Citation index

A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. A form of citation index is first found in 12th-century Hebrew religious literature. Legal citation indexes are found in the 18th century and were made popular by citators such as Shepard's Citations (1873). In 1960, Eugene Garfield's Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, first the Science Citation Index (SCI), and later the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). The first automated citation indexing was done by CiteSeer in 1997. Other sources for such data include Google Scholar and Elsevier's Scopus.


The earliest known citation index is an index of biblical citations in rabbinic literature, the Mafteah ha-Derashot, attributed to Maimonides and probably dating to the 12th century. It is organized alphabetically by biblical phrase. Later biblical citation indexes are in the order of the canonical text. These citation indices were used both for general and for legal study. The Talmudic citation index En Mishpat (1714) even included a symbol to indicate whether a Talmudic decision had been overridden, just as in the 19th-century Shepard's Citations.[1][2] Unlike modern scholarly citation indexes, only references to one work, the Bible, were indexed.

In English legal literature, volumes of judicial reports included lists of cases cited in that volume starting with Raymond's Reports (1743) and followed by Douglas's Reports (1783). Simon Greenleaf (1821) published an alphabetical list of cases with notes on later decisions affecting the precedential authority of the original decision.[3]

The first true citation index dates to the 1860 publication of Labatt's Table of Cases...California..., followed in 1872 by Wait's Table of Cases...New York.... But the most important and best-known citation index came with the 1873 publication of Shepard's Citations.[3]

Major citation indexing services

General-purpose, subscription-based academic citation indexes include:

Each of these offer an index of citations between publications and a mechanism to establish which documents cite which other documents. They are not open-access and differ widely in cost: Web of Science and Scopus are available by subscription (generally to libraries).

In addition, CiteSeer and Google Scholar are freely available online.

Several open-access, subject-specific citation indexing services also exist, such as:

See also


  1. ^ Bella Hass Weinberg, "The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes" in Trudi Bellardo Hahn, Michael Keeble Buckland, eds., Historical Studies in Information Science, 1998, p. 51ff
  2. ^ Bella Hass Weinberg, "Predecessors of Scientific Indexing Structures in the Domain of Religion" in W. Boyden Rayward, Mary Ellen Bowden, The History and Heritage of Scientific and Technological Information Systems, Proceedings of the 2002 Conference, 2004, p. 126ff
  3. ^ a b Fred R. Shapiro, "Origins of Bibliometrics, Citation Indexing, and Citation Analysis: The Neglected Legal Literature" Journal of the American Society of Information Science 43:5:337-339 (1992)
Academic publishing in China

Today in China, there are more than 8,000 academic journals, of which more than 4,600 can be considered scientific. About 1,400 cover health science (medicine and public health).

Arts and Humanities Citation Index

The Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI), also known as Arts & Humanities Search, is a citation index, with abstracting and indexing for more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals, and coverage of disciplines that includes social and natural science journals. Part of this database is derived from Current Contents records. Furthermore, the print counterpart is Current Contents.

Subjects covered are the Arts, Humanities, Language (including Linguistics), Poetry, Music, Classical works, History, Oriental Studies, Philosophy, Archaeology, Architecture, Religion, Television, Theater, and Radio.

Available citation (source) coverage includes articles, letters, editorials, meeting abstracts, errata, poems, short stories, plays, music scores, excerpts from books, chronologies, bibliographies and filmographies, as well as citations to reviews of books, films, music, and theatrical performances.

This database can be accessed online through Web of Science. It provides access to current and retrospective bibliographic information and cited references. It also covers individually selected, relevant items from approximately 1,200 titles, mostly arts and humanities journals but with an unspecified number of titles from other disciplines.

According to Thomson Reuters, the Arts & Humanities Search, can be accessed via Dialog, DataStar, and OCLC, with weekly updates and backfiles to 1980.Scholar Rainer Enrique Hamel has criticized the Arts & Humanities Citation Index for its poor reflection of scientific production in languages other than English. Also while analyzing solely content in Spanish of 2006 Hamel found the absurd situation that in the index there were more Spanish-language publications from authors based in the United States than from any other Spanish-language country.

Book review

A book review is a form of literary criticism in which a book is merely described (summary review) or analyzed based on content, style, and merit.

A book review may be a primary source, opinion piece, summary review or scholarly review. Books can be reviewed for printed periodicals, magazines and newspapers, as school work, or for book web sites on the Internet. A book review's length may vary from a single paragraph to a substantial essay. Such a review may evaluate the book on the basis of personal taste. Reviewers may use the occasion of a book review for an extended essay that can be closely or loosely related to the subject of the book, or to promulgate their own ideas on the topic of a fiction or non-fiction work.

There are a number of journals devoted to book reviews, and reviews are indexed in databases such as Book Review Index and Kirkus Reviews; but many more book reviews can be found in newspaper databases as well as scholarly databases such as Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index and discipline-specific databases.

Clarivate Analytics

Clarivate Analytics is a company that owns and operates a collection of subscription-based services focused largely on analytics, including scientific and academic research, patent analytics, regulatory standards, trademark protection, pharmaceutical and biotechnology intelligence, domain brand protection and intellectual property management. The services include Web of Science, Cortellis, Derwent Innovation, Derwent World Patents Index, CompuMark, MarkMonitor, Techstreet, Publons, EndNote and Kopernio.Clarivate Analytics was formerly the "Intellectual Property and Science" business of Thomson Reuters. In 2016 Thomson Reuters struck a $3.55 billion dollar deal in which they spun it off into an independent company and sold it to private-equity firms Onex Corporation and Baring Private Equity Asia.In May 2018, Clarivate Analytics launched Arabic citation index worldwide.Churchill Capital has agreed to merge with Clarivate. The combined company will operate as Clarivate and will be listed on the New York Stock Exchange.


Crustaceana is a peer-reviewed scientific journal specialising in carcinology. It was established in 1960 and is published monthly by Brill Publishers. The journal is abstracted and indexed by BIOSIS Previews, the Science Citation Index, The Zoological Record, and GeoRef. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2011 impact factor of 0.464.The journal is edited by J.C. von Vaupel Klein. It charges an unspecified publication fee from authors of all regular papers, and an optional open access fee of USD 1830.


Discrete in science is the opposite of continuous: something that is separate; distinct; individual.

Discrete may refer to:

Discrete particle or quantum in physics, for example in quantum theory

Discrete device, an electronic component with just one circuit element, either passive or active, other than an integrated circuit

Discrete group, a group with the discrete topology

Discrete category, category whose only arrows are identity arrows

Discrete mathematics, the study of structures without continuity

Discrete optimization, a branch of optimization in applied mathematics and computer science

Discrete probability distribution, a random variable that can be counted

Discrete signal, a time series consisting of a sequence of quantities

Discrete space, a simple example of a topological space

Discrete spline interpolation, the discrete analog of ordinary spline interpolation

Discrete time, non-continuous time, which results in discrete-time samples

Discrete pitch, a pitch with a steady frequency, rather than an indiscrete gliding, glissando or portamento, pitch

Emerging Sources Citation Index

The Emerging Sources Citation Index is a citation index produced since 2015 by Thomson Reuters, and now by Clarivate Analytics. According to the publisher, the index includes "peer-reviewed publications of regional importance and in emerging scientific fields". It has been observed that among the databases produced by Clarivate Analytics, the Emerging Sources Citation Index is the easiest one to get into and that as a result it contains many predatory journals.Together with Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Arts and Humanities Citation Index, the Emerging Sources Citation Index is accessible through the Web of Science.

Evolutionary Psychology (journal)

Evolutionary Psychology is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal published since 2003. It covers empirical, philosophical, historical, and socio-political aspects of evolutionary psychology. Its editors-in-chief are Todd K. Shackelford (Oakland University), Bernhard Fink (University of Göttingen), David A. Puts (Pennsylvania State University), and Rebecca Sear (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). In 2015 the journal moved to Sage Publications.The journal is abstracted and indexed in Social Sciences Citation Index, and Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences.

Israel Exploration Journal

The Israel Exploration Journal is a biannual academic journal which has been published by the Israel Exploration Society since 1950. It primarily covers research in archaeology, but also history and geography relating to Israel and the surrounding areas. The editors-in-chief are Shmuel Ahituv, Amihai Mazar, and Z. Weiss. The journal is abstracted and indexed in the Arts & Humanities Citation Index and Current Contents/Arts & Humanities.

Journal Citation Reports

Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is an annual publication by Clarivate Analytics (previously the intellectual property of Thomson Reuters). It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collections. It provides information about academic journals in the natural sciences and social sciences, including impact factors. The JCR was originally published as a part of Science Citation Index. Currently, the JCR, as a distinct service, is based on citations compiled from the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Science Citation Index.

List of academic databases and search engines

This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, institutional repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles.

As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:

the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes

the article about bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the

database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below.

Manuel Castells

Manuel Castells Oliván (Spanish: [kasˈtels], Catalan: [kəsˈteʎs]; born 9 February 1942) is a Spanish sociologist especially associated with research on the information society, communication and globalization.

The 2000–2014 research survey of the Social Sciences Citation Index ranks him as the world's fifth most-cited social science scholar, and the foremost-cited communication scholar.He was awarded the 2012 Holberg Prize, for having "shaped our understanding of the political dynamics of urban and global economies in the network society." In 2013 he was awarded the Balzan Prize for Sociology.

Materials Science Citation Index

The Materials Science Citation Index is a citation index, established in 1992, by Thomson ISI (Thomson Reuters). Its overall focus is cited reference searching of the notable and significant journal literature in materials science. The database makes accessible the various properties, behaviors, and materials in the materials science discipline. This then encompasses applied physics, ceramics, composite materials, metals and metallurgy, polymer engineering, semiconductors, thin films, biomaterials, dental technology, as well as optics. The database indexes relevant materials science information from over 6,000 scientific journals that are part of the ISI database which is multidisciplinary. Author abstracts are searchable, which links articles sharing one or more bibliographic references. The database also allows a researcher to use an appropriate (or related to research) article as a base to search forward in time to discover more recently published articles that cite it.Materials Science Citation Index lists 625 high impact journals, and is accessible via the Science Citation Index Expanded collection of databases.

Nova Science Publishers

Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York. It was founded in 1985 in New York by Frank Columbus, former senior editor of Plenum Publishing, whose wife, Nadya Columbus, took over upon his death in 2010. While the firm publishes works in several fields of academia, most of its publications cover the fields of science, social science, and medicine. As of February 2018, it listed 100 currently published journals.

In 2018 NOVA was ranked on the 13th place global main publishers of political sciences during the last 5 years.

Nova Science Publishers is included in the Book Citation Index.

In terms of number of books published from 2005 to 2012, Nova ranked 4th. They ranked in the top three in 8 of 14 scientific fields (engineering, clinical medicine, human biology, animal and plant biology, geosciences, social science medicine, health, chemistry, physics, and astronomy), and ranked as the 5th most prolific book publisher from 2009-2013, ranking 3rd in Engineering and Technology and 2nd in Science by numbers of books published. They were also ranked as the 6th most productive publisher, according to a University of Granada study. However, Nova had the lowest citation impact among the five most prolific publishers in both fields.

Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier. It covers applied topics pertaining to autism spectrum disorders. The founding editor-in-chief was Johnny Matson (Louisiana State University), who was succeeded by Sebastian Gaigg (City University London) in 2015. The journal is abstracted and indexed in the Social Sciences Citation Index and Current Contents/Social & Behavioral Sciences. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2012 impact factor of 2.907.


SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) is a bibliographic database, digital library, and cooperative electronic publishing model of open access journals. SciELO was created to meet the scientific communication needs of developing countries and provides an efficient way to increase visibility and access to scientific literature Originally established in Brazil in 1997, today there are 14 countries in the SciELO network and its journal collections: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Paraguay is developing a journal collection.SciELO was initially supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), along with the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME). SciELO provides a portal that integrates and provides access to all of the SciELO network sites. Users can search across all SciELO collections or limit by a single country collection, or browse by subject area, publisher, or journal title.

Science Citation Index

The Science Citation Index (SCI) is a citation index originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and created by Eugene Garfield. It was officially launched in 1964. It is now owned by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters). The larger version (Science Citation Index Expanded) covers more than 8,500 notable and significant journals, across 150 disciplines, from 1900 to the present. These are alternatively described as the world's leading journals of science and technology, because of a rigorous selection process.The index is made available online through different platforms, such as the Web of Science and SciSearch. (There are also CD and printed editions, covering a smaller number of journals). This database allows a researcher to identify which later articles have cited any particular earlier article, or have cited the articles of any particular author, or have been cited most frequently. Thomson Reuters also markets several subsets of this database, termed "Specialty Citation Indexes", such as the Neuroscience Citation Index and the Chemistry Citation Index.

Social Sciences Citation Index

The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is a commercial citation index product of Clarivate Analytics. It was originally developed by the Institute for Scientific Information from the Science Citation Index.

Web of Science

Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), later maintained by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters), that provides a comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific discipline.

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