rudnytsky, Dr. Luckyj and Mr. Savaryn, and the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Europe, represented by Professor Volodymyr Kubijovyc of Sarcelles, France, and Dr. Atanas Figol of Munich, Germany. Until its completion 17 years later, the encyclopedia was the Institute's major priority, absorbing an enormous amount of staff resources and a third of the annual budget.

By the end of the first year, CIUS had established a public lecture series in Edmonton and Toronto, published its first book, Mykola Zerov's Lektsii z istorii ukrains'koi literatury, 1798-1870 (Lectures on the History of Ukrainian Literature, 1798-1870), produced two issues of the Journal of Ukrainian Graduate Studies (later renamed the Journal of Ukrainian Studies), organized its first conference on Ukrainian studies in Canada, and awarded 11 research grants, four doctoral and four master's thesis fellowships, and 10 undergraduate scholarships.

At the beginning of its second year, the Institute moved into larger, permanent quarters in the newly renovated, historic Athabasca Hall, where space was set aside for a reading room, an archive and the Ukrainian Language Resource Centre (now part of the Ukrainian Language Education Centre).

In the mid-1970s, the Ukrainian bilingual program in Alberta was still in the early stages of development, with little training available for teachers and relatively few resources. As its objectives indicate, CIUS made a major commitment to supporting bilingual education from the start. In 1976, the Institute began to coordinate the publication of Ukrainian language teaching materials for Alberta Education. Upgrading teacher education was the next priority. Working with the Faculty of Education, CIUS put together a teaching methodology course for Ukrainian bilingual teachers (first offered in 1978), and initially covered instructors' salaries and registration fees for teachers who enrolled.

After assisting community groups in both Manitoba and Saskatchewan to lobby their provincial governments successfully for the implementation of bilingual programs, the Institute organized annual interprovincial summer schools for Ukrainian language teachers in the three prairie provinces (the first one was held in Winnipeg in 1980). The location of the summer credit program was shifted to a different campus each year to make it as accessible as possible. Closer to home, CIUS did much of the grass roots organizational work in getting the province-wide Alberta Parents for Ukrainian Education off the ground.

During its second year (1977–78), the Institute staged the first in a series of annual conferences on Ukrainians in Canada. Held in Edmonton, the conference, "Ukrainian Canadians, Multiculturalism and Separation," was attended by 100 participants from across Canada and featured a lively session with Parti Québécois Minister of State for Cultural Development Camille Laurin. Subsequent conferences explored many different facets of the Ukrainian experience in Canada, including culture, religion, writing, social trends, early and post-World War II immigration, and the interwar years.

The first international conference in a series on Ukraine and its neighbours was held at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, in October 1977. Ukraine's relationship with Poland was the subject of the inaugural conference, which drew leading scholars from across North America and Europe. Later conferences examining Ukraine's relations with Jews, Germans and Russians attracted eminent scholars from many different disciplines around the world and helped integrate Ukrainian studies into the academic mainstream.

In 1978, CIUS offered its first extramural credit classes to residents of the Ukrainian bloc settlement east of Edmonton, but soon switched its off-campus program into non-credit classes, lectures and workshops, which proved to be more popular. A travelling lecture series was organized every year in different parts of the country, including British Columbia, the three prairie provinces, and Ontario on topics as varied as Ukrainian Christmas traditions and politics in Ukraine after Stalin. The development of library resources at the University of Alberta and other universities in Canada was an early concern. Library holdings in Ukrainian studies tended to be rudimentary (in 1977, the University of Alberta Library subscribed to only five Ukrainian Canadian newspapers, for example) and there were few scholarly bibliographies. This posed a great handicap to scholars and students doing research in the field, a situation the Institute helped to remedy by working with the library to expand its holdings and by issuing grants for the collection of primary resources and the preparation of bibliographies.

For many years, the Institute provided direct financial assistance to the university library for the purchase of books and other resources. Private collections — an invaluable source of rare and out-of-print books, especially from the pre-World War I and interwar period — donated to CIUS were offered to the University of Alberta Library and other university libraries to build up their holdings.

Successful review

At the end of its third year, the Institute underwent an internal university review and scored high marks. The evaluating committee praised CIUS for accomplishing much more than expected during its formative years. "We are led to conclude that the establishment of the Ukrainian Institute was an imaginative idea, boldly conceived, of national significance (or wider) and that the unit has been effectively administered." Having passed its probation, CIUS became an integral part of the university under the jurisdiction of the Vice-President (Research), and its grant became part of the university's annual operating budget.

In 1982-83, CIUS put together an archives program, partly in order to deal with the large number of private papers and other archival materials unearthed by a major oral history project on Ukrainian Canadian organizational life (1920–60) begun earlier that year. The program's goals were: the publication of research reports of catalogued materials, preparation of comprehensive guides to archival holdings, the microfilming of the most important collections, and locating important collections and facilitating their transfer to established archives.

The Institute provided financial assistance for the cataloguing of archival materials at a number of universities, including Carleton University and the University of Toronto, public institutions such as the National Archives of Canada, and Ukrainian organizations such as the Ukrainian Cultural and Educational Centre (Oseredok) in Winnipeg and the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in New York. Three years later, permanent funding for the program was secured through the Stephania Bukachevska-Pastushenko Endowment, under which fellowships for archival projects continue to be awarded each year. Important archival collections in Ukraine have been catalogued and microfilmed in recent years.

Public profile

During the fiftieth anniversary (1982–83) of the great man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine (Holodomor), the Institute set out to raise public awareness of the catastrophic event in which millions of Ukrainians perished. Three cross-country lecture tours were organized, featuring Dr. James Mace, a Harvard specialist in the field, CIUS assistant director Bohdan Krawchenko, and Toronto historian and writer Marco Carynnyk. Dr. Krawchenko helped edit an Edmonton Journal supplement on the famine and chaired the Ukrainian Canadian Committee's commemorative activities in Edmonton, including the unveiling of a monument in front of City Hall.

The Institute continued to maintain a high public profile during the 1980s as the expertise of its scholars on contemporary events was increasingly sought outside academic circles. For example, CIUS staff were extensively quoted in the media and invited to speak publicly on the issue of alleged Ukrainian war criminals after the federal government's Commission of Inquiry on War Criminals began hearings in 1985. When the Chernobyl nuclear disaster occurred in April 1986, Dr. David Marples, then a CIUS research associate (whose books on Chernobyl have been published by the Institute and the University of Alberta Press to international acclaim), was sought out as North America's foremost authority on the subject.

CIUS was less successful in its efforts to establish a presence in Ukraine, however. In his eighth annual report (1984–85), CIUS director Manoly Lupul decried the lack of progress made by the Institute in establishing scholarly exchanges with Ukraine, despite Ottawa's repeated interventions.

By 1984-85, the Institute had established a solid track record as a national body. More than half of the conferences it had organized were held on campuses outside Alberta. Scholarships were offered to students across the country on a competitive basis (72 per cent of the graduate fellowships and 63 per cent of the undergraduate fellowships were awarded off-campus). Research projects had been supported throughout Canada and abroad, in the United States, Israel, Germany, France, England, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Sweden and China.

Upon the completion of his second term in 1986, Dr. Lupul was succeeded by Dr. Bohdan Krawchenko, who served as director for the next five years. The impending collapse of the Soviet Union ushered in an exciting new period for the Institute as ties with academic institutions and scholars in Ukraine blossomed.

CIUS Press began to publish the work of Ukrainian scholars and writers, and its publications were favourably reviewed by newspapers and periodicals in Ukraine. This created a demand that CIUS initially tried to meet by giving away books to anyone in Ukraine who requested them, an open-handed policy that was speedily abandoned as requests poured in. Direct sales were not an option at that point, since Ukraine's currency was non-convertible.

Marketing books was not the Institute's sole or biggest problem in dealing with Ukraine. The entrenched Soviet bureaucracy remained a major stumbling block, as the thirteenth annual report makes clear: "Ties with Ukraine are inevitably fraught with difficulties owing to the hopeless inefficiency of the system. Institute staff could write a book on the numerous 'adventures' they have had in their dealings with Ukraine." Meanwhile, letters, proposals and visitors continued to pour in. By 1989-90, CIUS had become a focal stopping point for academics travelling from Ukraine to North America. During that year, CIUS received nearly 100 academics from Ukraine alone.

While the sheer volume of visitors was overwhelming at times, CIUS was also invigorated and enriched by the research, seminars and lectures, publications and information contributed by prominent writers (such as Ivan Drach, Oles Honchar, Lina Kostenko and Mykhailyna Kotsiubynska), filmmakers (Oles Yanchuk), high-ranking bureaucrats, diplomats (Levko Lukianenko, the first Ukrainian ambassador to Canada, and a former dissident and political prisoner), politicians (Dmytro Pavlychko, deputy of the Ukrainian parliament) and reformers (Anatolii Bohomolov, a cabinet minister heading the reform of Ukraine's civil service), and, of course, leading academics (Dr. Volodymyr Vasylenko, an expert on international relations, Professor Oleksandr Svetlov, an authority on criminal law, and Dr. Yaroslav Hrytsak, head of the Institute for Historical Research, Lviv University).

Despite budget cuts of 10 per cent in 1987-88, programs were expanded after the Institute undertook its first major — and highly successful — fund-raising drive. The Ukrainian Language Education Centre (ULEC) was established in 1987 through an endowment set up by the Ukrainian Professional and Business Club of Edmonton. ULEC, which incorporated the Ukrainian Language Resource Centre, began publishing Nova, an innovative and comprehensive Ukrainian language development series for the bilingual program.

The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research strengthened the Institute's research base in early modern Ukrainian history (sixteenth to eighteenth centuries). The Centre was established in 1989 with a $1 million donation from Toronto businessman Peter Jacyk, matched two-to-one by the Alberta government for a total of $3 million. Work began on an English translation of Mykhailo Hrushevsky's authoritative ten-volume History of Ukraine-Rus'. The Stasiuk Program for the Study of Contemporary Ukraine was founded a year later as a result of the generosity of the Stasiuk family. The program's first major project was an international collaborative study of Ukrainian-Russian relations organized in cooperation with Cologne University in Germany and the Harriman Institute at Columbia University.

Structural changes

Structural changes were put into place as CIUS was divided into nine autonomous units, each responsible for a specific program or project. Further budget cuts (the Institute has lost a third of its university funding over the past ten years) made CIUS even more dependent upon the generosity of donors across Canada and the United States to cover operating costs. To date, 32 permanent endowments have been created with a total value of close to $11 million, a gratifying show of support from the Ukrainian community. Private funding sources now make up half of the Institute's operating budget.

CIUS celebrates its twentieth anniversary in 1996 with an impressive list of accomplishments. The greatest of these is the publication of the five-volume Encyclopedia of Ukraine, a comprehensive English-language reference work on Ukraine and Ukrainians, and one of the largest scholarly projects undertaken by Ukrainians in the diaspora. CIUS has published more than 100 books and 58 research reports, and has supported the work of close to 400 academics and students in Canada and abroad through its fellowships, scholarships and research grants. It has provided funds to promote Ukrainian studies at universities in Canada, Brazil and Ukraine, and continues to serve as an important resource for Ukrainian language school programs through the Ukrainian Language Education Centre.

Since the late 1980s, the Institute has frequently advised government, business and academe on developments in Ukraine, and has supported Ukrainian scholarly and government institutions in their efforts to implement reform. The Institute recently embarked on its most ambitious project in Ukraine, assisting senior policy-makers in introducing legislative reform. The project has received $2.2 million in funding from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). CIUS enters its third decade an established world leader in Ukrainian studies, and will undoubtedly continue to play a vital role in the development of Ukrainian identity in the twenty-first century.

Research on Ukrainian and Ukrainian Canadian topicsThe Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research

The Kule Ukrainian Canadian Studies Centre

The Research Program on Religion and Culture

The Stasiuk Program for the Study of Contemporary Ukraine

The Kowalsky Program for the Study of Eastern Ukraine

The Danylo Struk Program in Ukrainian LiteratureNew Research and Educational InitiativesThe Holodomor Research and Education Consortium's

The Centre for Political and Regional StudiesDirectorsDr. Manoly R. Lupul

Bohdan Krawchenko

Frank E. Sysyn

Zenon E. Kohut

Volodymyr Kravchenko

Cisco Cius

The Cisco Cius is a business-oriented, Android-based tablet computer from Cisco Systems. The device, which was touted as an "enterprise tablet", was described as a mobile collaboration device that is bundled with Cisco's collaboration and applications suite and was targeted at the mobile workforce. It was used together with a media dock that was sold separately.

Cleitus the White

Cleitus (Clitus) the White (Greek: Κλεῖτος ὁ λευκός; died c. 317 BC) was an officer of Alexander the Great surnamed "White" to distinguish him from Cleitus the Black. He is noted by Athenaeus and Aelian for his pomp and luxury, and is probably the same who is mentioned by Justin among the veterans sent home to Macedonia under Craterus in 324 BC.After Alexander's death he reappears as commander of the Macedonian fleet for Antipater in the Lamian War in 323 BC, and defeated the Athenian admiral, Euetion, in the Battle of Amorgos. He then went on to defeat the Athenian fleet a second time in the Battle of the Echinades. These defeats signalled the end of Athenian thalassocracy, and were decisive in the Macedonian victory in the war. In the distribution of provinces at Triparadisus in 321 BC, he obtained from Antipater (the new regent of the Empire) the satrapy of Lydia. In 318 BC, at the start of the Second War of the Diadochi, Antigonus advanced against him from Phrygia; Cleitus garrisoned the principal cities, and sailed away to Macedonia to report the state of affairs to Polyperchon (who had become regent after Antipater’s death). After Polyperchon had been baffled at Megalopolis, he sent Cleitus with a fleet to the Hellespont to prevent any forces of Antigonus from passing into Europe, and also to effect a junction with Arrhidaeus, the satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, who had shut himself up in the town of Cius. In 317 BC, Nicanor was sent against him by Antigonus and Cassander, a battle ensued near Byzantium, in which Cleitus gained a decisive victory. But his success rendered him overconfident, and, having allowed his troops to disembark and encamp on land, he was surprised by Antigonus and Nicanor, and lost all his ships except the one in which he sailed himself. Having reached the shore in safety, he proceeded towards Macedonia, but was slain by some soldiers of Lysimachus, with whom he fell in on the way.

Elekosmioi

Elekosmioi was a town located near the coast of the Propontis in ancient Bithynia, between Cius and Apamea Myrlea.Its site is located near Elegmi, Asiatic Turkey.

Enrico Carfagnini

Enrico Carfagnini, O.F.M. (also known as Henry Carfagnini; 23 March 1823 – 2 December 1904) was an Italian Friar Minor and educator, who served as the Bishop of Harbour Grace, Newfoundland from 1870 to 1880. He was also Bishop of Gallipoli, Italy, from 1880 to 1898.

Cargagnini resigned his see in 1898 and was appointed the Titular archbishop of Cius.

Frank Sysyn

Frank E. Sysyn (Ukrainian: Франк Сисин, 27 December 1946 in Passaic, New Jersey) is an American historian of Ukrainian origin. His grandmother was from Ukraine.He graduated from Princeton University (1968), the University of London (1969), and Harvard University (PH D, 1976), taught at Harvard University (1976–85), and was an associate director of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute (1985–8). He was appointed the first director of the Petro Yatsyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies (CIUS) in 1989, University of Alberta, in Edmonton, Alberta, and has served as editor-in-chief of its Hrushevsky Translation Project, which is preparing and publishing an English-language translation of Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s 10-volume Istoriia Ukraïny-Rusy. He served as an acting director of the CIUS in 1991–93 and currently serves as the head of the Toronto Office of the CIUS. He is also actively engaged with the development of the Ukrainian Studies Program at the Harriman Institute of Columbia University in New York as well as the Ukrainian Free University in Munich. He is a specialist on 17th-century Ukraine.

Gulf of Gemlik

The Gulf of Gemlik (Turkish: Gemlik Körfezi) is an inlet of the Sea of Marmara in the Marmara region of Turkey. The gulf is located in the southwestern part of the sea. Mudanya, Gemlik and Armutlu are the major towns surrounding the gulf.

James Bilsborrow

James Romanus Bilsborrow, O.S.B. (27 August 1862 – 19 June 1931) was an English Roman Catholic prelate and Benedictine priest. He served as the first Archbishop of Cardiff (1916–1920), having previously been Bishop of Port-Louis (1916–1920).Born in Preston, Lancashire on 27 August 1862, he was ordained a priest in the Order of Saint Benedict on 23 June 1889. He was appointed the Bishop of the Diocese of Port-Louis in Mauritius on 13 September 1910. His consecration to the Episcopate took place on 24 February 1911, the principal consecrator was John Cuthbert Hedley, Bishop of Newport, and the principal co-consecrators were Peter Augustine O’Neill, Bishop Emeritus of Port-Louis and Joseph Robert Cowgill, Bishop of Leeds. Six years later, Bilsborrow was appointed the first Archbishop of Cardiff on 7 February 1916.He resigned the post on 16 December 1920 and appointed Titular Archbishop of Cius. He died on 19 June 1931, aged 68.

Kingdom of Pontus

The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty, which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty. The kingdom was proclaimed by Mithridates I in 281 BCE and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BCE. It reached its largest extent under Mithridates VI the Great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos, and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic Wars, Pontus was defeated; part of it was incorporated into the Roman Republic as the province Bithynia et Pontus, and the eastern half survived as a client kingdom.

As the greater part of the kingdom lay within the region of Cappadocia, which in early ages extended from the borders of Cilicia to the Euxine (Black Sea), the kingdom as a whole was at first called 'Cappadocia by Pontus' or 'Cappadocia by the Euxine', but afterwards simply 'Pontus', the name Cappadocia henceforth being used to refer to the southern half of the region previously included under that name.

Culturally, the kingdom was Hellenized, with Greek the official language.

Mithridates II of Cius

Mithridates of Cius (in Greek Mιθριδάτης or Mιθραδάτης; lived c. 386–302 BCE, ruled 337–302 BCE) a Persian noble, succeeded his kinsman or father Ariobarzanes II in 337 BCE as ruler of the Greek town of Cius in Mysia (today part of Turkey). Diodorus assigns him a rule of thirty-five years, but it appears that his rule of Cius was interrupted during that period. What circumstances led to his expulsion or subjection are unknown; nothing is heard of him until his death in 302 BCE. However, it appears that he had submitted to the Macedonian Antigonus, who, to prevent him from joining the league of Cassander and his confederates, arranged for his assassination in Cius.According to Lucian, he was at least eighty-four years of age at the time of his death, which makes it likely that he is the same person as the Mithridates, son of Ariobarzanes, who in his youth circumvented and put to death Datames. King Mithridates I of Pontus was his kinsman, although it is not known whether he was his son.

Therefore, it is likely that he was the same Mithradates, son of Ariobarzanes prince of Cius, who is mentioned by Xenophon as having betrayed his father, and the same circumstance is alluded to by Aristotle. During the Satraps' Revolt in the 360s BCE, Mithridates tricked Datames into believing in him. But in the end he arranged for Datames' murder in 362 BCE. Similarly, Mithridates gave his own father Ariobarzanes of Phrygia over to his Persian overlord, so Ariobarzanes was crucified in 362 BCE.

Presumably he was not the same Mithridates who accompanied the younger Cyrus in c. 401 BCE - there is no proof of this. Neither is he the Mithridates mentioned by Xenophon as satrap of Cappadocia and Lycaonia in the late 5th century BCE.

Between 362 and 337 BCE the family fiefdom of Cius in Mysia was held by Ariobarzanes II (possibly Mithridates' brother).

Mithridates I of Pontus

Mithridates I Ctistes (in Greek Mιθριδάτης Kτίστης; reigned 281–266 BCE), also known as Mithridates III of Cius, was a Persian nobleman and the founder (this is the meaning of the word Ctistes, literally Builder) of the Kingdom of Pontus in Anatolia.Mithridates is said to have been of the same age as Demetrios Poliorketes, which means he was born in the mid-330s BCE.

In 302 or 301 BC, shortly after having executed the young man's father and predecessor Mithridates II of Cius, the diadoch Antigonus became suspicious of the son who had inherited the family dominion of Cius, and planned to kill the boy. Mithridates, however, received from Demetrius Poliorketes timely notice of Antigonus's intentions, and fled with a few followers to Paphlagonia, where he occupied a strong fortress, called Cimiata. He was joined by numerous bodies of troops from different quarters and gradually extended his dominions in Pontus and created the foundations for the birth of a new kingdom, which may be judged to have risen about 281 BCE when Mithridates assumed the title of basileus (king). In the same year, we find him concluding an alliance with the town of Heraclea Pontica in Bithynia, to protect it against Seleucus. At a subsequent period, Mithridates is found acquiring support from the Gauls (who later settled in Asia Minor) in order to overthrow a force sent against him by Ptolemy, king of Egypt. These are the recorded events of his reign, which lasted for thirty-six years. He was succeeded by his son Ariobarzanes. He seems to have been buried in a royal grave near the kingdom's capital, Amasia. Next to him would be buried all the kings of Pontus until the fall of Sinope in 183 BCE.

According to Appian, he was eighth in descent from the first satrap of Pontus under Darius the Great and sixth in ascending order from Mithridates Eupator. However, this point is controversial since Plutarch writes that eight generations of kings of Pontus stemmed from him before Roman subjection.

Mithridates of Cius

Mithridates (in Greek Mιθριδάτης; lived 4th century BCE), son of Ariobarzanes prince of Cius, is mentioned by Xenophon as having betrayed his father, and the same circumstance is alluded to by Aristotle.He may or may not be the same Mithradates who accompanied the younger Cyrus, or the same Mithradates mentioned by Xenophon as satrap of Cappadocia and Lycaonia in the late 5th century BCE.

During the Satraps' Revolt in the 360s BCE, Mithridates tricked Datames to believe in him, but in the end arranged Datames' murder in 362 BCE. Similarly, Mithridates gave his own father Ariobarzanes of Phrygia to the hands of the Persian overlord, so Ariobarzanes was crucified in 362 BCE.

Demosthenes speaks of Ariobarzanes and his three sons having been lately made Athenian citizens. - as signal of sympathy in the revolt effort, Athens made Ariobarzanes and three of his sons citizens of Athens. Mithradates was possibly one of those sons.

In 363 BCE already, Ariobarzanes II (possibly Mithridates' son) made himself master of the family fiefdom of Cius in Mysia. This Mithradates may therefore have died in 363 BCE, but the date is not recorded and only comes from later reconstructions of the succession in the dynasty.

Otherwise, this Mithradates may well be the same man as the elderly Mithridates II of Cius who held Cius in Mysia between 337 and 302 BCE, being said to be an old man at that time.

Mithridatic dynasty

The Mithridatic dynasty, also known as the Pontic dynasty, was a hereditary dynasty of Persian origin, founded by Mithridates I Ktistes (Mithridates III of Cius) in 281 BC. The origins of the dynasty were located in the highest circles of the ruling Persian nobility in Cius. Mithridates III of Cius fled to Paphlagonia after the murder of his father and his predecessor Mithridates II of Cius, eventually proclaiming the Kingdom of Pontus, and adopting the epithet of "Ktistes" (literally, Builder). The dynasty reached its greatest extent under the rule of Mithridates VI, who is considered the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus.They were prominent enemies of the Roman Republic, being the primary enemies of the Republic during the Mithridatic Wars led by Mithridates VI himself, and later under Pharnaces II, who was decisively defeated by Julius Caesar at the Battle of Zela.

Nea Kios

Nea Kios (Greek: Νέα Κίος), is a village and former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 5.700 km2. It was founded by refugees from Cius in Bithynia after the expulsion of the Greeks from Asia Minor.

Aegean
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