Citadel

A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle, fortress, or fortified center. The term is a diminutive of "city" and thus means "little city", so called because it is a smaller part of the city of which it is the defensive core. Ancient Sparta had a citadel as did many other Greek cities and towns.

In a fortification with bastions, the citadel is the strongest part of the system, sometimes well inside the outer walls and bastions, but often forming part of the outer wall for the sake of economy. It is positioned to be the last line of defense, should the enemy breach the other components of the fortification system. A citadel is also a term of the third part of a medieval castle, with higher walls than the rest. It was to be the last line of defense before the keep.

Casale Monferrato map (018 003)
In this seventeenth-century plan of the fortified city of Casale Monferrato the citadel is the large star-shaped structure on the left.

History

3300–1300 BCE

Some of the oldest known structures which have served as citadels were built by the Indus Valley Civilisation, where the citadel represented a centralised authority. The main citadel in Indus Valley was almost 12 meters tall.[1] The purpose of these structures, however, remains debated. Though the structures found in the ruins of Mohenjo-daro were walled, it is far from clear that these structures were defensive against enemy attacks. Rather, they may have been built to divert flood waters.

Several settlements in Anatolia, including the Assyrian city of Kaneš in modern-day Kültepe, featured citadels. Kaneš' citadel contained the city's palace, temples, and official buildings.[2] The citadel of the Greek city of Mycenae was built atop a highly-defensible rectangular hill and was later surrounded by walls in order to increase its defensive capabilities.[3]

800 BCE–600

Bibracte Porte Rebout
Reconstruction of the redoubt of Bibracte, a part of the Gaulish oppidum. The Celts utilized these fortified cities in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC.

In Ancient Greece, the Acropolis (literally: "high city"), placed on a commanding eminence, was important in the life of the people, serving as a refuge and stronghold in peril and containing military and food supplies, the shrine of the god and a royal palace. The most well-known is the Acropolis of Athens, but nearly every Greek city-state had one – the Acrocorinth famed as a particularly strong fortress. In a much later period, when Greece was ruled by the Latin Empire, the same strong points were used by the new feudal rulers for much the same purpose.

In the first millennium BCE, the Castro culture emerged in Northernwestern Portugal and Spain in the region extending from the Douro river up to the Minho, but soon expanding north along the coast, and east following the river valleys. It was an autochthonous evolution of Atlantic Bronze Age communities. In 2008, the origins of the Celts were attributed to this period by John T. Koch[4] and supported by Barry Cunliffe.[5] The Ave River Valley in Portugal was the core region of this culture,[6] with a large number of small settlements (the castros), but also settlements known as citadels or oppida by the Roman conquerors. These had several rings of walls and the Roman conquest of the citadels of Abobriga, Lambriaca and Cinania around 138 B.C. was possible only by prolonged siege.[7] Ruins of notable citadels still exist, and are known by archaeologists as Citânia de Briteiros, Citânia de Sanfins, Cividade de Terroso and Cividade de Bagunte.[6]

167–160 BCE

Rebels who took power in the city but with the citadel still held by the former rulers could by no means regard their tenure of power as secure. One such incident played an important part in the history of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire. The Hellenistic garrison of Jerusalem and local supporters of the Seleucids held out for many years in the Acra citadel, making Maccabean rule in the rest of Jerusalem precarious. When finally gaining possession of the place, the Maccabeans pointedly destroyed and razed the Acra, though they constructed another citadel for their own use in a different part of Jerusalem.

500–1600

Siége de la flotte turc
Although much of Nice was ransacked during the 1543 siege of the city, Franco-Ottoman forces besieging Nice were unable to capture its Citadel. Citadels have often been used as a last defence for a besieged army.

At various periods, and particularly during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the citadel – having its own fortifications, independent of the city walls – was the last defence of a besieged army, often held after the town had been conquered. Locals and defending armies have often held out citadels long after the city had fallen. For example, in the 1543 Siege of Nice the Ottoman forces led by Barbarossa conquered and pillaged the town and took many captives – but the citadel held out.

In the Philippines The Ivatan people of the northern islands of Batanes often built fortifications to protect themselves during times of war. They built their so-called idjangs on hills and elevated areas.These fortifications were likened to European castles because of their purpose. Usually, the only entrance to the castles would be via a rope ladder that would only be lowered for the villagers and could be kept away when invaders arrived.[8]

1600–present

In time of war the citadel in many cases afforded retreat to the people living in the areas around the town. However, Citadels were often used also to protect a garrison or political power from the inhabitants of the town where it was located, being designed to ensure loyalty from the town that they defended.

Battle-1t
Americans assault the citadel during the Battle of Huế, 1968. The battle showcased the effectiveness of citadels in modern warfare.

For example, during the Dutch Wars of 1664-67, King Charles II of England constructed a Royal Citadel at Plymouth, an important channel port which needed to be defended from a possible naval attack. However, due to Plymouth's support for the Parliamentarians in the then-recent English Civil War, the Plymouth Citadel was so designed that its guns could fire on the town as well as on the sea approaches.

Barcelona had a great citadel built in 1714 to intimidate the Catalans against repeating their mid-17th- and early-18th-century rebellions against the Spanish central government. In the 19th century, when the political climate had liberalized enough to permit it, the people of Barcelona had the citadel torn down, and replaced it with the city's main central park, the Parc de la Ciutadella. A similar example is the Citadella in Budapest, Hungary.

The attack on the Bastille in the French Revolution – though afterwards remembered mainly for the release of the handful of prisoners incarcerated there – was to considerable degree motivated by the structure's being a Royal citadel in the midst of revolutionary Paris.

Similarly, after Garibaldi's overthrow of Bourbon rule in Palermo, during the 1860 Unification of Italy, Palermo's Castellamare Citadel – symbol of the hated and oppressive former rule – was ceremoniously demolished.

Following Belgium declaring independence in 1830, a Dutch garrison under General David Hendrik Chassé held out in Antwerp Citadel between 1830 and 1832, while the city had already become part of the independent Belgium.

The Siege of the Alcázar in the Spanish Civil War, in which the Nationalists held out against a much larger Republican force for two months until relieved, shows that in some cases a citadel can be effective even in modern warfare; a similar case is the Battle of Huế during the Vietnam war, where a North Vietnamese Army division held the citadel of Huế for 26 days against roughly their own numbers of much better-equipped US and South Vietnamese troops.

Modern usage

Royal 22e Régiment - panoramio
The Royal 22nd Regiment's home garrison is the Citadelle of Quebec in Canada. The citadel is the largest still in military operation in North America.

The Citadelle of Québec (construction started 1673, completed 1820) still survives as the largest citadel still in official military operation in North America. It is home to the Royal 22nd Regiment of the Canadian Army;[9] and forms part of the Ramparts of Quebec City dating back to 1620s.[10]

Since the mid 20th century, citadels commonly enclose military command and control centres, rather than cities or strategic points of defense on the boundaries of a country. These modern citadels are built to protect the command center from heavy attacks, such as aerial or nuclear bombardment. The military citadels under London in the UK, including the massive underground complex Pindar beneath the Ministry of Defence, are examples, as is the Cheyenne Mountain nuclear bunker in the US.

Naval term

On armored warships, the heavily armored section of the ship that protects the ammunition and machinery spaces is called the armored citadel.

A modern naval interpretation refers to the heaviest protected part of the hull as "The Vitals", and the citadel refers to the semi armoured freeboard above the vitals. Generally Anglo-American and German language follow this while Russian sources/language refer to "The Vitals" as "zitadel". Likewise Russian literature often refers to 'the turret' of a tank as 'the tower'.

The safe room on a ship is also called a citadel.

List of citadels

See also

References

  1. ^ Thapar, B. K. (1975). "Kalibangan: A Harappan Metropolis Beyond the Indus Valley". Expedition. 17 (2): 19–32.
  2. ^ Michel, Cecile (2016). Sharon R. Steadman, Gregory McMahon (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE). Oxford. p. 313-320. ISBN 9780199336012.
  3. ^ Thomas, Carol G.; Conant, Craig. Citadel to City-State: The Transformation of Greece, 1200-700 B.C.E. Indiana University Press. p. 2-10. ISBN 9780253216021.
  4. ^ Koch, John (2009). Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn of History in Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica 9 (2009) (PDF). Palaeohispanica. pp. 339–351. ISSN 1578-5386. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
  5. ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2008). A Race Apart: Insularity and Connectivity in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 75, 2009, pp. 55–64. The Prehistoric Society. p. 61.
  6. ^ a b Armando Coelho Ferreira da Silva A Cultura Castreja no Noroeste de Portugal Museu Arqueológico da Citânia de Sanfins, 1986
  7. ^ Don José de Santiago y Gómez (1896). Historia de Vigo y Su comarca. Imprenta y Lotografía Del Asilo De Huérfanos Del Sagrado Corázon de Jesús.
  8. ^ "15 Most Intense Archaeological Discoveries in Philippine History". Filipknow.
  9. ^ "Musée Royal 22e Régiment - La Citadelle". Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  10. ^ "Canada's Historic Places - HistoricPlaces.ca". Retrieved 28 February 2014.

External links

  • Media related to Citadels at Wikimedia Commons
1961 The Citadel Bulldogs football team

The 1961 The Citadel Bulldogs football team represented The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina in the 1961 NCAA football season. The Bulldogs were led by fifth year head coach Eddie Teague and played their home games at Johnson Hagood Stadium. They played as members of the Southern Conference, as they have since 1936. In 1961, The Citadel won its first Southern Conference championship.

After the season, the Bulldogs declined two bowl invitations. The first to be offered was the Tangerine Bowl. The Citadel had appeared in the previous edition of this small-college bowl in 1960 and elected to decline the repeat trip. Later, the Bulldogs declined an invitation to the Aviation Bowl.

Cairo Citadel

The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (Arabic: قلعة صلاح الدين‎ Qalaʿat Salāḥ ad-Dīn) is a medieval Islamic fortification in Cairo, Egypt. The location, on Mokattam hill near the center of Cairo, was once famous for its fresh breeze and grand views of the city. It is now a preserved historic site, with mosques and museums. In 1976, it was proclaimed by UNESCO as a part of the World Heritage Site Historic Cairo (Islamic Cairo) which was "the new centre of the Islamic world, reaching its golden age in the 14th century."

Carlisle railway station

Carlisle railway station, or Carlisle Citadel, is a Grade II* listed railway station serving the city of Carlisle, Cumbria, England. It is on the West Coast Main Line, 102 miles (164 km) south east of Glasgow Central, and 299 miles (481 km) north north west of London Euston. It is the northern terminus of the Settle and Carlisle Line, a continuation of the Midland Main Line from Leeds, Sheffield and London St Pancras.

In September 1847, the first services departed the station, even though construction was not completed until the following year. It was built in a neo-Tudor style to the designs of English architect William Tite. Carlisle Station was one of a number of stations in the city, the others were Crown Street and London Road, but it was the dominant station by 1851. The other stations had their passenger services redirected to it and were closed. Between 1875 and 1876, the station was expanded to accommodate the lines of the Midland Railway which was the seventh railway company to use it.

The Beeching cuts of the 1960s affected Carlisle, particularly the closure of the former North British Railway lines to Silloth, on 7 September 1964, and the Waverley Line to Edinburgh via Galashiels on 6 January 1969. The closure programme claimed neighbouring lines, including the Castle Douglas and Dumfries Railway and Portpatrick Railway (the "Port Road") in 1965, resulting in a significant mileage increase via the Glasgow South Western Line & Ayr to reach Stranraer Harbour, and ferries to Northern Ireland. The station layout has undergone few changes other than the singling of the ex-NER Tyne Valley route to London Road Junction in the 1972–73 re-signalling scheme, which was associated with the electrification of the West Coast Main Line (WCML). Renovations to the platforms and glass roof were performed between 2015 and 2018.

Citadel Broadcasting

Citadel Broadcasting Corporation was a Las Vegas, Nevada-based broadcast holding company. Citadel owned 243 radio stations across the United States and was the third-largest radio station owner in the country. Only iHeartMedia and Cumulus Media owned more stations prior to Citadel's merger with Cumulus.

On March 10, 2011, Cumulus Media announced that it would purchase Citadel Broadcasting. After receiving conditional regulatory approval from the Department of Justice and the Federal Communications Commission, the deal was approved by Citadel shareholders on September 15, 2011. The merger of the two companies closed on September 16, 2011, and Citadel was immediately absorbed into Cumulus Media.

Citadel Hill (Fort George)

Citadel Hill is a hill that is a National Historic Site in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Four fortifications have been constructed on Citadel Hill since 1749, and were referred to as Fort George—but only the third fort (built between 1794 and 1800) was officially named Fort George. General Orders of October 20, 1798, ordered it named after Prince Edward's father, King George III. The first two and the fourth and current fort, were officially called the Halifax Citadel. The last is a concrete star fort.

The Citadel is the fortified summit of Citadel Hill. The hill was first fortified in 1749, the year that the English founded the town of Halifax. Those fortifications were successively rebuilt to defend the town from various enemies. Construction and leveling have lowered the summit by ten to twelve metres. While never attacked, the Citadel was long the keystone to defence of the strategically important Halifax Harbour and its Royal Navy Dockyard.

Today, Parks Canada operates the site as the Halifax Citadel National Historic Site of Canada and has restored the fort to its appearance when built in the Victorian era.

Citadel of Damascus

The Citadel of Damascus (Arabic: قلعة دمشق‎, romanized: Qalʿat Dimašq) is a large medieval fortified palace and citadel in Damascus, Syria. It is part of the Ancient City of Damascus, which was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.

The location of the current citadel was first fortified in 1076 by the Turkman warlord Atsiz bin Uvak, although it is possible but not proven that a citadel stood on this place in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. After the assassination of Atsiz bin Uvak, the project was finished by the Seljuq ruler Tutush I. The emirs of the subsequent Burid and Zengid dynasties carried out modifications and added new structures to it. During this period, the citadel and the city were besieged several times by Crusader and Muslim armies. In 1174, the citadel was captured by Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, who made it his residence and had the defences and residential buildings modified.

Saladin's brother Al-Adil rebuilt the citadel completely between 1203 and 1216 in response to the development of the counterweight trebuchet. After his death, power struggles broke out between the other Ayyubid princes and although Damascus switched hands several times, the citadel was taken by force only once, in 1239. The citadel remained in Ayyubid hands until the Mongols under their general Kitbuqa captured Damascus in 1260, thereby ending Ayyubid rule in Syria. After an unsuccessful revolt broke out in the citadel, the Mongols had most of it dismantled. After the defeat of the Mongols in 1260 by the Mamluks, who had succeeded the Ayyubids as rulers of Egypt, Damascus came under Mamluk rule. Except for brief periods in 1300 and 1401, when the Mongols conquered Damascus, the Mamluks controlled the citadel until 1516. In that year, Syria fell into the hands of the Ottoman Empire. Damascus surrendered without a fight and from the 17th century onward the citadel functioned as barracks for the Jannisaries—Ottoman infantry units. The citadel started to fall into disrepair in the 19th century and its last military use was in 1925, when French soldiers shelled the old city from the citadel in response to the Great Syrian Revolt against the French Mandate of Syria. The citadel continued to serve as a barracks and prison until 1986, when excavations and restorations started. As of 2011, excavation and restoration efforts are still ongoing.

The citadel is located in the northwest corner of the city walls, between the Bab al-Faradis and the Bab al-Jabiyah. The citadel consists of a more or less rectangular curtain wall enclosing an area of 230 by 150 metres (750 by 490 ft). The walls were originally protected by 14 massive towers, but today only 12 remain. The citadel has gates on its northern, western and eastern flanks. The current citadel dates primarily to the Ayyubid period while incorporating parts of the older Seljuq fortress. Extensive repairs in response to sieges and earthquakes were carried out in the Mamluk and Ottoman periods.

Cumulus Media Networks

Cumulus Media Networks was an American radio network owned and operated by Cumulus Media. From 2011 until its merger with Westwood One, it controlled many of the radio assets formerly belonging to the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), which was broken up in 2007; Cumulus owned the portion of the network that was purchased by Citadel Broadcasting that year.

The network adopted its final name in September 2011, following Cumulus's acquisition of Citadel; prior to this, it had been known as Citadel Media Networks since April 2009, after licensing the "ABC Radio Networks" name from The Walt Disney Company for nearly two years. ABC now operates a revived ABC Radio Network that owns no stations but produces mostly short-form audio content.

It was also (as ABC Radio Networks) the penultimate of the major radio networks to still be owned by its original founding company until 2007, CBS Radio being the last. Mutual Broadcasting Network was dissolved in 1999, and then NBC Radio Network, after selling all of its stations in 1988, followed suit in 2004.

Prominent hosts carried by Cumulus Media Networks included Don Imus, Geraldo Rivera, Mike Huckabee, Mark Levin, Michael Savage, Jim Brickman, Adam Bomb, Kix Brooks (American Country Countdown), and Tom Kent.

Erbil

Erbil, also spelled Arbil (Kurdish: ھەولێر / Hewlêr‎), locally called Hewlêr by the Kurds, is the capital city of Iraqi Kurdistan and the most populated city in the Kurdish inhabited areas of Iraq. It is located approximately in the center of Iraqi Kurdistan region and north of Iraq. It has about 850,000 inhabitants, and Erbil governorate has a permanent population of 2,009,367 as of 2015.Human settlement at Erbil can be dated back to possibly 5th millennium BC, and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited areas in the world. At the heart of the city is the ancient Citadel of Erbil. The earliest historical reference to the region dates to the Third Dynasty of Ur of Sumer, when King Shulgi mentioned the city of Urbilum. The city was later conquered by the Assyrians.Erbil became an integral part of the kingdom of Assyria by at least the 21st century BC through to the end of the seventh century BC, after it was captured by the Gutians, and it was known in Assyrian annals variously as Urbilim, Arbela and Arba-ilu. After this it was part of the geopolitical province of Assyria under several empires in turn, including the Median Empire, the Achaemenid Empire (Achaemenid Assyria), Macedonian Empire, Seleucid Empire, Parthian Empire, Roman Assyria and Sasanian Empire (Asōristān), as well as being the capital of the tributary state of Adiabene between the mid-second century BC and early second century AD.

Following the Muslim conquest of Persia, it no longer remained a unitary region, and during the Middle Ages, the city came to be ruled by the Seljuk and Ottoman empires.Erbil's archaeological museum houses a large collection of pre-Islamic artefacts, particularly the art of Mesopotamia, and is a center for archaeological projects in the area. The city was designated as Arab Tourism Capital 2014 by the Arab Council of Tourism. In July 2014, the Citadel of Arbil was inscribed as a World Heritage site.

The city has an ethnically diverse population of Kurds (the majority ethnic group), Armenians, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Syriacs, , Kurdish Yezidis, Shabakis and Mandaeans. It is equally religiously diverse, with believers of Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity (mainly followed by Chaldeans and Armenians), Yezidism, Yarsanism, Shabakism and Mandaeism extant in and around Erbil.

Games Workshop

Games Workshop Group PLC (often abbreviated as GW) is a British miniature wargaming manufacturing company based in Nottingham, England. Games Workshop is best known as developer and publisher of the tabletop wargames Warhammer Age of Sigmar (previously Warhammer Fantasy Battle), Warhammer 40,000, The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game and The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game (now sold as The Middle Earth Strategy Battle Game). It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

KNEK-FM

KNEK-FM (104.7 FM, "Magic 104.7") is a radio station playing an Urban AC format in the Lafayette area. It broadcasts under ownership of Cumulus Media. Its studios are located on Galbert Road in Lafayette, and its transmitter is located south of Opelousas, Louisiana.

The station used to be owned by Citadel Broadcasting. In 2007, Citadel transferred 11 of its radio stations (including KNEK-FM) to The Last Bastion Station Trust, LLC upon merger of many ABC Radio stations. However, in January 2008, Last Bastion Station Trust transferred KNEK-FM back to Citadel Broadcasting, effectively placing it back into the Lafayette cluster. In exchange for KNEK-FM, the trust received KRDJ. Citadel merged with Cumulus Media on September 16, 2011.

Kasbah

A kasbah (; Arabic: قَـصْـبَـة‎, romanized: qaṣbah, "central part of a town or citadel"; also known as qasaba, gasaba and quasabeh, in older English casbah or qasbah, in India qassabah and in Spanish alcazaba is a type of medina or fortress (citadel). The meaning of the word kasbah is varied, including keep, old city and watchtower or blockhouse.

Kensington Books

Kensington Publishing Corp. is a New York-based publishing house founded in 1974 by Walter Zacharius (1923–2011) and Roberta Bender Grossman (1946–1992). Kensington is known as “America’s Independent Publisher.” It remains a multi-generational family business, with Steven Zacharius succeeding his father as President and CEO, and Adam Zacharius as General Manager.

It is the house of many New York Times bestselling authors, including Fern Michaels, Lisa Jackson, Joanne Fluke and William W. Johnstone. In addition to the over 500 new titles that the company publishes each year, it has a vast and diverse backlist that includes classics such as The Minority Report by Philip K. Dick, Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton Trumbo, I Hope They Serve Beer in Hell by Tucker Max and Being and Nothingness by Jean-Paul Sartre.

Kensington's imprints include Zebra Books, Pinnacle Books, Dafina, Citadel Press, and Lyrical Press, which provide readers with a range of popular genres such as romance, women’s fiction, African American, young adult and nonfiction, as well as true-crime, western, and mystery titles.

Mass Effect

Mass Effect is a science fiction action role-playing third-person shooter video game series developed by the Canadian company BioWare and released for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Microsoft Windows, with the third installment also released on the Wii U. The fourth game was released on Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One in March 2017.

The original trilogy largely revolves around a soldier named Commander Shepard, whose mission is to save the galaxy from a race of powerful mechanical beings known as the Reapers and their agents, including the first game's antagonist Saren Arterius. The first game, released in 2007, sees Shepard investigating Saren, whom Shepard slowly comes to understand is operating under the guidance of Sovereign, a Reaper left behind in the Milky Way 50,000 years before, when the Reapers exterminated all sentient organic life determined to have met or exceeded a threshold of technological advancement in the galaxy as part of a recurrent cycle of genocide for an unknown purpose. Sovereign's purpose is to trigger the imminent return of the Reaper fleet hibernating in extra-galactic dark space, restarting the process of extermination. The second game takes place two years later, and sees Shepard battling the Collectors, an alien race abducting entire human colonies in a plan to help the Reapers return to the Milky Way. The final game of Shepard's trilogy centres on the war being waged against the Reapers.

The fourth installment takes place in the Andromeda Galaxy and features a new cast of characters.All of the first three major installments of the Mass Effect series have been met with commercial success as well as universal acclaim. The series is highly regarded for its narrative, character development, voice acting, the universe, and emphasis on player choice affecting the experience.

Military Classic of the South

The Military Classic of the South is an American college football rivalry game played between The Citadel and the Virginia Military Institute. The first game between the two military schools was in 1920. The game has been played nearly continuously since World War II; since then, only five seasons have seen the game not played.

As of 2018, The Citadel had won the game 12 times in a row. The 74th and most recent game of the series saw The Citadel defeat VMI 34–32 at Alumni Memorial Field in Lexington, Virginia.

The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina

The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, commonly referred to simply as The Citadel, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina, United States. Established in 1842, it is one of six United States senior military colleges. It has 18 academic departments divided into five schools offering 29 majors and 38 minors. The military program is made up of cadets pursuing bachelor's degrees who live on campus. The non-military programs offer 10 undergraduate degrees, 24 graduate degrees, as well as online/distance programs with 7 online graduate degrees, 3 online undergraduate degrees and 3 certificate programs.The South Carolina Corps of Cadets numbers 2,350 and (along with the Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets) is one of the largest uniformed bodies in the U.S., while approximately 1,200 non-cadet students are enrolled in the evening Citadel Graduate College pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees. Women comprise 9% of the Corps and 22% of the overall enrollment while minorities comprise 15% of the Corps and 23% of the total enrollment. Approximately half of The Citadel's cadet enrollment is from the state of South Carolina; cadets come from 45 states and 23 foreign countries. South Carolina residents receive a discount in tuition, as is common at state-sponsored schools. The Citadel receives 8% of its operating budget from the state. In 2019, the school's ROTC program commissioned 186 officers.The Corps of Cadets combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline; all members are required to participate in ROTC. The academic program is divided into five schools – Engineering, Science and Mathematics, Humanities and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Education; Bachelor's degrees are offered in 29 major programs of study with 38 minors. The Citadel Graduate College offers 26 master's degrees with 41 different concentrations, 25 graduate certificates and 2 educational specialist courses; a 2+2 evening program also allows students with Associate Degrees from select state community colleges to pursue their Bachelors degree in 8 subjects. 94% of the faculty hold doctoral degrees and the majority are full-time professors; the ratio of cadets to faculty is 12:1 and the average class size is 20. While all programs make use of the Citadel campus and professors, only cadets live on campus. The veterans program, reinstated in the fall of 2007, allows veterans to attend classes with cadets and complete their degrees if certain criteria are met. Enlisted members from the Marine Corps and Navy also attend cadet classes as part of a program to commission highly qualified NCOs.The Citadel Bulldogs compete at the NCAA Division I level in 16 sports within the Southern Conference.

The Citadel (film)

The Citadel is a 1938 British drama film based on the novel of the same name by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937. The film was directed by King Vidor and produced by Victor Saville at Denham Studios, with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer distributing the film in the UK and the US. It stars Robert Donat and Rosalind Russell.

The Citadel Bulldogs football

The Citadel Bulldogs football program represents The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). The Bulldogs play in the Southern Conference, as they have since 1936. The Bulldogs are coached by Brent Thompson, who was hired on January 19, 2016 to replace Mike Houston, who became the head football coach of James Madison University on January 18, 2016.

VMI Keydets football

The VMI Keydets football team represents the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Virginia. The Keydets compete in the Southern Conference of the NCAA Division I FCS, and are coached by Scott Wachenheim, named head coach on December 14, 2014. VMI plays their home contests at 10,000-seat Alumni Memorial Field, as they have since 1962.

Historically VMI's biggest rival was Virginia Tech. Today, VMI's biggest rival is The Citadel, as the two teams have battled 72 times, with The Citadel leading the series 40–30–2. The series was dubbed "The Military Classic of the South" in 1976 as a reference to the two school's status as the last two remaining all-military schools in the south, a region once rich with military colleges. The winner of each game receives an award known as the "Silver Shako", which has rested at The Citadel since 2003. The last contest occurred on November 12, 2016, in which The Citadel rushed for nearly 400 yards en route to a 30–20 victory. In addition to The Citadel, VMI has minor rivalries with William & Mary and Richmond. The Tribe and the Keydets first met in 1908, and William & Mary leads that series 52–33–2. VMI's competition with Richmond goes back farther, to just their third year of existence (1893). Richmond has won 41 games to VMI's 40, and the teams have tied five times. Also, the Keydets have played Virginia and Virginia Tech 82 and 79 times, respectively.

WLTI (AM)

WLTI is a radio station licensed to New Castle, Indiana which serves the Henry County, Indiana, radio market. It is a Real Country affiliate, which is a 24/7 format distributed by Cumulus Media Networks, a subsidiary of WLTI's owner, Cumulus Media. This station operates at an effective radiated power of 250 watts on AM frequency 1550 kHz. During the day, WLTI broadcasts with an omnidirectional pattern; at night, it broadcasts with a directional signal to the southeast and southwest, to protect Class-A clear-channel stations CBEF Windsor, Ontario and XERUV-AM Xalapa, Mexico.

Originally known for many years as WCTW airing traditional middle of the road programming, the station changed call letters to WMDH in 1991 to match up with its FM sister station. For many years, WMDH featured a news/talk format followed by a long stint as Adult standards with programming supplied by The Music of Your Life 24/7 satellite format and later with Citadel Media's Timeless Classics.

In early 2010 Timeless ceased operations, forcing WMDH to change format. In early 2010, WMDH flipped to a gold-heavy country format to complement its sister station, WMDH-FM, utilizing Citadel Media's Real Country format. In 2010, Citadel Broadcasting opted to retain the call letters of a station that changed format in Syracuse, NY to keep for future use. The FCC does not allow stations to retain call letters that are not on a station's licensed, Citadel decided to 'park' them temporarily on WMDH. As a result, on March 19, 2010, 1550 AM became WLTI. The existing classic country format remained in place. Citadel merged with Cumulus Media on September 16, 2011.The WCTW call letters are now used at an FM station in Hudson, New York. The WMDH-FM call letters continue to be used on WLTI's sister station in New Castle.

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