A circlet is a piece of headgear that is similar to a diadem or a corolla.[1][2][3] The word circlet is also used to refer to the base of a crown or a coronet with or without a cap.[4][5] Diadem and circlet are often used interchangeably,[6] and "open crowns" with no arches (as opposed to "closed crowns"), have also been referred to as circlets.[7] In Greek this is known as stephanos and in Latin as corona aperta, though Stephanos is associated more with laurel wreaths and the crown of thorns said to have been placed on the head of Jesus.[8]

In heraldry a circlet of an order of knighthood can be placed around the shield of the bearer to signify membership of a particular order. In British heraldry this pertains to the grades of Commander and above (ie. Knight Commander and Knight Grand Cross).

See also


  1. ^ Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards (1976). Tutankhamun's Jewelry. Egypt: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-87099-155-4.
  2. ^ John Steane (2003). The Archaeology of the Medieval English Monarchy. Routledge. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-134-64159-8.
  3. ^ Albert Barnes (1859). Notes Explanatory and Practical on the Book of Revelation. Harper & brothers. p. 246.
  4. ^ Nicholas Carlisle (1813). A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, and of the Islands in the British Seas. G. and W. Nicol and Bell and Bradfute. p. 482.
  5. ^ Francis Joseph Baigent; Charles James Russell (1864). A Practical Manual of Heraldry and of Heraldic Illumination: With a Glossary of the Principal Terms Used in Heraldry. G. Rowney. pp. 39–40.
  6. ^ Edward Francis Twining (1967). European Regalia. Batsford. p. 66.
  7. ^ A Lady (1840). Anecdotes, Personal Traits, and Characteristic Sketches of Victoria the First. William Bennett. p. 547.
  8. ^ Chris Woodall (2015). Atonement: God's Means of Effecting Man's Reconciliation. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-4982-0795-9.
Badge of the Royal Air Force

The badge of the Royal Air Force is the heraldic emblem used to represent the RAF which features an eagle superimposed on a circlet which is surmounted by a crown.

The badge was based on a design by a tailor at Gieves Ltd of Savile Row. It was first used in August 1918 and the original circlet showed a garter and buckle. The present plain circlet dates from 26 January 1923 when the badge was registered at the College of Arms and, it being noted that the garter and buckle were heraldically incorrect, a substitution was made.In heraldic terms it is: "In front of a circle inscribed with the motto Per Ardua Ad Astra and ensigned by the Imperial Crown an eagle volant and affronté head lowered and to the sinister." Although there have been debates among airmen over the years whether the bird was originally meant to be an albatross or an eagle, the consensus is that it was always an eagle. When the badge was issued by the College of Arms in 1923, they described the bird as being an eagle.The badge is depicted on the iron gates at the ceremonial entrance to the Royal Air Force College Cranwell; at the entrance to the Air Forces Memorial in Surrey; and on the Polish War Memorial in London.

Caul (headgear)

A caul is an historical headress worn by women that covers tied-up hair. A fancy caul could be made of satin, velvet, fine silk or brocade, although a simple caul would commonly be made of white linen or cotton. The caul could be covered by a crespine or a hairnet to secure it from falling off.

During the second half of the thirteenth century, network caps, more properly called "cauls", came into fashion for ladies' wear. These headdresses were shaped like bags, made of gold, silver or silk network. At first they fit fairly close to the head, the edge, band or rim being placed high up on the forehead, to show some hair on the temples and around the nape; they enclosed the head and hair, and were secured by a circlet or fillet. Jewels were often set at intervals in the band, also at the intersections of the cross-bars.

Cecilia Tan

Cecilia Tan (born April 8, 1967) is a writer, editor, sexuality activist, and founder of Circlet Press, the first press devoted primarily to erotic science fiction and fantasy. She lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She also writes about baseball, but is not to be confused with a writer of the same name who specializes in Asian cookbooks.

Circlet Press

Circlet Press is a publishing house in Cambridge, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. It was founded by Cecilia Tan, who is also its manager. It specializes in science fiction erotica, a once uncommon genre, and its publications often feature BDSM themes.

Circlet Princess

Circlet Princess (Japanese: サークレット・プリンセス, Hepburn: Sākuretto Purinsesu) is a Japanese role-playing browser game developed by DMM Games. An anime television series adaptation by Silver Link premiered from January 8 to March 26, 2019.

Coat of arms of the London Borough of Hillingdon

The coat of arms of the London Borough of Hillingdon is the official symbol of the London Borough of Hillingdon. They use elements from the coats of arms of the four previous districts. It is described as:

Arms: Per pale Gules and Vert an Eagle displayed per pale Or and Argent in the dexter claw a Fleur-de-lis Or and in the sinister claw a Cog-Wheel Argent on a Chief Or four Civic Crowns Vert.

Crest: On a Wreath of the Colours issuant from a Circlet of Brushwood Sable a demi-Lion Gules with wings Argent the underside of each wing charged with a Cross Gules and holding between the paws a Bezant thereon a Mullet Azure.

Supporters: On the dexter side an Heraldic Tiger Or gorged with an Astral Crown Azure and charged on the shoulder with a Rose Gules charged with another Argent barbed and seeded proper and on the sinister side a Stag proper attired and gorged with a Circlet of Brushwood and charged on the shoulder with two Ears of Rye slipped in saltire Or.

Motto: Forward.

The four green civic crowns or wreaths on the shield proclaim the equal status of the four predecessor units (a borough and three urban districts). The motto 'Forward' was chosen from Hayes and Harlington's coat of arms.The eagle at the centre of the shield was taken from the old arms of Uxbridge Borough Council and Yiewsley and West Drayton Urban District Council. It was adapted by them from the arms of the Paget family, from the reign of Henry VIII's son Edward lords of the manor of West Drayton and later those of Dawley (in Harlington a place also known as Arlington) and of Harmondsworth and Earls of Uxbridge. The medieval-imaginary tiger supporting the shield on the left is also taken from the Paget family arms. The fleur de lys (or lily) on the left of the shield is from the arms of Ruislip-Northwood, and commemorates the fact that the manor of Ruislip was held for much of its history by the Abbey of Bec and then King's College, Cambridge, for both of whom the lily was a symbol of religious purity.The circlet or enclosure of brushwood from which the lion is rising on the crest is from the arms of Hayes and Harlington, and may refer back to its ancient heritage as forested hunting land. The same can be said of the stag with a circlet of brushwood supporting the shield on the right. The lion itself represents Great Britain. Its wings, with the St George cross, are from the arms of Yiewsley and West Drayton and symbolise the arrival of Queen Elizabeth II at Heathrow airport in 1953. The blue 'astral' crown on the tiger supporting the shield is in the colours of the Royal Air Force, and celebrates its long history within the Borough. The Tudor rose on the same tiger is from the arms of Yiewsley and West Drayton and is a historic English royal badge.The eagle on the shield denotes the area's connections with the RAF and Heathrow/London Airport. The North Star, as shown on the crest, was traditionally used in navigation, so here again represents the Borough's airports. In the original arms of Ruislip-Northwood the colours were reversed. The cog wheel on the right of the shield is from the arms of Hayes and Harlington and reflects the industry of Hayes. The two ears of rye 'slipped' (with their stalks cut short) on the stag supporting the shield on the right, are a pun on the name Ruislip, and were taken from the arms of Ruislip-Northwood.

Corolla (headgear)

A corolla is an ancient headdress in the form of a small circlet or crown. Usually it has ceremonial significance and represents victory or authority.

Crest (heraldry)

A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm. Originating in the decorative sculptures worn by knights in tournaments and, to a lesser extent, battles, crests became solely pictorial after the 16th century (the era referred to by heraldists as that of "paper heraldry").

A normal heraldic achievement consists of the shield, above which is set the helm, on which sits the crest, its base encircled by a circlet of twisted cloth known as a torse. The use of the crest and torse independently from the rest of the achievement, a practice which became common in the era of paper heraldry, has led the term "crest" to be frequently but erroneously used to refer to the arms displayed on the shield, or to the achievement as a whole.

Crown of Baden

Crown of Baden, also known as the Grand Ducal Crown of Baden (German: die Badische Krone or Großherzoglich badische Krone) is a crown formerly used by the Grand Duke of Baden and part of the Crown Jewels of Baden. The crown is 26 cm high and has a diameter of 13,8 cm. Today the crown is kept at the Museum of Baden (German: Badische Landesmuseum), which itself was built within the old walls of the former Karlsruhe Palace.

Grand Duke Karl II of Baden was promoted from margrave to grand duke by Napoleon I, the cousin by marriage of his wife, Stéphanie Louise Adrienne de Beauharnais. Having come into a large amount of jewels and precious metals during the secularisation of many churches Karl II ordered a crown, befitting his new title on the 20th of May 1808. The design of the crown follows the general pattern typical of a European royal crown, but is unique in that the circlet and the arches of the crown are made of gold fabric rather than of a precious metal such as gold or silver-gilt. Karl II died in 1811 before the crown was completed; the persons in charge hurried production of the crown in time for the funeral. The rush is evidenced by the relative simplicity of the crown, and the use of cheap materials in the production such as steel and even paper mache! The aforementioned precious stones which ornament this crown are in metal settings which are attached to this circlet and these arches much like brooches pinned to fabric. At the intersection of the four arches of this crown is a blue enameled orb and a cross both set with diamonds. The cap on the inside of the crown is made of the same crimson velvet which also covers the reverse sides of the arches of the crown. The crown was never worn by any of the grand dukes.

Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother

The Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, also known as The Queen Mother's Crown, is the crown made for Queen Elizabeth, the wife of King George VI, to wear at their coronation in 1937 and State Openings of Parliament during her husband's reign. The crown was made by Garrard & Co., the Crown Jeweller at the time, and is modelled partly on the design of Queen Mary's Crown, though it differs by having four half-arches instead of eight. As with Queen Mary's Crown, its arches are detachable at the crosses pattée, allowing it to be worn as a circlet or open crown. It is the only crown for a British king or queen to be made of platinum.The crown is decorated with about 2,800 diamonds, most notably the 105-carat (21.0 g) Koh-i-Noor in the middle of the front cross, which was acquired by the East India Company after the Anglo-Sikh Wars and presented to Queen Victoria in 1851, and a 17-carat (3.4 g) Turkish diamond given to her in 1856 by Abdülmecid I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, as a gesture of thanks for British support in the Crimean War. The Koh-i-Noor became a part of the Crown Jewels when it was left to the Crown upon Victoria's death in 1901. It had been successively mounted in the crowns of Queen Alexandra and Queen Mary before it was transferred to The Queen Mother's Crown.

After the death of the king, Queen Elizabeth, known thereafter as the Queen Mother, did not wear the full crown, but wore it minus the arches as a circlet at the coronation of her daughter, Queen Elizabeth II, in 1953.It was placed on top of the Queen Mother's coffin for her lying-in-state and funeral in 2002.The crown is on public display along with the other Crown Jewels in the Jewel House at the Tower of London.

Crown of Queen Mary

The Crown of Queen Mary is the consort crown made for Queen Mary, wife of George V, in 1911.

Mary bought the Art Deco-inspired crown from Garrard & Co. herself, and hoped that it would be worn by future queens consort. It is unusual for a British crown due to having eight half-arches instead of the traditional two arches. It is 25 cm (9.8 in) tall and weighs 590 g (1.30 lb).The silver-gilt crown has around 2,200 rose-cut and brilliant-cut diamonds, and originally contained the 105.6-carat (21.12 g) Koh-i-Noor diamond, as well as the 94.4-carat (18.88 g) Cullinan III and 63.6-carat (12.72 g) Cullinan IV. In 1914, they were all replaced with crystal models, and the arches were made detachable so that it could be worn as a circlet or open crown. Mary wore it like this after George V died in 1936.Since Queen Mary died in 1953, the crown has not been worn. It is on display with the other Crown Jewels at the Tower of London.

Crown of justification

In ancient Egyptian religion, the crown of justification (mʒḥ n mʒ‘ ḫrw) was a wreath or fillet worn by the deceased to represent victory over death in the afterlife. Its symbolism is based on Chapter 19 of the Book of the Dead, in which the wearer is said to be "justified" by a triumph over death just as the god Osiris eventually rose above his enemies. A ritual text was recited as the dead person was crowned.The crown of justification might be made of laurel, palm, feathers, papyrus, or precious metals. It was syncretized with the solar crown of the sun god Re, and might be made of gold to mimic the properties of the sun. Among the collections of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is an intricately woven papyrus wreath with bronze insets to reflect light. In the Roman era, initiates into the mysteries of Isis might wear a wreath of palm leaves to suggest the rays of the sun.In the Ptolemaic and Roman Imperial periods, religious art in temples shows the king offering the crown to Horus or other deities. These crowns of justification take the form of a circlet, which sometimes has a uraeus or wedjat-eye. Rose wreaths might be substituted during the Roman period, in reference to the use of rose garlands and wreaths in the Romanized mysteries of Isis. The crown of justification was in this way integrated into the broader festal and religious uses of floral and vegetative wreaths in the Roman Empire.

Half-arch (crown)

A half-arch is the piece of gold, silver or platinum, usually decorated with jewels, that links the circlet (circular base) of a hoop crown to the monde at the top of the crown.

Imperial Crown of Austria

The Imperial Crown of Austria (German: Österreichische Kaiserkrone) was made in 1602 in Prague by Jan Vermeyen as the personal crown of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, and therefore is also known as the Crown of Emperor Rudolf II (German: Rudolfskrone). The crown was used as a private crown of the Holy Roman Emperors and Kings of Hungary and Bohemia from the House of Habsburg. In 1804 it became the official crown of the newly constituted Austrian Empire. After 1867 it remained the imperial crown of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918.

Iron Crown of Lombardy

The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Italian: Corona Ferrea di Lombardia; Latin: Corona Ferrea Langobardiae) is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom. It was made in the Early Middle Ages, consisting of a circlet of gold and jewels fitted around a central silver band, which tradition holds to be made of iron beaten out of a nail of the True Cross. The crown became one of the symbols of the Kingdom of the Lombards and later of the medieval Kingdom of Italy.

It is kept in the Cathedral of Monza, near Milan.

Naval crown

The Naval Crown (Latin: corona navalis) was a gold crown surmounted with small replicas of the prows of ships. It was a Roman military award, given to the first man who boarded an enemy ship during a naval engagement.

In heraldry a naval crown is mounted atop the shields of coats of arms of the naval vessels and other units belonging to some navies. It is made up of a circlet with the sails and sterns of ships alternating on top.


Pelleas , or Pellias, is a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. His story first appears in the Post-Vulgate Cycle.

Scottish crest badge

A Scottish crest badge is a heraldic badge worn to show allegiance to an individual or membership in a specific Scottish clan. Crest badges are commonly called clan crests, but this is a misnomer; there is no such thing as a collective clan crest, just as there is no such thing as a clan coat of arms.

Crest badges consist of a crest and a motto/slogan. These elements are heraldic property and protected by law in Scotland. Crest badges may be worn by anyone; however, those who are not entitled to the heraldic elements within, wear a crest badge surrounded by a strap and buckle. Those who own the heraldic elements within, may wear a crest badge surrounded by a plain circlet. The strap and buckle represents that the wearer is a follower of the individual who owns the crest and motto.

Crest badges are commonly worn by members of Scottish clans. These badges usually consist of elements from the clan chief's coat of arms. Clan members who wear their chief's crest and motto surrounded by a strap and buckle, show they are a member of the chief's clan (family). There are established clans that do not have chiefs recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. In such cases clan members sometimes wear the crest badge of the last known chief. Some clans wear crest badges derived from the arms of individuals who were never recognised as clan chiefs. Although "clan crests" are commonly bought and sold, the heraldic crest and motto belong to the chief alone and never the individual clan member.Crest badges, much like clan tartans, do not have a long history, and owe much to Victorian era romanticism, having only been worn on the bonnet since the 19th century. The original badges used by clans are said to have been specific plants worn in bonnets or hung from a pole or spear.


In heraldry, a torse or wreath is a twisted roll of fabric laid about the top of the helmet and the base of the crest. It has the dual purpose of masking the join between helm and crest, and holding the mantling in place.

The torse is sometimes mistakenly said to be the token, such as a handkerchief or sleeve, which the knight's lady-love gave him to wear when he left for the wars or participated in tournaments. This is due greatly to its original use being lost to history as the heraldic crest became more and more stylized and less representative of actual use.

The torse is blazoned as part of the crest. For example, the crest of Canada is blazoned On a wreath of the colours Argent and Gules, a lion passant guardant Or imperially crowned proper and holding in the dexter paw a maple leaf Gules. The tinctures of the torse are generally not mentioned in the blazon, as they are assumed to be of the principal metal and colour in the shield. Like the mantling, it must always be of a metal and a colour; usually the torse and the mantling are the same tinctures. In British heraldry, the torse is generally shown with six twists of material, alternately metal and colour.Occasionally the torse is replaced by a crown or coronet, which is then termed a "crest-coronet". In the past this practice was widespread amongst all ranks, but is nowadays usually denied to those outside the royalty and peerage, except in special circumstances. Some commoners have bypassed this rule by placing a coronet on top of a torse, rather than in place of it.

The torse is also often used as a decoration on a heraldic animal, either across the brow (as a form of circlet) or around the neck. Moors and Saracens are also traditionally depicted in heraldry with a torse across their brow.

Types of crowns
By rank
By use
By form


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