City of federal subject significance

City of federal subject significance is an umbrella term used to refer to a type of an administrative division of a federal subject of Russia which is equal in status to a district but is organized around a large city; occasionally with surrounding rural territories.

Description

According to the 1993 Constitution of Russia, the administrative-territorial structure of the federal subjects is not identified as the responsibility of the federal government or as the joint responsibility of the federal government and the federal subjects.[1] This state of the matters is traditionally interpreted by the governments of the federal subjects as a sign that the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions are the sole responsibility of the federal subjects themselves.[1] As a result, the modern administrative-territorial structures of the federal subjects vary significantly from one federal subject to another; that includes the manner in which the cities of federal subject significance are organized and the choice of a term to refer to such entities. In the federal subjects which have closed administrative-territorial formations, those are often given a similar status. Occasionally, this status is also given to the areas organized around the inhabited localities which are not cities, but smaller urban-type settlements.

List of designations

As of 2013, the following types of such entities are recognized:

English designation Russian designation Entity in which it exists Type of higher level entity
Administrative-territorial formation with special status административно-территориальное образование с особым статусом in the Republic of Kalmykia republic
City город the Republics of Dagestan, Kalmykia, and Khakassia republic
City of republic significance город республиканского значения the Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Chechen Republic, Chuvash Republic, Republic of Crimea,[2] Republic of Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Karachay–Cherkess Republic, Republic of Karelia, Komi Republic, Mari El Republic, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Tatarstan, and Udmurt Republic republic
City under republic jurisdiction город республиканского подчинения the Sakha Republic and North Ossetia-Alania republic
City under republic jurisdiction (urban okrug) город республиканского подчинения (городской округ) the Tuva Republic republic
Closed administrative-territorial formation закрытое административно-территориальное образование the Republic of Bashkortostan republic
Republican urban okrug республиканский городской округ the Republic of Adygea republic
Urban okrug городской округ the Altai Republic republic
City город Krasnodar Krai krai
City of krai significance город краевого значения Altai, Khabarovsk, Perm, and Stavropol Krais krai
City under krai jurisdiction город краевого подчинения Kamchatka and Primorsky Krais krai
Closed administrative-territorial formation закрытое административно-территориальное образование Altai, Krasnoyarsk, and Perm Krais krai
Krai city краевой город Krasnoyarsk Krai krai
City город Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Kirov, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, Orenburg, Pskov, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, and Vladimir Oblasts oblast
City of oblast significance город областного значения Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Belgorod, Kaliningrad, Kostroma, Kursk, Magadan, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Omsk, Oryol, Penza, Ryazan, Sakhalin, Samara, Saratov, Tambov, Ulyanovsk, Volgograd, Vologda, and Yaroslavl Oblasts oblast
City under oblast jurisdiction город областного подчинения Kemerovo, Kurgan, Lipetsk, Moscow, Tomsk, and Tula Oblasts oblast
City with the jurisdictional territory город с подведомственной территорией Murmansk Oblast oblast
Closed administrative-territorial formation закрытое административно-территориальное образование Astrakhan, Kirov, Moscow, Murmansk, Orenburg, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, and Vladimir Oblasts oblast
Municipal formation with urban okrug status муниципальное образование со статусом городского округа Leningrad Oblast oblast
Okrug округ Tver Oblast oblast
Urban administrative okrug/city of oblast significance городской административный округ/город областного значения Bryansk Oblast oblast
Urban-type settlement of oblast significance посёлок городского типа областного значения Chelyabinsk and Kaliningrad Oblasts oblast
Urban-type settlement under oblast jurisdiction посёлок городского типа областного подчинения Kemerovo Oblast oblast
Urban okrug городской округ Amur, Rostov, Smolensk, and Voronezh Oblast oblast
City of okrug significance город окружного значения Chukotka, Khanty-Mansi, Nenets, and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs autonomous okrugs
City of oblast significance город областного значения Jewish Autonomous Oblast autonomous oblast

References

  1. ^ a b "Энциклопедический словарь конституционного права". Статья "Административно-территориальное устройство". Сост. А. А. Избранов. — Мн.: Изд. В.М. Суров, 2001.
  2. ^ The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject of Russia established on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, which is disputed between Russia and Ukraine
Belokurikha

Belokurikha (Russian: Белоку́риха) is a town and a balneological resort in the Altai region of Russia, located on the Bolshaya Belokurikha River 250 kilometers (160 mi) south of Barnaul, the administrative center of the krai. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 14,661.

City of oblast significance

City of oblast significance (or importance) is a type of an administrative division in some countries of the former Soviet Union.

in Russia; see city of federal subject significance

in Ukraine; see city of regional significance (Ukraine)

City of republic significance

City of republic significance (or importance) is a type of an administrative division in some countries of the former Soviet Union.

in Russia; see city of federal subject significance

in Ukraine; see administrative divisions of Ukraine

City status

City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality may receive city status because it already has the qualities of a city, or because it has some special purpose.

Historically, city status was a privilege granted by royal letters of patent. The status would allow markets and/or foreign trade, in contrast to towns. Sovereigns could establish cities by decree, e.g. Helsinki, regardless of what was in the location beforehand. Also, with the establishment of federal governments, the new capital could be established from scratch, e.g. Brasília, without going through organic growth from a village to a town.

British city status was historically conferred on settlements with a diocesan cathedral; in more recent times towns apply to receive city status at times of national celebration. In the United States city can be used for much smaller settlements.

The Government of China in 1982–1997 upgraded many counties to cities by decree, thereby increasing their city count from 250 to more than 650 during this period. Almost 15% of the counties in China became cities. The new "cities" may include large rural areas as well as urban areas. The upgrade was considered desirable by local governments because the new status provides additional powers of taxation and administration, the right to expand the size of government, and an increase in the proportion of land which could be converted from agriculture to buildings.

Simferopol

Simferopol (; Russian: Симферополь, IPA: [sʲɪmfʲɪˈropəlʲ]; Ukrainian: Сімферополь, pronounced [sʲimfɛˈrɔpɔlʲ]; Crimean Tatar: Aqmescit, Акъмесджит) is a city on the Crimean Peninsula which is, since the 2014 annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, the de facto capital city of the Republic of Crimea within the Russian Federation. De jure, it remains the capital city of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine. The status of Crimea is disputed between Russia and Ukraine as a result of the 2014 vote to join Russia, which was held during Russian military intervention, and the subsequent annexation. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serves as the administrative centre of both Simferopol Municipality and Simferopol District, though it does not belong to the district. Population: 332,317 (2014 Census).Archaeological evidence in Simferopol indicates the existence of an ancient Scythian city, collectively known as the Scythian Neapolis. The location was also home to a Crimean Tatar town, Aqmescit. After the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire, the city's name was changed to its present Simferopol.

Types of inhabited localities in Russia

The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.

Urban-type settlement

Urban-type settlement (Russian: посёлок городско́го ти́па, translit. posyolok gorodskogo tipa, abbreviated: Russian: п.г.т., translit. p.g.t.; Ukrainian: селище міського типу, translit. selyshche mis'koho typu, abbreviated: Ukrainian: с.м.т., translit. s.m.t.; Belarusian: пасёлак гарадскога тыпу, translit. pasiolak haradskoha typu; Polish: osiedle typu miejskiego; Bulgarian: селище от градски тип, translit. selishte ot gradski tip) is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement (or a former town), used in several Eastern European countries. The term was historically used in Bulgaria, Poland, and the Soviet Union, and remains in use today in 10 of the post-Soviet states.

This type of locality has been used in all 15 member republics of the former Soviet Union since 1922 when it replaced a number of terms which could have been translated by the English term "town" (Russia – posad, Ukraine – містечко, mistechko, Belarus – мястэчка, miastečka (the latter two are diminutives from місто and места, correspondingly, similarly to the Polish word: miasteczko, lit. 'small town' being derived from miasto) and others). It was introduced later in Poland (1954) and Bulgaria (1964). All the urban-type settlements in Poland were transformed into other types of settlement (town or village) in 1972, while in Bulgaria and five of the post-Soviet republics (namely Armenia, Moldova, and the three Baltic states) – in the early 1990s. Today this term is still used in the other nine post-Soviet republics – Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

What counts as an urban-type settlement differs between time periods and countries, and often between different divisions of a single country. However, the criteria generally focus on the presence of urban infrastructure or resort facilities for urban residents.

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