Circus Maximus

The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus; Italian: Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy. Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine Hills, it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its later Empire. It measured 621 m (2,037 ft) in length and 118 m (387 ft) in width and could accommodate over 150,000 spectators.[1] In its fully developed form, it became the model for circuses throughout the Roman Empire. The site is now a public park.

Circus Maximus
Circus max 1978
Modern (1978) view of the Circus site from the south-east
LocationRegio XI Circus Maximus
Built inOld Kingdom era
Type of structureCircus
Circus Maximus is located in Rome
Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus

Events and uses

Plan Rome Caen Circus Maximus Colisée
Model of Rome in the 4th century AD, by Paul Bigot. The Circus lies between the Aventine (left) and Palatine (right); the oval structure to the far right is the Colosseum.

The Circus was Rome's largest venue for ludi, public games connected to Roman religious festivals. Ludi were sponsored by leading Romans or the Roman state for the benefit of the Roman people (populus Romanus) and gods. Most were held annually or at annual intervals on the Roman calendar. Others might be given to fulfill a religious vow, such as the games in celebration of a triumph. In Roman tradition, the earliest triumphal ludi at the Circus were vowed by Tarquin the Proud to Jupiter in the late Regal era for his victory over Pometia.[2]

Ludi ranged in duration and scope from one-day or even half-day events to spectacular multi-venue celebrations held over several days, with religious ceremonies and public feasts, horse and chariot racing, athletics, plays and recitals, beast-hunts and gladiator fights. Some included public executions. The greater ludi at the Circus began with a flamboyant parade (pompa circensis), much like the triumphal procession, which marked the purpose of the games and introduced the participants.[3]

During Rome's Republican era, the aediles organised the games. The most costly and complex of the ludi offered opportunities to assess an aedile's competence, generosity, and fitness for higher office.[4] Some Circus events, however, seem to have been relatively small and intimate affairs. In 167 BC, "flute players, scenic artists and dancers" performed on a temporary stage, probably erected between the two central seating banks. Others were enlarged at enormous expense to fit the entire space. A venatio held there in 169 BC, one of several in the 2nd century, employed "63 leopards and 40 bears and elephants", with spectators presumably kept safe by a substantial barrier.[5]

As Rome's provinces expanded, existing ludi were embellished and new ludi invented by politicians who competed for divine and popular support. By the late Republic, ludi were held on 57 days of the year;[6] an unknown number of these would have required full use of the Circus. On many other days, charioteers and jockeys would need to practice on its track. Otherwise, it would have made a convenient corral for the animals traded in the nearby cattle market, just outside the starting gate. Beneath the outer stands, next to the Circus' multiple entrances, were workshops and shops. When no games were being held, the Circus at the time of Catullus (mid-1st century BC) was likely "a dusty open space with shops and booths ... a colourful crowded disreputable area"[7] frequented by "prostitutes, jugglers, fortune tellers and low-class performing artists."[8]

Circus Maximus - panorama view
View of the Circus site from the south-east. The tower in the foreground is part of a medieval fortification.[9]
CircusMaximusNorthEast2019
View of the Circus site from the north-east - 2019

Rome's emperors met the ever-burgeoning popular demand for regular ludi and the need for more specialised venues, as essential obligations of their office and cult. Over the several centuries of its development, the Circus Maximus became Rome's paramount specialist venue for chariot races. By the late 1st century AD, the Colosseum had been built to host most of the city's gladiator shows and smaller beast-hunts, and most track-athletes competed at the purpose-designed Stadium of Domitian, though long-distance foot races were still held at the Circus.[10] Eventually, 135 days of the year were devoted to ludi.[11]

Even at the height of its development as a chariot-racing circuit, the circus remained the most suitable space in Rome for religious processions on a grand scale, and was the most popular venue for large-scale venationes;[12] in the late 3rd century, the emperor Probus laid on a spectacular Circus show in which beasts were hunted through a veritable forest of trees, on a specially built stage.[13] With the advent of Christianity as the official religion of the Empire, ludi gradually fell out of favour. The last known beast-hunt at the Circus Maximus took place in 523, and the last known races there were held by Totila in 549.[14]

Topography and construction

Regal era

Obelisk-popolo
The Obelisco Flaminio, now in the Piazza del Popolo, was once part of the dividing barrier (spina) at the Circus Maximus

The Circus Maximus was sited on the level ground of the Valley of Murcia (Vallis Murcia), between Rome's Aventine and Palatine Hills. In Rome's early days, the valley would have been rich agricultural land, prone to flooding from the river Tiber and the stream which divided the valley. The stream was probably bridged at an early date, at the two points where the track had to cross it, and the earliest races would have been held within an agricultural landscape, "with nothing more than turning posts, banks where spectators could sit, and some shrines and sacred spots".[15]

In Livy's history of Rome, the first Etruscan king of Rome Lucius Tarquinius Priscus built raised, wooden perimeter seating at the Circus for Rome's highest echelons (the equites and patricians), probably midway along the Palatine straight, with an awning against the sun and rain. His grandson, Tarquinius Superbus, added the first seating for citizen-commoners (plebs, or plebeians), either adjacent or on the opposite, Aventine side of the track.[16] Otherwise, the Circus was probably still little more than a trackway through surrounding farmland. By this time, it may have been drained[17] but the wooden stands and seats would have frequently rotted and been rebuilt. The turning posts (metae), each made of three conical stone pillars, may have been the earliest permanent Circus structures; an open drainage canal between the posts would have served as a dividing barrier.[18]

Republican era

The games' sponsor (Latin editor) usually sat beside the images of attending gods, on a conspicuous, elevated stand (pulvinar) but seats at the track's perimeter offered the best, most dramatic close-ups. In 494 BC (very early in the Republican era) the dictator Manius Valerius Maximus and his descendants were granted rights to a curule chair at the southeastern turn, an excellent viewpoint for the thrills and spills of chariot racing.[19] In the 190s BC, stone track-side seating was built, exclusively for senators.[20]

Permanent wooden starting stalls were built in 329 BC. They were gated, brightly painted,[21] and staggered to equalise the distances from each start place to the central barrier. In theory, they might have accommodated up to 25 four-horse chariots ( Quadrigas ) abreast but when team-racing was introduced,[22] they were widened, and their number reduced. By the late Republican or early Imperial era, there were twelve stalls. Their divisions were fronted by herms that served as stops for spring-loaded gates, so that twelve light-weight, four-horse or two-horse chariots could be simultaneously released onto the track. The stalls were allocated by lottery, and the various racing teams were identified by their colors.[23] Typically, there were seven laps per race. From at least 174 BC, they were counted off using large sculpted eggs. In 33 BC, an additional system of large bronze dolphin-shaped lap counters was added, positioned well above the central dividing barrier (euripus) for maximum visibility.[24]

Sestertius-Caracalla-Circus Maximus-RIC 0500a
Sestertius depicting Caracalla, and the Circus Maximus, with Augustus' obelisk midway along the central dividing barrier (euripus)

Julius Caesar's development of the Circus, commencing around 50 BC, extended the seating tiers to run almost the entire circuit of the track, barring the starting gates and a processional entrance at the semi-circular end.[25] The track measured approximately 621 m (2,037 ft) in length and 150 m (387 ft) in breadth. A canal was cut between the track perimeter and its seating to protect spectators and help drain the track.[26] The inner third of the seating formed a trackside cavea. Its front sections along the central straight were reserved for senators, and those immediately behind for equites. The outer tiers, two thirds of the total, were meant for Roman plebs and non-citizens. They were timber-built, with wooden-framed service buildings, shops and entrance-ways beneath. The total number of seats is uncertain, but was probably in the order of 150,000; Pliny the Elder's estimate of 250,000 is unlikely. The wooden bleachers were damaged in a fire of 31 BC, either during or after construction.[27]

Imperial era

Sestertius Trajan Circus Maximus AD103
Sestertius of Trajan celebrating the restoration of the Circus Maximus (minted 103 AD).[28]

The fire damage of 31 was probably repaired by Augustus (Caesar's successor and Rome's first emperor). He modestly claimed credit only for an obelisk and pulvinar at the site but both were major projects. Ever since its quarrying, long before Rome existed, the obelisk had been sacred to Egyptian Sun-gods.[29] Augustus had it brought from Heliopolis at enormous expense, and erected midway along the dividing barrier of the Circus. It was Rome's first obelisk, an exotically sacred object and a permanent reminder of Augustus' victory over his Roman foes and their Egyptian allies in the recent civil wars. Thanks to him, Rome had secured both a lasting peace and a new Egyptian Province. The pulvinar was built on monumental scale, a shrine or temple (aedes) raised high above the trackside seats. Sometimes, while games were in progress, Augustus watched from there, alongside the gods. Occasionally, his family would join him there. This is the Circus described by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as "one of the most beautiful and admirable structures in Rome", with "entrances and ascents for the spectators at every shop, so that the countless thousands of people may enter and depart without inconvenience."[30]

Grondplan Circus Maximus
Groundplan of the Circus Maximus, according to Samuel Ball Platner, 1911. The staggered starting gates are to the left.

The site remained prone to flooding,[31] probably through the starting gates, until Claudius made improvements there; they probably included an extramural anti-flooding embankment. Fires in the crowded, wooden perimeter workshops and bleachers were a far greater danger. A fire of 36 AD seems to have started in a basket-maker's workshop under the stands, on the Aventine side; the emperor Tiberius compensated various small businesses there for their losses.[32] In AD 64, during Nero's reign, fire broke out at the semi-circular end of the Circus, swept through the stands and shops, and destroyed much of the city. Games and festivals continued at the Circus, which was rebuilt over several years to the same footprint and design.[33]

By the late 1st century AD, the central dividing barrier comprised a series of water basins, or else a single watercourse open in some places and bridged over in others. It offered opportunities for artistic embellishment and decorative swagger, and included the temples and statues of various deities, fountains, and refuges for those assistants involved in more dangerous circus activities, such as beast-hunts and the recovery of casualties during races.[34]

In AD 81 the Senate built a triple arch honoring Titus at the semi-circular end of the Circus, to replace or augment a former processional entrance.[35] The emperor Domitian built a new, multi-storey palace on the Palatine, connected somehow to the Circus; he likely watched the games in autocratic style, from high above and barely visible to those below. Repairs to fire damage during his reign may already have been under way before his assassination.[36]

The risk of further fire-damage, coupled with Domitian's fate, may have prompted Trajan's decision to rebuild the Circus entirely in stone, and provide a new pulvinar in the stands where Rome's emperor could be seen and honoured as part of the Roman community, alongside her gods. Under Trajan, the Circus Maximus found its definitive form, which was unchanged thereafter save for some monumental additions by later emperors, an extensive, planned rebuilding of the starting gate area under Caracalla, and repairs and renewals to existing fabric. Some repairs were unforeseen and extensive, such as those carried out in Diocletian's reign, after the collapse of a seating section killed some 13,000 people.[37]

Religious significance

The Circus Maximus site and the Palatine Hill in background
The Circus Maximus site and the Palatine Hill in background

The southeastern turn of the track ran between two shrines which may have predated the Circus' formal development. One, located at the outer southeast perimeter, was dedicated to the valley's eponymous goddess Murcia, an obscure deity associated with Venus, the myrtle shrub, a sacred spring, the stream that divided the valley, and the lesser peak of the Aventine Hill.[38] The other was at the southeastern turning-post; where there was an underground shrine to Consus, a minor god of grain-stores, connected to the grain-goddess Ceres and to the underworld. According to Roman tradition, Romulus discovered this shrine shortly after the founding of Rome. He invented the Consualia festival, as a way of gathering his Sabine neighbours at a celebration that included horse-races and drinking. During these distractions, Romulus's men then abducted the Sabine daughters as brides. Thus the famous Roman myth of the Rape of the Sabine women had as its setting the Circus and the Consualia.

In this quasi-legendary era, horse or chariot races would have been held at the Circus site. The track width may have been determined by the distance between Murcia's and Consus' shrines at the southeastern end, and its length by the distance between these two shrines and Hercules' Ara Maxima, supposedly older than Rome itself and sited behind the Circus' starting place.[39]. The position of Consus' shrine at the turn of the track recalls the placing of shrines to Roman Neptune's Greek equivalent, Poseidon, in Greek hippodromes.[40] In later developments, the altar of Consus, as one of the Circus's patron deities, was incorporated into the fabric of the south-eastern turning post. When Murcia's stream was partly built over, to form a dividing barrier (the spina or euripus)[41] between the turning posts, her shrine was either retained or rebuilt. In the Late Imperial period, both the southeastern turn and the circus itself were sometimes known as Vallis Murcia.[42] The symbols used to count race-laps also held religious significance; Castor and Pollux, who were born from an egg, were patrons of horses, horsemen, and the equestrian order (equites). Likewise, the later use of dolphin-shaped lap counters reinforced associations between the races, swiftness, and Neptune, as god of earthquakes and horses; the Romans believed dolphins to be the swiftest of all creatures.[43] When the Romans adopted the Phrygian Geat Mother as an ancestral deity, a statue of her on lion-back was erected within the circus, probably on the dividing barrier.

Roman - Intaglio of a Circus with a Chariot Race - Walters 421314
Jasper intaglio (2nd century AD) depicting chariot races, with the three-pointed metae at each end of the dividing barrer shown at top (Walters Art Museum)

Sun and Moon cults were probably represented at the Circus from its earliest phases. Their importance grew with the introduction of Roman cult to Apollo, and the development of Stoic and solar monism as a theological basis for the Roman Imperial cult. In the Imperial era, the Sun-god was divine patron of the Circus and its games. His sacred obelisk towered over the arena, set in the central barrier, close to his temple and the finishing line. The Sun-god was the ultimate, victorious charioteer, driving his four-horse chariot (quadriga) through the heavenly circuit from sunrise to sunset. His partner Luna drove her two-horse chariot (biga); together, they represented the predictable, orderly movement of the cosmos and the circuit of time, which found analogy in the Circus track.[44] In Imperial cosmology, the emperor was Sol-Apollo's earthly equivalent, and Luna may have been linked to the empress. Luna's temple, built long before Apollo's, burned down in the Great Fire of 64 AD and was probably not replaced. Her cult was closely identified with that of Diana, who seems to have been represented in the processions that started Circus games, and with Sol Indiges, usually identified as her brother. After the loss of her temple, her cult may have been transferred to Sol's temple on the dividing barrier, or one beside it; both would have been open to the sky.[45]

Temples to several deities overlooked the Circus; most are now lost. The temples to Ceres and Flora stood close together on the Aventine, more or less opposite the Circus' starting gate, which remained under Hercules' protection. Further southeast along the Aventine was a temple to Luna, the moon goddess. Aventine temples to Venus Obsequens, Mercury and Dis (or perhaps Summanus) stood on the slopes above the southeast turn. On the Palatine hill, opposite to Ceres's temple, stood the temple to Magna Mater and, more or less opposite Luna's temple, one to the sun-god Apollo.

Several festivals, some of uncertain foundation and date, were held at the Circus in historical times. The Consualia, with its semi-mythical establishment by Romulus, and the Cerealia, the major festival of Ceres, were probably older than the earliest historically attested "Roman Games" (Ludi Romani) held at the Circus in honour of Jupiter in 366 BC.[46] In the early Imperial era, Ovid describes the opening of Cerealia (mid to late April) with a horse race at the Circus,[47] followed by the nighttime release of foxes into the stadium, their tails ablaze with lighted torches.[48] Some early connection is likely between Ceres as goddess of grain crops and Consus as a god of grain storage and patron of the Circus.

Modern status and uses

Circus-Maximus-June-1983
Ruins overlooking the Circus Maximus, seen from the Aventine (1983)

After the 6th century, the Circus fell into disuse and decay, and was quarried for building materials. The lower levels, ever prone to flooding, were gradually buried under waterlogged alluvial soil and accumulated debris, so that the original track is now buried 6m beneath the modern surface. In the 11th century, the Circus was "replaced by dwellings rented out by the congregation of Saint-Guy."[49] In the 12th century, a watercourse was dug there to drain the soil, and by the 1500s the area was used as a market garden.[50] Many of the Circus' standing structures survived these changes; in 1587, two obelisks were removed from the central barrier by Pope Sixtus V, and one of these was re-sited at the Piazza del Popolo. Mid 19th century workings at the circus site uncovered the lower parts of a seating tier and outer portico. Since then, a series of excavations has exposed further sections of the seating, curved turn and central barrier but further exploration has been limited by the scale, depth and waterlogging of the site.[51]

FIFA world cup 2006 - Rome circus maximus flag
Italian World Cup 2006 victory celebration at the site of the Circus

The Circus site now functions as a large park area, in the centre of the city. It is often used for concerts and meetings. The Rome concert of Live 8 (July 2, 2005) was held there. The English band Genesis performed a concert before an estimated audience of 500,000 people in 2007 (this was filmed and released as When in Rome 2007). The Rolling Stones played there in front of 71,527 people on June 22, 2014 for the Italian date of their 14 On Fire tour. The Circus has also hosted victory celebrations, following the Italian World Cup 2006 victory and the A.S. Roma Serie A victory in 2001.

See also

References

  1. ^ This is a modern recalculation of the seating capacity at the Circus, a substantial downward revision of Pliny the Elder's estimate of 250,000. For discussion see Humphrey, p. 126.
  2. ^ Humphrey, p. 66–67.
  3. ^ Described by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 7.72.1–13, supplemented by Quintus Fabius Pictor's history.
  4. ^ Aedileship was a rung on the ladder of Roman politics, available to patricians and plebeians of wealth and high standing. Despite the sometimes crippling personal cost of running for office and providing "extras" for the ludi, a successful aedile could secure popular favor and a substantial share of the vote at election time. Julius Caesar was among those who solidified his support through his lavish ludi as aedile.
  5. ^ Humphrey, p. 71. A later iron cage-work barrier is evident at Pompey's venatione of 55 BC.
  6. ^ Bunson, Matthew, A Dictionary of the Roman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 246.
  7. ^ Humphrey, p. 72, citing T. P. Wiseman, "Looking for Camerius. The Topography of Catullus 55," Papers of the British School at Rome, 1980, pp. 11–13 with footnotes.
  8. ^ Humphrey, p. 72.
  9. ^ Humphrey, p. 57.
  10. ^ Extraordinarily long races of up to 128 miles, if Pliny the Elder is to be believed; see Humphrey, p. 71.
  11. ^ Bunson, Matthew, A Dictionary of the Roman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 246.
  12. ^ Humphrey, pp. 71–72.
  13. ^ Humphrey, p. 128, citing Historia Augusta, Probus, 19.2–4.
  14. ^ Bowersock, G., Green, P., Grabar, O., Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 674; citing Procopius, The Gothic Wars, 3. 37. 4.[1] For the last known beast-hunt at the Circus, see Humphrey, p. 131. Humphrey describes the last known Circus event (549) as "games".
  15. ^ Humphrey, p. 11. Humphrey describes this as "like a Greek hippodrome"
  16. ^ The Aventine was a predominantly plebeian area.
  17. ^ Tarquin might have employed the plebs in constructing a conduit or drain (cloaca) for Murcia's stream, discharging into the Tiber. See Humphrey, p. 67.
  18. ^ Etruscan tomb paintings of chariot races offer a possible seating model for this earliest phase; noble sponsors and other dignitaries sit in elevated stands, complete with awning. Commoners lounge or sit below, at ground level. At the early Circus Maximus, the sloping ground afforded the possibility of turf seating tiers at an early date – as imagined by Ovid in his account of the first Consualia – replaced with wooden seating tiers by later sponsors and benefactors. See Humphrey, pp. 65–66, 68–69; for early metae and a possible canal as central dividing barrier, see summary on pp. 292–3.
  19. ^ In the earliest exercise of the right, a curule chair would have been brought to the spot; its permanent positioning there is unlikely. See Humphrey, p. 61.
  20. ^ Livy has the plebs seated "promiscuously" (antea in promiscuo spectabant) up to then: see Humphrey, 70.
  21. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 8.20.1
  22. ^ Racing teams might have been used as early as the Regal era (according to some later Roman traditions), or as late as the end of the Punic Wars.
  23. ^ Humphrey, p. 171; the gates probably used the same animal-sinew torsion springing as the Roman ballista; Ibid, pp. 137–138: opposing teams of Reds and Whites are prominent in late Republican literature, and Greens and Blues in the Imperial era. Some Roman authors held that team-racing in multiple colors dated back to the regal era. Ibid, p. 175 for allocation of stalls by lottery.
  24. ^ Humphrey, pp. 261–5.
  25. ^ A processional entrance at the semi-circular end,. prior to the erection there of Titus' triumphal arch, is assumed by most modern sources. See Humphrey, pp. 69, 97ff.
  26. ^ Humphrey, pp. 75, 84.
  27. ^ Pliny the Elder's figure of 250,000 circus seats is unreliable; it ignores the necessary interruptions of seating rows by many access stairways and corridors. It might represent a per foot run seating estimate, or include those watching from the nearby heights, outside the building proper. In late Imperial regionary catalogues, seating estimates for the Circus become even wilder; one gives an impossible 450,000 seats. Discussion is in Humphrey, p. 126.
  28. ^ Sear, David R. (2002). Roman Coins and Their Values. Volume II: The Accession of Nerva to the overthrow of the Severan dynasty, AD96-AD235 (pp.112, coin #3208). London: Spink. ISBN 1-902040-45-7
  29. ^ It was quarried and first dedicated in the reign of Seti I
  30. ^ Humphrey, pp. 72–73. Dionysius of Halicarnassus described the Circus and its seating c.30 BC–AD 8. Augustus also rebuilt Ceres' temple, above the starting gates; it was probably damaged in the fire of 31 BC. Ibid, pp. 268–272 for Augustus' obelisk.
  31. ^ The Ludi Martiales of AD 12 were temporarily transferred from the Circus, after a flood.
  32. ^ Humphrey, pp. 100–101. Claudius' improvements at the Circus included stone-built or marble-clad starting stalls and rebuilt turning posts.
  33. ^ Nero, inordinately fond of chariot-racing, may have considered the Circus rebuilding a priority but the overall cost of Rome's rebuilding must have proved an extraordinary drain on Imperial and public funds. Wooden bleachers for the Roman masses were an expedient, cost-effective solution. If Nero had grander plans for the Circus, they ended with his suicide under compulsion, after a coup d'etat in AD 68. Humphrey, p. 101.
  34. ^ Humphrey, pp. 293–4.
  35. ^ This is not to be confused with the Arch of Titus, built over the Via Sacra on the opposite side of the Palatine.
  36. ^ Humphrey, p. 74.
  37. ^ Humphrey, pp. 80, 102, 126–9.
  38. ^ The prestige attached to the curule chair granted Manius Valerius Maximus and his descendants in 494 BC would have been enhanced by its positioning close to this shrine. See Humphrey, p. 61.
  39. ^ Humphrey, p. 62
  40. ^ Humphrey, p. 62; "later Roman authors often reported the Consualia were held in honour of Neptunus Equestris."
  41. ^ Most modern sources use spina (a spine) for the central barrier, based on a single, very late Roman source (Cassiodorus), but most Roman sources used euripus, a Greek word meaning a channel, strait, or canal, and thus a barrier. See Humphrey, p. 175.
  42. ^ Humphrey, pp. 61–2. For Murcia's shifting topographical associations, see Otto Skutsch, "Enniana IV: Condendae urbis auspicia", The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Nov., 1961), pp. 252–67.
  43. ^ Humphrey, pp. 261–5.
  44. ^ Jean Sorabella, "A Roman Sarcophagus and Its Patron", Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. 36, (2001), p. 75. See also Doro Levi, "Aion", Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Vol. 13, 4, 1944, pp. 287ff.
  45. ^ Humphrey, pp. 61–64, 92–94, 270–273.
  46. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.56.
  47. ^ Wiseman, 1995, p.137.
  48. ^ See Spaeth, Barbette Stanley, The Roman goddess Ceres, University of Texas Press, 1996, pp. 36–37.
  49. ^ Françoise Choay, (Trans. Lauren M. O'Connell), The Invention of the Historic Monument, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 20.
  50. ^ Partner, Peter, Renaissance Rome, 1500–1559: a portrait of a society, University of California Press, 1976, pp.4, 166.googlebooks preview
  51. ^ Humphrey, p. 57.

Further reading

  • Humphrey, John, Roman circuses: arenas for chariot racing, University of California Press, 1986. [2]

External links

Media related to Circus Maximus at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 41°53′09″N 12°29′09″E / 41.8859°N 12.4857°E

14 regions of Augustan Rome

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Caesars Atlantic City is a luxury hotel, casino, and spa resort in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Like Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, it has an ancient Roman and ancient Greek theme. Atlantic City's second casino, it opened in 1979 as the Caesars Boardwalk Regency. The 124,720 sq ft (11,587 m2). casino has over 3,400 slot machines, and is one of the largest in Atlantic City. The resort has experienced much expansion and renovation in the past decade, including a new hotel tower, a new parking garage, and a new shopping center, Playground Pier.

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In ancient Roman religion, the Cerealia was the major festival celebrated for the grain goddess Ceres. It was held for seven days from mid- to late April, but the dates are uncertain.The festival may have been founded as early as the Regal period. Its archaic nature is indicated by a nighttime ritual described by Ovid. Blazing torches were tied to the tails of live foxes, who were released into the Circus Maximus. The origin and purpose of this ritual are unknown; it may have been intended to cleanse the growing crops and protect them from disease and vermin, or to add warmth and vitality to their growth. Ovid offers an aetiological explanation: long ago, at ancient Carleoli, a farm-boy caught a fox stealing chickens and tried to burn it alive. The fox escaped, ablaze; in its flight it fired the fields and their crops, which were sacred to Ceres. Ever since, foxes are punished at her festival.The Ludi Ceriales or "Games of Ceres" were held as part of the festival in the Circus Maximus. Ovid mentions that Ceres' search for her lost daughter Proserpina was represented by women clothed in white, running about with lighted torches.

During the Republican era, the Cerealia was organised by the plebeian aediles, Ceres being one of the patron deities of the plebs or common people. The festival included ludi circenses, circus games. These opened with a horse race in the Circus Maximus, with a starting point just below the Aventine Temple of Ceres, Liber and Libera. After around 175 BC, the Cerealia included ludi scaenici, theatrical performances, held April 12–18. The plebeian aedile Gaius Memmius is credited with staging the first of these ludi scaenici. He also distributed a new commemorative denarius coin in honor of the event. His innovations led to his claiming to have presented "the first Cerealia.

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Circus Maximus was an American band in the late 1960s, who combined influences from folk music, rock, and jazz into a form of psychedelic rock.

Circus Maximus (Momus album)

Circus Maximus is the debut album by Scottish musician Momus, released on January 15, 1986 on Creation Records. It deals primarily with Biblical and Ancient Roman themes, making reference to figures such as Saul, St. Sebastian, Lucretia, and Solomon. The title, Circus Maximus, refers to the ancient Roman chariot racing and entertainment venue of the same name.

Circus Maximus (Norwegian band)

Circus Maximus is a Norwegian progressive metal quintet from Oslo. They employ the use of symphonic and power metal influences that feature synthesizers. As of 2016, they have released four albums, The 1st Chapter in 2005, Isolate in 2007, Nine in 2012 and Havoc in 2016.

Circus Maximus (disambiguation)

Circus Maximus is an ancient arena and mass entertainment venue located in Rome.

Circus Maximus may also refer to:

Circus Maximus (American band), a 1960s band featuring Jerry Jeff Walker

Circus Maximus (Norwegian band), a 2000s progressive metal band

Symphony No. 3 (Corigliano) or Symphony No. 3, Circus Maximus, a piece for large wind band by American composer John Corigliano

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Circus Maximus (Momus album), 1986

"Circus Maximus", a song by the band Clutch from their 2005 album Robot Hive/Exodus

Circus Maximus: Chariot Wars, a 2002 video game

Circus Maximus (game), a chariot-racing board game

Circo Massimo (Rome Metro), a station of the Rome Metro

Circus Maximus (game)

Circus Maximus is a board game that was originally published by Battleline Publications in 1979, but is better known for the 1980 Avalon Hill edition. The game has become very popular at gaming conventions in an oversized form, with 10-foot (3.0 m)-long boards and baseball-sized chariots.

Havoc (album)

Havoc is the fourth studio album by Norwegian progressive metal band Circus Maximus, released on 18 March 2016. The deluxe edition includes a bonus track and an additional disc featuring a 2012 live performance in Japan.

Isolate (Circus Maximus album)

Isolate is the second full-length studio album by the Norwegian progressive metal band Circus Maximus. The album was released on October 24, 2007 in Japan, August, 2007 in Europe and September 4, 2007 in the US.The cover-art for the album as well as a sample track containing an excerpt from the song "Wither", was released by the band on May 29, 2007 on the official Circus Maximus website. Like its former album, Isolate contains the same number of tracks (with the bonus tracks) and also track 4 is an Instrumental ("Biosfear" on The 1st Chapter and "Sane No More" on Isolate).

Isolate is also the first album to feature new keyboardist Lasse Finbråten after Espen Storø's departure at the end of recording of The 1st Chapter. Lasse Finbråten added more keyboard/synthesizer sounds to the album in both soloing and overall use. This is different from the previous album as Espen Storø's sound centered on the use of the piano.

The album entered the Norwegian national charts at number 70 in August, 2007.

Lateran Obelisk

The Lateran Obelisk is the largest standing ancient Egyptian obelisk in the world, and it is also the tallest obelisk in Italy. It originally weighed 413 metric tons (455 tons), but after collapsing and being re-erected 4 meters (13 feet) shorter, now weighs around 300 metric tons (330 tons). It is located in the square across from the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran and the San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital.

Live in Italy (Lou Reed album)

Live In Italy is an album by Lou Reed recorded live over two nights in September 1983 (on the 7th in Verona and on the 10th, at the ruins of Circus Maximus, in Rome) using the Rolling Stones Mobile Unit. It was issued on vinyl only in Germany, UK and Japan. At the time, Reed and his band were on a world tour to promote the album Legendary Hearts. A live video, A Night with Lou Reed, filmed at a New York concert, was also released to coincide with the album. The video omitted the songs "Betrayed", "Sally Can't Dance", "Average Guy" and "Some Kinda Love"/"Sister Ray" from the 10th show, while adding "Don't Talk to Me About Work", "Women", "Turn Out the Light" and "New Age" from the 7th.

In 1996, the album was reissued under the title Live in Concert.

Nine (Circus Maximus album)

Nine is the third full-length studio album by the Norwegian progressive metal band Circus Maximus. The album was released on June 1, 2012.

The album is being described as more melodic and dynamic than the previous album. The album is also more guitar-oriented.

"The majority of the material on the new record was written by Mats Haugen and he has taken the music to a kind of simpler and more accessible approach, yet kept the progressive elements and the "nerve" that is Circus Maximus" says Truls Haugen.

Circus Maximus will appear live in some selected shows in the summer before launching a full-scale tour in support of the new album.

Glen Cato Møllen, the bassist of the band, told about the differences among Nine and the other two albums: "Two huge elements in the new material are first and foremost the evolution of the songwriting and the accessibility of the music. When you combine that with a new sound and production, you have a pretty different outcome from what we did on “Isolate”. We have been and always will be super proud of what we accomplished with the previous albums, but I think we’ve taken it to the next level with the new stuff".

Palatine Hill

The Palatine Hill (; Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Italian: Palatino [palaˈtiːno]) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city and has been called "the first nucleus of the Roman Empire.". It stands 40 metres above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus on the other. From the time of Augustus Imperial palaces were built here.

The hill is the etymological origin of the word palace and its cognates in other languages (Italian: palazzo, French: palais, Spanish: palacio, Portuguese: palácio, German: Palast, Czech: palác, etc.).

Roman circus of Mérida

The Roman circus of Mérida (Spanish: Circo romano) is a ruined Roman circus in Mérida, Spain. Used for chariot racing, it was modelled on the Circus Maximus in Rome and other circus buildings throughout the empire. Measuring more than 400 m in length and 30 m of width, it is one of the best preserved examples of the Roman circus. It could house up to 30,000 spectators.

Symphony No. 3 (Corigliano)

The Symphony No. 3, Circus Maximus, is a composition for wind ensemble in eight movements by the American composer John Corigliano. The work was commissioned by the School of Music, the University of Texas at Austin, for the University of Texas Wind Ensemble. It was given its world premiere by the University of Texas Wind Ensemble under the conductor Jerry Junkin at the Bass Concert Hall in the University of Texas Performing Arts Center on February 16, 2005. The symphony is dedicated to Junkin and is the composer's first piece written specifically for concert band.

The Circus Maximus

The Circus Maximus is an album released by American Heavy Metal band Manilla Road in 1992. This album is not really a Manilla Road album, but rather a Mark Shelton solo project that Black Dragon Records added the Manilla Road logo onto to sell more copies.

Vicus Tuscus

Vicus Tuscus ("Etruscan Street" or "Tuscan Street") was an ancient street in the city of Rome, running southwest out of the Roman Forum between the Basilica Julia and the Temple of Castor and Pollux towards the Forum Boarium and Circus Maximus via the west side of the Palatine Hill and Velabrum.

Bridges
Basilicas
and churches
Architecture and art
Parks and gardens
Piazzas and
public spaces
Streets
Museums
Palaces
Metropolitan City
of Rome Capital
Events and traditions
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