|Male Weigold's citrine wagtail (M. c. calcarata) in breeding plumage|
Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur
|Range of M. citreola Breeding Resident Non-breeding|
Budytes citreola (Pallas, 1776)
The term citrine refers to its yellowish colouration.
Its systematics, phylogeny and taxonomy are subject of considerable debate in the early 21st century. This is because this bird forms a cryptic species complex with the eastern (M. tschutschensis ) and western yellow wagtail (M. flava). Which of the many taxa in this group should properly refer to which population is unlikely to be resolved in the immediate future.
Motacilla is the Latin name for the pied wagtail; although actually a diminutive of motare, " to move about", from medieval times it led to the misunderstanding of cilla as "tail". The specific citreola is Latin for "lemon yellow".
It is a slender, 15.5–17 cm long bird, with the long, constantly wagging tail characteristic of the genus Motacilla. The adult male in breeding plumage is basically grey or black above, with white on the remiges, and bright yellow below and on the entire head except for the black nape. In winter plumage, its yellow underparts may be diluted by white, and the head is brownish with a yellowish supercilium. Females look generally like washed-out versions of males in winter plumage.
This species breeds in north central Asia in wet meadows and tundra. It migrates in winter to South Asia, often to highland areas. Its range is expanding westwards, and it is a rare but increasing vagrant to western Europe. Vagrants seem to extend the migration rather than straying en route; in Bhutan for example, though along one of the species' migration flyways, the citrine wagtail has been recorded as an extremely rare passer-by rather than staying even for a few days or weeks.
Media related to Motacilla citreola at Wikimedia Commons
Basai wetland, located in Basai village in Gurgaon tehsil in Gurgaon district in Haryana, India, is a flora and fauna rich water body. It is recognised as one of India's Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas and is of global conservation significance as it supports populations of several endangered, vulnerable, and threatened bird species. Basai wetlandis recognised globally as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by the BirdLife International housing 20,000 birds of over 280 species including migratory birds and endangered birds, has not yet been declared a protected wetland by the Government of Haryana.Citrine (colour)
Citrine is a colour, the most common reference for which is certain coloured varieties of quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as yellow, greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange.The original reference point for the citrine colour was the citron fruit. The first recorded use of citrine as a colour in English was in 1386. It was borrowed from a medieval Latin and classical Latin word with the same meaning. In late medieval and early modern English the citrine colour-name was applied in a wider variety of contexts than it is today and could be "reddish or brownish yellow; or orange; or amber (distinguished from yellow)".In today's English citrine as a colour is mostly confined to the contexts of (1) gemstones, including quartz, and (2) some animal and plant names. E.g., the citrine wagtail (Motacilla citreola), an Asian bird species with golden-yellow plumage, or the citrine warbler, citrine canary-flycatcher, citrine forktail, etc.Eastern yellow wagtail
The eastern yellow wagtail (Motacilla tschutschensis) is a small passerine in the wagtail family Motacillidae, which also includes the pipits and longclaws. It was often classified as a subspecies of the Western yellow wagtail.
This species breeds in temperate Asia and has a foothold in North America in Alaska. Populations migrate to south Asia and Australia.
Vagrant individuals occur around the winter quarters at migration time. For example, on Palau in Micronesia migrant flocks of this species – apparently of the Bering Sea yellow wagtail, and including many adult males – are regularly seen, while further north on the Marianas, only the occasional stray individual – usually females or immatures as it seems – is encountered.It is a slender 15–16 cm long bird, with the characteristic long, constantly wagging tail of its genus. The breeding adult male is basically olive above and yellow below. In other plumages, the yellow may be diluted by white. The heads of breeding males come in a variety of colours and patterns depending on subspecies.
The call is a characteristic high-pitched jeet.This insectivorous bird inhabits open country near water, such as wet meadows. It nests in tussocks, laying 4–8 speckled eggs.Levenhall Links
Levenhall Links is a coastal, industrial, and recreational area at Musselburgh, East Lothian, Scotland, UK; it is adjacent to Musselburgh Racecourse, Morrison's Haven and Prestongrange Industrial Heritage Museum. Its western boundary is the River Esk and its eastern is at Morrison's Haven.
Levenhall Links is 134 hectares of land reclaimed from the sea by building a sea wall and pumping large amounts of pulverised fuel ash into a number of ash lagoons. This infill site for fly ash from the coal fired Cockenzie Power Station has been partially restored and landscaped, shallow pools for wading birds have been created, and the area has become a popular site for birdwatchers, as well as an informal golf practice area. The Royal Musselburgh Golf Club originated at Levenhall Links before moving to Prestongrange House.List of birds of Bulgaria
This list of birds of Bulgaria includes all bird species which have been seen in the country. Birds marked with (W) are species which spend the winter in Bulgaria but do not breed there, birds marked with (V) are vagrant species and birds marked with (I) are introduced species. It includes 400 bird species from 21 orders, 63 families and 198 genera.
The varied natural habitat, relief and climate and relatively untouched environment are among the main reasons for the many bird species in the country. The numerous islands and wetlands along the Danube including the Persina Natural Park and Srebarna Nature Reserve, as well as the lakes and swamps along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, support many species of diving and aquatic birds such as ducks, swans, pelicans, grebes, spoonbills and many others. The eastern Rhodopes are among the strongholds of birds of prey in Europe, with most of the species in the continent nesting in that area. The mild climate in the extreme south offers good conditions for many Mediterranean birds as well as for wintering species from the north.List of birds of Christmas Island
The Birds of Christmas Island form a heterogeneous group of over 100 species. There is a core group of ten endemics that have evolved on the remote island in the eastern Indian Ocean for thousands of years, attended by a suite of regular migrants, opportunists and occasional visitors. Some 200 km from the nearest land, Java, Christmas Island was not occupied by humans until the late 19th century. It is now an Australian territory. The natural vegetation of most of the 140 km² island is rainforest, to which the endemic landbirds are adapted, while the seabirds have taken advantage of a breeding location which had no major natural predators.
After over a century of human exploitation of the phosphate deposits covering much of the island, two thirds of the rainforest cover remains and is now protected as a national park. However, gaps where the forest has been cleared, and the introduction of exotic fauna, continue to destabilise the island’s biological diversity. The endemic Abbott's booby is threatened when nesting by wind turbulence caused by past forest clearance. However, the biggest immediate threat is the introduction and spread of yellow crazy ants, through both direct predation and ecosystem collapse. This has led to all the island’s endemic bird species and subspecies being classified as Critically Endangered.
Meanwhile, the number of species recorded from Christmas Island continues to increase as birders, especially from Australia, attracted by the island’s endemics, record a variety of vagrants previously unnoticed. Some of these may in time, as with the white-breasted waterhen, establish breeding populations. Christmas Island is now seen as a birding ‘hot spot’, not only for its endemics but also for the chance of recording new species for the Australian bird list, something reflected in the frequency of submissions of sightings to the Birds Australia Rarities Committee.List of birds of Denmark
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Denmark. The avifauna of Denmark included a total of 474 species recorded in the wild by early 2018 according to Bird list of Denmark. Of these species, 183 are rare or accidental and six have been introduced by humans.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags are used by the Danish Ornithologcial Society (Dansk Onitologisk Forening, DOF) to highlight some categories of occurrence. Those without tags are in Category A and "have been recorded in an apparently wild state in Denmark since 1st January 1950" according to DOF.
(B) Category B - species which naturally occurred in Denmark prior to 1 January 1950 but have not been recorded since then
(C) Category C - species introduced by humans, directly or indirectly, and which have established feral breeding populations
(*) Rarity - species which require submission to the Danish Rarities Committee of DOF for the sighting to be included in the official record.List of birds of Greece
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.
(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.
(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.
(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.List of birds of Iceland
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Iceland. The avifauna of Iceland include a total of 378 confirmed species as of April 2016 according to the Icelandic Birding Pages (IBP). An additional 16 species had been recorded by eBird users by early 2019. Of the 394 species listed here, 313 are accidental. The entire populations of two species have resulted from introductions by humans, and a few other species have individuals of both natural and human-assisted origin. One species on the list is extinct.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence.
(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Iceland
(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Iceland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and has become establishedList of birds of Kyrgyzstan
376 bird species have occurred in the Kyrgyz Republic.List of birds of Tamil Nadu
This article lists the birds found in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Over 508 species of birds have been spotted in Tamil Nadu. The list also sometimes includes the local Tamil name in italics following the English common name.List of birds of the Netherlands
This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Netherlands. The avifauna of the Netherlands included a total of 534 species recorded in the wild by early 2018 according to Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World. Of these species, 238 are accidental, 16 have been introduced by humans, and one is extinct.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The (A) tags are from one or both of Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World, and (I) tags are from Bird Checklists of the World. The notes of population status such as "endangered" apply to the world population and are also from Bird Checklists of the World.
(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Netherlands
(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Netherlands as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actionsMangalajodi
Mangalajodi is an olden village under Tangi, Odisha block in Khordha district of Odisha at the northern edge of Chilika Lake. Scenic beauty of this village and its vast wetland attracts the visitors. In 2017 this village is declared and functioning as a separate Grama Panchayat (Mangalajodi Grama Panchayat)Mookaneri Lake
Mookaneri lake (Kanankuruchi Aeri) is a lake spread over 58 acres in Kannankurichi, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. It is located at the foot of the Shevaroy Hills, a major water body of the Salem city, source of Water for the Mookaneri Lake, has been from rainfall received in the Yercaud hill station. The rain water from the hills will reach the Puthu Yeri. The surplus water of Puthu Yeri reached Mookaneri Lake through the Kothukaran Odai.The lake has 47 (man-made) islands. Each island is about 10 feet high from the lake bed and sprawls on an area of a few thousand square feet. The lake islands are home to nearly 12000 trees. The island is created by removing the clay from the bottom of the lake using excavators and building a sort of a bund. Initially it is filled with millet saplings to arrest soil erosion. After a while, saplings of Neem, Banyan, jamun, peepal, and vetiver trees are planted.Motacillidae
The wagtails, longclaws and pipits are a family, Motacillidae, of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. There are around 65 species in 6 genera. The longclaws are entirely restricted to the Afrotropics, and the wagtails are predominantly found in Europe, Africa and Asia, with two species migrating and breeding in Alaska. The pipits have the most cosmopolitan distribution, being found across mostly in the Old World but occurring also in the Americas and oceanic islands such as New Zealand and the Falklands. Two African species, the yellow-breasted pipit and Sharpe's longclaw, are sometimes placed in a separate seventh genus, Hemimacronyx, which is closely related to the longclaws.Most motacillids are ground-feeding insectivores of slightly open country. They occupy almost all available habitats, from the shore to high mountains. Wagtails prefer wetter habitats to the pipits. A few species use forests, including the forest wagtail, and other species use forested mountain streams, such as the grey wagtail or the mountain wagtail.
Motacillids take a wide range of invertebrate prey, especially insects are the most commonly taken, but also including spiders, worms, and small aquatic molluscs and arthropods. All species seem to be fairly catholic in their diet, and the most commonly taken prey for any particular species or population usually reflects local availability.
With the exception of the forest wagtail, they nest on the ground, laying up to six speckled eggs.Ras Al Khor
Ras Al Khor (Arabic: رَأْس ٱلْخَوْر, romanized: Raʾs Al-Khawr) is a wetland reserve in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, renowned for attracting migratory birds in large numbers. The wetlands have large numbers of birds, crustaceans, small mammals and fish.Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary represents an enclave of relative wilderness amidst swirling traffic and sprawling urban infrastructure. Located just as the name in Arabic suggests - at the Cape of the Creek, it is among the few urban protected areas of the world.
The Dubai Municipality has taken great efforts to protect and preserve the biodiversity of this delicate ecosystem. The wetland has been fenced off from the public and three birding hides have been built. The bird hides are a first step towards development of more elaborate visitor education facilities in the protected area. WWF UAE Project Office collaborated with Dubai Municipality's Environment Department, in setting up the facilities that were sponsored by the National Bank of Dubai.
Opportunities for experiencing a natural environment in this rapidly building-up emirate are so limited that the opening of Ras Al Khor to visitors is a boon to present and potential nature lovers.
Presently there are three birding hides located on the perimeter of the sanctuary open to the public. Entrance is free and operate from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm Saturday to Thursday.
Ras Al Khor is also home to about 500 greater flamingoes (Phoenicopterus roseus), which has become something of a mascot for Dubai's Wild Life protection program.Sanjiangyuan
The Sanjiangyuan (Chinese: 三江源; literally: 'Source of Three Rivers'), is an area of the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai province, China which contains the headwaters of three great rivers of Asia: the Yellow, the Yangtze, and the Mekong. Parts of the area are protected as the Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve (SNNR), also called the Three Rivers Nature Reserve. The reserve consists of 18 subareas, each containing three zones which are managed with differing degrees of strictness.
Along with wetland and waters protection, other ecological values, such as grassland, forest, and wildlife enhancement, have also been presented as goals. To advance the goals of the SNNR uncontrolled or poorly managed mining, logging, hunting, and grazing have been curtailed. Foreign and other mining firms have replaced the uncontrolled miners, trees have been planted, and measures have been taken to protect endangered species. To protect the grasslands, pastoralists are not permitted to graze their animals in designated ‘core zones’ (see below), and grazing is supervised elsewhere in the SNNR. In addition, residents have been resettled from core zones and other grassland areas of the SNNR, and rangeland has been fenced and is in the process of being privatized throughout the Sanjiangyuan Area.Wagtail
The wagtails are a genus, Motacilla, of passerine birds in the family Motacillidae. The forest wagtail belongs to the monotypic genus Dendronanthus which is closely related to Motacilla and sometimes included herein. The common name and genus names are derived from their characteristic tail pumping behaviour. Together with the pipits and longclaws they form the family Motacillidae.
The willie wagtail (Rhipidura leucophrys) of Australia is an unrelated bird similar in coloration and shape to the Japanese wagtail. It belongs to the fantails.Western yellow wagtail
The western yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava) is a small passerine in the wagtail family Motacillidae, which also includes the pipits and longclaws.
This species breeds in much of temperate Europe and Asia. It is resident in the milder parts of its range, such as western Europe, but northern and eastern populations migrate to Africa and south Asia.
It is a slender 15–16 cm long bird, with the characteristic long, constantly wagging tail of its genus. It is the shortest tailed of the European wagtails. The breeding adult male is basically olive above and yellow below. In other plumages, the yellow may be diluted by white. The heads of breeding males come in a variety of colours and patterns depending on subspecies.
The call is a high-pitched jeet.This insectivorous bird inhabits open country near water, such as wet meadows. It nests in tussocks, laying 4–8 speckled eggs.