Cinema Novo

Cinema Novo (Portuguese pronunciation: [siˈne.mɐ ˈno.vu]) is a genre and movement of film noted for its emphasis on social equality and intellectualism that rose to prominence in Brazil during the 1960s and 1970s. It means "New Cinema" in Portuguese, which is the official language of Brazil, the movement's "home".[5] Cinema Novo formed in response to class and racial unrest both in Brazil and the United States. Influenced by Italian neorealism and French New Wave, films produced under the ideology of Cinema Novo opposed traditional Brazilian cinema, which consisted primarily of musicals, comedies and Hollywood-style epics.[6] Glauber Rocha is widely regarded as Cinema Novo's most influential filmmaker.[7][8][9] Today, the movement is often divided into three sequential phases that differ in tone, style and content.

Cinema Novo
Years active1950s to early 1970s [1]
CountryBrazil
Major figuresGlauber Rocha, Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Saraceni, Joaquim Pedro de Andrade, Leon Hirszman, Carlos Diegues, Ruy Guerra, Arnaldo Jabor [2]
InfluencesItalian Neorealism, French New Wave [3], Soviet cinema [4]

Origins

Background

In the 1950s, Brazilian cinema was dominated by chanchada (musicals, often comedic and "cheap"[10]), big-budget epics that imitated the style of Hollywood,[10] and "'serious' cinema" that Cinema Novo filmmaker Carlos Diegues characterizes as "sometimes cerebral and often ridiculously pretentious."[11] This traditional cinema was supported by foreign producers, distributors and exhibitors. As the decade ended, young Brazilian filmmakers protested films they perceived as made in "bad taste and ... sordid commercialism, ... a form of cultural prostitution" that relied on the patronage of "an illiterate and impoverished Brazil."[11]

Cinema Novo became increasingly political. In the 1960s, Brazil was producing the most political cinema in South America. Brazil therefore became the natural “home of the Cinema Novo (New Cinema) movement”.[9] Cinema Novo rose to prominence at the same time that progressive Brazilian Presidents Juscelino Kubitschek and later João Goulart took office and began to influence Brazilian popular culture. But it was not until 1959 or 1960 that 'Cinema Novo' emerged as a label for the movement.[10] According to Randal Johnson and Robert Stam, Cinema Novo officially began in 1960, with the start of its first phase.[12]

In 1961, the Popular Center of Culture, a subsidiary of the National Students' Union, released Cinco Vezes Favela, a film serialized in five episodes that Johnson and Stam claim to be "one of the first" products of the Cinema Novo movement.[13] The Popular Center of Culture (PCC) sought "to establish a cultural and political link with the Brazilian masses by putting on plays in factories and working-class neighborhoods, producing films and records, and by participating in literacy programs."[13] Johnson and Stam hold that "many of the original members of Cinema Novo" were also active members in the PCC who participated in the production of Cinco Vezes Favela.[13]

Influences

Brazilian filmmakers modeled Cinema Novo after genres known for subversiveness: Italian neorealism and French New Wave. Johnson and Stam further claim that Cinema Novo has something in common "with Soviet film of the twenties," which like Italian neorealism and French New Wave had "a penchant for theorizing its own cinematic practice."[14] Italian neorealist cinema often shot on location with nonprofessional actors and depicted working class citizens during the hard economic times following World War II. French New Wave drew heavily from Italian neorealism, as New Wave directors rejected classical cinema and embraced iconoclasm.

Some proponents of Cinema Novo were "scornful of the politics of the [French] New Wave", viewing its tendency to stylistically copy Hollywood as elitist.[6] But Cinema Novo filmmakers were largely attracted to French New Wave's use of auteur theory, which enabled directors to make low-budget films and develop personal fan bases.

Ideology

Cinema Novo filmmaker Alex Viany describes the movement as having elements of participatory culture. According to Viany, while Cinema Novo was initially "as fluid and undefined" as its predecessor French New Wave, it required that filmmakers have a passion for cinema, a desire to use it to explain "social and human problems," and a willingness to individualize their work.[10]

Auteur theory also greatly influenced Cinema Novo. Although its three phases were distinct, Cinema Novo encouraged directors to emphasize their personal politics and stylistic preferences. As Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade explained to Viany in a 1966 interview:

In our films, the propositions, positions, and ideas are extremely varied, at times even contradictory or at least multiple. Above all they are increasingly free and unmasked. There exists a total freedom of expression. ... At first glance this would seem to indicate some internal incoherence within the Cinema Novo movement. But in reality I think it indicates a greater coherence: a more legitimate, truthful, and direct correspondence between the filmmaker--with his perplexities, doubts, and certainties--and the world in which he lives.[15]

Class struggle also informed Cinema Novo, whose strongest theme is the "aesthetic of hunger" developed by premiere Cinema Novo filmmaker Glauber Rocha in the first phase. Rocha wished to expose how different the standard of living was for rich South Americans and poor South Americans. In his 1965 essay "The Esthetic of Hunger," Rocha stated that "the hunger of South America is not simply an alarming symptom: it is the essence of our society. ... [Cinema Novo's] originality is [South Americans'] hunger[,] and our greatest misery is that this hunger is felt but not intellectually understood."[16] On this note, Wheeler Winston Dixon and Gwendolyn Audrey Foster hold that "[t]he Marxist implications of [Rocha's] cinema are hard to miss".[17]

Themes and style

Most film historians divide Cinema Novo into three sequential phases that differ in theme, style and subject matter. Stam and Johnson identify "a first phase going from 1960 to 1964," a second phase running "from 1964 to 1968," and a third phase running "from 1963 to 1972" (though they also claim the final phase concludes at "roughly" "the end of 1971").[18] There is little disagreement among film critics about this time frame.[19][20][21][22]

Filmmaker Carlos Diegues claims that while lack of funds lowered the technical precision of Cinema Novo films, it also allowed directors, writers and producers to have an unusual amount of creative freedom. "Because Cinema Novo is not a school, it has no established style," states Diegues. "In Cinema Novo, expressive forms are necessarily personal and original without formal dogmas".[11] This directorial freedom, along with the changing social and political climate in Brazil, caused Cinema Novo to experience shifts in form and content in a short amount of time.

First phase (1960–1964)

Films of the first phase represent the original motivation and goals of Cinema Novo. First-phase films were earnest in tone and rural in setting, dealing with social ills that affected the working class like starvation, violence, religious alienation and economic exploitation. They also addressed the "fatalism and stoicism" of the working class, which discouraged it from working to fix these problems.[22] "The films share a certain political optimism," write Johnson and Stam, "a kind of faith that merely showing these problems would be a first step toward their solution."[23]

Unlike traditional Brazilian cinema that depicted beautiful professional actors in tropical paradises, first-phase Cinema Novo "searched out the dark corners of Brazilian life--its favelas and its sertão--the places where Brazil's social contradictions appeared most dramatically."[6] These topics were supported by aesthetics that "were visually characterized by a documentary quality, often achieved by the use of a hand-held camera" and were shot "in black and white, using simple, stark scenery that vividly emphasized the harshness of the landscape".[22] Diegues contends that first-phase Cinema Novo did not focus on editing and shot-framing but rather on spreading a proletariat philosophy. "Brazilian filmmakers (principally in Rio, Bahia, and São Paulo) have taken their cameras and gone out into the streets, the country, and the beaches in search of the Brazilian people, the peasant, the worker, the fisherman, the slum dweller."[24]

Most film historians agree that Glauber Rocha, "one of the most well-known and prolific filmmakers to emerge in the late 1950s in Brazil",[25] was the most powerful advocate for Cinema Novo in its first phase. Dixon and Foster contend that Rocha helped initiate the movement because he wanted to make films that educated the public about social equality, art and intellectualism, which Brazilian cinema at the time did not do. Rocha summarized these goals by claiming his films used "aesthetics of hunger" to address class and racial unrest. In 1964, Rocha released Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol ("Black God, White Devil"), which he wrote and directed to “suggest that only violence will help those who are sorely oppressed".[9]

With Rocha at the helm during its first phase, Cinema Novo was praised by critics around the world.

Second phase (1964–1968)

In 1964, popular Democratic President João Goulart was removed from office by military coup, turning Brazil into a military-run autocracy under new President Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco. Brazilians consequently lost faith in the ideals of Cinema Novo, as the movement had promised to protect civilian rights yet had failed to uphold democracy. Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade blamed fellow directors, whom he claimed had lost touch with Brazilians while appealing to critics: "For a film to be a truly political instrument," de Andrade said, "it must first communicate with its public".[26] Second-phase Cinema Novo thus sought to both deflect criticism and to address the "anguish" and "perplexity" that Brazilians felt after Goulart was ousted. It did this by producing films that were "analyses of failure--of populism, of developmentalism, and of leftist intellectuals" to protect Brazilian democracy.[27]

At this time, filmmakers also started trying to make Cinema Novo more profitable. Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw state that second-phase directors "recognized the irony in making so-called 'popular' films, to be viewed only by university students and art-house aficionados. As a result, some auteurs began to move away from the so-called 'aesthetics of hunger' toward a filmmaking style and themes designed to attract the interest of the cinema-going public at large."[28] As a result, the first Cinema Novo film to be shot in color and to depict middle-class protagonists was released during this time: Leon Hirzshman's Garota de Ipanema ("Girl from Ipanema," 1968).

Third phase and Novo Cinema Novo (1968–1972)

Hans Proppe and Susan Tarr characterize Cinema Novo's third phase as "a mixed bag of social and political themes against a backdrop of characters, images and contexts not unlike the richness and floridness of the Brazilian jungle".[29] Third-phase Cinema Novo has also been called "the cannibal-tropicalist phase"[30] or simply the "tropicalist" phase.[29]

Tropicalism was a movement that focused on kitsch, bad taste and gaudy colors. Film historians refer to cannibalism both literally and metaphorically. Both types of cannibalism are visible in Como Era Gostoso o Meu Frances ("How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman," 1971), in which the protagonist is abducted and eaten by literal cannibals at the same time it is "suggested that the Indians (i.e., Brazil) should metaphorically cannibalize their foreign enemies, appropriating their force without being dominated by them."[18] Rocha believed cannibalism represented the violence that was necessary to enact social change and depict it onscreen: "From Cinema Novo it should be learned that an aesthetic of violence, before being primitive, is revolutionary. It is the initial moment when the colonizer becomes aware of the colonized. Only when confronted with violence does the colonizer understand, through horror, the strength of the culture he exploits."[16]

With Brazil modernizing in the global economy, third-phase Cinema Novo also became more polished and professional, producing "films in which the rich cultural texture of Brazil has been pushed to the limit and exploited for its own aesthetic ends rather than for its appropriateness as political metaphor."[29] Brazilian consumers and filmmakers began to feel that Cinema Novo was contradicting the ideals of its first phase. This perception led to the birth of Novo Cinema Novo, also called Udigrudi[nb 1] cinema, which used 'dirty screen' and 'garbage' aesthetics to return Cinema Novo to its original focus on marginalized characters and social problems.

But third-phase Cinema Novo also had supporters. Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade, who was active during the first phase and produced one of the premiere films of the third phase, Macunaíma, was pleased Cinema Novo had made itself more relatable to Brazilian citizens, despite accusations it was selling out to do so. Referencing Leon Hirszman's Garota de Ipanema, de Andrade praised Hirszman for using "a popular stereotype to establish contact with the masses, while at the same time ... demystif[ying] that very stereotype".[31]

End of Cinema Novo

Burnes St. Patrick Hollyman, son of famed American photographer Thomas Hollyman, states that "by 1970, many of the cinema novo films had won numerous awards at international festivals".[32] In 1970 Rocha published a manifesto on the progress of Cinema Novo, in which he said he was pleased that Cinema Novo "had gained critical acceptance as part of world cinema" and had become "a nationalist cinema that accurately reflected the artistic and ideological concerns of the Brazilian people" (Hollyman).[32] But Rocha also warned filmmakers and consumers that being too complacent in the achievements of Cinema Novo would return Brazil to its pre-Cinema Novo state:

The movement is bigger than any one of us. But the young should know that they cannot be irresponsible about the present and the future because today's anarchy can be tomorrow's slavery. Before long, imperialism will start to exploit the newly created films. If the Brazilian cinema is the palm tree of Tropicalism, it is important that the people who have lived through the drought are on guard to make sure that Brazilian cinema doesn't become underdeveloped.[33]

Rocha's fears were realized. In 1977, filmmaker Carlos Diegues said that "one can only talk about Cinema Novo in nostalgic or figurative terms because Cinema Novo as a group no longer exists, above all because it has been diluted into Brazilian cinema."[34] Toward the end of Cinema Novo, the Brazilian government created film company Embrafilme to encourage production of Brazilian cinema; but Embrafilme mostly produced films that ignored the Cinema Novo ideology. Aristides Gazetas claims that Third Cinema now carries on the Cinema Novo tradition.[35]

Legacy

Embrafilme

In 1969, the Brazilian government instituted Embrafilme, a company designed to produce and distribute Brazilian cinema. Embrafilme produced movies of various genres, including fantasies and big-budget epics. At the time, Cinema Novo filmmaker Carlos Diegues said he supported Embrafilme because it was "the only enterprise with sufficient economic and political power to confront the devastating voracity of the multinational corporations in Brazil."[34] Moreover, Diegues held that while Cinema Novo "is not identified with Embrafilme", "[Embrafilme's] existence ... is in reality a project of Cinema Novo."[34]

When Embrafilme was dismantled in 1990 by President Fernando Collor de Mello, "the consequences" for the Brazilian film industry "were immediate and grim."[36] Lacking investors, many Brazilian directors co-produced English films. This caused English cinema to overrun the Brazilian market, which went from producing 74 films in 1989 to producing nine films in 1993. Brazilian President Itamar Franco ended the crisis by implementing the Brazilian Cinema Rescue Award, which funded 90 projects between 1993 and 1994. The award "opened new doors to a young generation of new film-makers (and a few of the veterans) who were confident that, as the title of a film by Cinema Novo veteran director Carlos Diegues prophetically announced, better days would come (Melhores Dias Virao/Better Days Will Come, 1989)."[37]

Third Cinema

According to Aristides Gazetas, Cinema Novo is the first example of an influential genre called Third Cinema. Like Cinema Novo, Third Cinema draws on Italian neorealism and French New Wave. Gazetas claims that Cinema Novo can be characterized as early Third Cinema because Glauber Rocha "adopted Third Cinema techniques to bring awareness of the social and political realities in his country through cinema".[7] After fading with Cinema Novo, Third Cinema was revived in 1986 when English film companies looked to create a genre that "focused upon Anglo-American cinematic practices" and "avoided both the sentimental leftist cultural theory emanating from the UK and the cultural and educational practices in line with corporate cultures and market consumerism that related to variants of postmodernism."[35]

In 1965, Glauber Rocha claimed that "Cinema Novo is a phenomenon of new peoples everywhere and not a privilege of Brazil."[16] Appropriately, Third Cinema has affected film culture throughout the world. In Italy, Gillo Pontecorvo directed The Battle of Algiers (1965), which depicted native African Muslims as brave terrorists fighting French colonialists in Algeria. Cuban filmmaker Tomas Gutierrez Alea, co-founder of the ground-breaking Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industria Cinematográficos, used Third Cinema to "reconstitut[e] a historical past for Cubans."[38] According to Stuart Hall, Third Cinema also impacted black peoples in the Caribbean by giving them two identities: one in which they are unified across a diaspora, and another that highlights "what black people have become as a result of white rule and colonization."[39]

List of key films

First phase

Second phase

Third phase

List of key directors

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Brazilian pronunciation of "Underground."

References

  1. ^ Brazil: Five Centuries of Change-library.brown.edu
  2. ^ The 10 Greatest New Wave Movements in Film History« Taste of Cinema
  3. ^ Cinema Novo revolutionised Brazilian cinema in the 1960s-Brazil
  4. ^ Cannes 2016: 'Cinema Novo' Review-Variety
  5. ^ a b c Dixon & Foster, 293.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Johnson & Stam, 33.
  7. ^ a b Gazetas, 308.
  8. ^ Johnson & Stam, 42.
  9. ^ a b c Dixon & Foster, 292.
  10. ^ a b c d Viany, 141.
  11. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 65.
  12. ^ Johnson & Stam, 32.
  13. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 58.
  14. ^ Johnson & Stam, 55.
  15. ^ Johnson & Stam, 75.
  16. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 70.
  17. ^ Dixon & Foster, 292-293.
  18. ^ a b Stam & Johnson.
  19. ^ Xavier, 372-373.
  20. ^ Rodríguez, 108.
  21. ^ King, 113.
  22. ^ a b c Dennison & Shaw, 133.
  23. ^ Johnson & Stam, 34.
  24. ^ Johnson & Stam, 66.
  25. ^ Hollyman, 9.
  26. ^ Johnson & Stam, 73.
  27. ^ Johnson & Stam, 35-36.
  28. ^ Dennison & Shaw, 134.
  29. ^ a b c Proppe & Tarr.
  30. ^ a b Johnson & Stam, 37.
  31. ^ Johnson & Stam, 74.
  32. ^ a b Hollyman, 96.
  33. ^ Qtd. on Hollyman, 97.
  34. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 100.
  35. ^ a b Gazetas, 306.
  36. ^ Rêgo, 35.
  37. ^ Rêgo, 37-38.
  38. ^ Gazetas, 309.
  39. ^ Gazetas, 310.
  40. ^ BBC-Culture-Brazil: Cinema's most radical battleground
  41. ^ a b c d e Johnson & Stam, 35.
  42. ^ a b c Johnson & Stam, 38.

Bibliography

  • Dennison, Stephanie and Lisa Shaw (2004), Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930-2001, New York: Manchester.
  • Dixon, Wheeler Winston and Gwendolyn Audrey Foster (2008), A Short History of Cinema, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Gazetas, Aristides (2008), An Introduction to World Cinema, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
  • Hollyman, Burnes Saint Patrick (1983), Glauber Rocha and The Cinema Novo, New York & London: Garland.
  • Johnson, Randal and Robert Stam (1995), Brazilian Cinema, New York: Columbia.
  • King, John (2000), Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in South America, New York & London: Verso.
  • Proppe, Hans and Susan Tarr (1976), "Pitfalls of cultural nationalism in cinema novo", Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media, 10, 45-48.
  • Rêgo, Cacilda (2011), "The Fall and Rise of Brazilian Cinema", in Rêgo, Calcida; Carolina, Rocha, New Trends in Argentine and Brazilian Cinema, Chicago: intellect.
  • Rodríguez-Hernández, Rafael (2009), Splendors of South Cinema, Westport, CT: Praeger.
  • Stam, Robert and Randal Johnson (November 1979), "Beyond Cinema Novo", Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media, 21, 13-18.
  • Viany, Alex (Winter, 1970), "The Old and the New in Brazilian Cinema", The Drama Review, 14 (2), 141-144.
  • Xavier, Ismail (2000), "Cinema Novo", in Balderston, Daniel; Gonzalez, Mike; Lopez, Ana M., Encyclopedia of Contemporary South American and Caribbean Cultures, London: Routledge.
Antônio Calmon

Antônio Augusto Du Pin Calmon (born October 29, 1945) is a Brazilian telenovela writer.

Antônio Pitanga

Antônio Luiz Sampaio (born June 13, 1939), better known by his stage name Antônio Pitanga, is a Brazilian actor. He became internationally known for playing several roles on films of the Cinema Novo movement in the 1960s.

Barravento

Barravento (lit. "The Turning Wind") is a 1962 Brazilian drama film directed by Glauber Rocha. The directorial debut of Rocha, it stars Antonio Pitanga, Luíza Maranhão, Lucy Carvalho, and Aldo Teixeira. It is one of the most important films of the Cinema Novo movement, which addressing the socio-political problems of Brazil. It was enterly shot on locations of Salvador, Bahia between 1959 and September 1960.

Carlos Diegues

Carlos Diegues, also known as Cacá Diegues, (born May 19, 1940) is a Brazilian film director. He was born in Maceió, Alagoas, and is best known as a member of the Cinema Novo movement. He is popularly known for his unconventional, yet intriguing film techniques among other film producers of the Cinema Novo movement. Diegues is also widely known for his dynamic use visuals, ideas, plots, themes, and other cinematic techniques.He incorporated many musical acts in his film as he favored musical pieces to be complementary of his ideas. Diegues remains very popular and is regarded one the most cinematic producers of his generation. Of the Cinema Novo directors, he would go on to produce films, plays, musicals and other forms of entertainment in Brazil.

Diegues' contributions to Brazilian cinema developed the film industry. He would pioneer expensive film projects that domestic filmmakers had ever seen. Films such as Bye Bye Brazil were two million dollar projects and later on films such as God is Brazilian would be over 10 million dollars. This was a new era in Brazil as domestic directors had yet to produce any films with that kind of financial support. He admits to using Brazilians in his films as much as he can. Diegues would use extras, film technicians, painters, sculptors and other essential personnel of Brazilian backgrounds even if they were inexperienced. Diegues attempted to consistently represent the underrepresented people of Brazil in his films. He suggests that history is written by the winners and the afro-Brazilian communities were not among those who were given a chance to write their own history. He also proposed the idea that up until this movement, cinema in Brazil only provided the white Brazilian experience despite the growing masses of black Brazilians all over the country. He is known for distinguished publications that uplift the Afro-Brazilian spirit and bodies.

In 2018, Diegues was elected for the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Cinema of Brazil

Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment. The film industry of Brazil has gone through periods of ups and downs, a reflection of its dependency on state funding and incentives.

Cinema of Portugal

The Cinema of Portugal started with the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. Cinema was introduced in Portugal in 1896 with the screening of foreign films and the first Portuguese film was Saída do Pessoal Operário da Fábrica Confiança, made in the same year. The first movie theater opened in 1904 and the first scripted Portuguese film was O Rapto de Uma Actriz (1907). The first all-talking sound film, A Severa, was made in 1931. Starting in 1933, with A Canção de Lisboa, the Golden Age would last the next two decades, with films such as O Pátio das Cantigas (1942) and A Menina da Rádio (1944). Aniki-Bóbó (1942), Manoel de Oliveira's first feature film, marked a milestone, with a realist style predating Italian neorealism by a few years. In the 1950s the industry stagnated. The early 1960s saw the birth of the Cinema Novo (literally "New Cinema") movement, showing realism in film, in the vein of Italian neorealism and the French New Wave, with films like Dom Roberto (1962) and Os Verdes Anos (1963). The movement became particularly relevant after the Carnation Revolution of 1974. In 1989, João César Monteiro's Recordações da Casa Amarela won the Silver Lion at the Venice Film Festival and in 2009, João Salaviza's Arena won the Short Film Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Several other Portuguese films have been in competition for major film awards like the Palme d'Or and the Golden Bear. João Sete Sete (2006) was the first Portuguese animated feature film. Portuguese cinema is significantly supported by the State, with the government's Instituto do Cinema e do Audiovisual giving films financial support.

Entranced Earth

Entranced Earth (Portuguese: Terra em Transe [ˈtɛʁɐ ẽj̃ ˈtɾɐ̃.zi], "World in a Trance", also called Land in Anguish or Earth Entranced) is a 1967 Brazilian Cinema Novo drama film directed by Glauber Rocha. It was shot in Parque Lage and at the Municipal Theatre of Rio de Janeiro. The film is an allegory for the history of Brazil in the period 1960–66.

Glauber Rocha

Glauber de Andrade Rocha (14 March 1939 – 22 August 1981), better known as Glauber Rocha, was a Brazilian film director, actor and screenwriter. He was a key figure of Cinema Novo and one of the most influential moviemakers of Brazilian cinema. His films Black God, White Devil and Entranced Earth are often considered to be two of the greatest achievements in Brazilian cinematic history, being selected by Abraccine as, respectively, the second and fifth best Brazilian films of all-time.Rocha's film possess a staunch avant-garde and experimental nature, making of him a seminal figure of the new wave. His works are noted for their many political overtones, often addressing the passive-aggressive situation of the Third World, which Rocha referred to both metaphorically and objectively as "hunger" in his essay Estética da Fome (The Aesthetics of Hunger). Rocha won the Prix de la mise en scène at the 1969 Cannes Film Festival for Antonio das Mortes and the 1977 Special Jury Prize for Best Short Film for Di. Three of Rocha's films were nominated for the Palm d'Or, including Entranced Earth, which was awarded the FIPRESCI at the 1967 Cannes Film Festival and the Grand Prix of the Locarno Film Festival of the same year.

Grupo Cine Liberación

The Grupo Cine Liberación ("The Liberation Film Group") was an Argentine film movement that took place during the end of the 1960s. It was founded by Fernando Solanas, Octavio Getino and Gerardo Vallejo, and became closely linked to the Peronist Left. In the subsequent years other films directors (grupo Realizadores de Mayo, Enrique and Nemesio Juárez, Pablo Szir, etc.) revolved around the active core of the Cine Liberación group.Along with Raymundo Gleyzer's Cine de la Base in Argentina, the Brazilian Cinema Novo, the Cuban revolutionary cinema and the Bolivian film director Jorge Sanjinés, the Grupo Cine Liberación was part of the Tercer Cine movement. The name of Tercer Cine (or Third Film, in an obvious allusion to the Third World) was explicitly opposed to "First World" cinema, that is, Hollywood, and was also contrasted with auteur film, deciding to engage itself more explicitly in the social and political movements.From his exile in Francoist Spain, Juan Peron sent in 1971 two letters to Octavio Getino, one congratulating him for this work of Liberation Film Group, and another concerning two documentaries that were to be done with him (La Revolución Justicialista and Actualización política y doctrinaria).The graphist Raimundo Ongaro, also founder of the CGT de los Argentinos (CGTA) trade-union, was also close to this movement.

Helena Solberg

Helena Solberg-Ladd (Rio de Janeiro, June 17, 1938) is a Brazilian-born documentarist who, since 1971, has made her career in the United States.In 1983, she won a News & Documentary Emmy Award with From the Ashes: Nicaragua Today, documentary on a new society that born of political turmoil in Central America and the role that the U.S. plays in determining its future. Solberg is the only woman to participate in the "Cinema Novo" in Brazil.

Joaquim Pedro de Andrade

Joaquim Pedro de Andrade (May 25, 1932 – September 10, 1988) was a Brazilian film director and screenwriter. He was a member of the Cinema Novo movement in Brazil. Andrade is best known for his 1969 film Macunaíma, based loosely on the novel of the same title by Mário de Andrade. His 1962 documentary film Garrincha: Hero of the Jungle was entered into the 13th Berlin International Film Festival.

Garrincha is the hero football player, with Pele lead the victory World Football Cup in 1958 (Sweden) and 1962 (Chile).

Macunaíma is a tale written by Mario de Andrade, published in 1928. Is an allegoric fable, tells the birth of Brazilian's national ethos.

José Fonseca e Costa

José Fonseca e Costa, GCIH (June 27, 1933 – November 1, 2015) was a Portuguese film director. He was one of the founders of the Portuguese Cinema Novo.

Born in Angola, Costa worked as an assistant to Michelangelo Antonioni before becoming one of the leaders of Portugal's 'Young Cinema' in the 1960s.

L'Œil d'or

L'Œil d'or, le prix du documentaire — Cannes ([lœj dɔʁ], "The Golden Eye, The Documentary Prize — Cannes") is a documentary film award created in 2015. It is awarded to the best documentary presented in one of the sections of the Cannes Film Festival (Official Selection, Directors' Fortnight, International Critics' Week and Cannes Classics). Initiated by the Civil Society of Multimedia Authors (SCAM - Société Civile des Auteurs Multimédia) and its President Julie Bertuccelli, the prize is awarded in partnership with the Institut national de l'audiovisuel and with the support of Cannes Film Festival and its General Delegate Thierry Frémaux.The prize, which consists of €5,000, is presented to the director of the winning film at an official ceremony in Cannes. It was presented for the first time on 23 May 2015 at the Palais des Festivals.

Leon Hirszman

Leon Hirszman (22 November 1937 – 15 September 1987) was a Brazilian film director, producer and screenwriter, and one of the main figures of Cinema Novo. He is best known for directing the 1981 film They Don't Wear Black Tie which won the Special Jury Prize at the 38th Venice International Film Festival. His other films include Fernanda Montenegro's 1965 film debut The Deceased, the 1972 adaptation of Graciliano Ramos's S. Bernardo and the documentary ABC da Greve. He died from complications of HIV/AIDS on 15 September 1987, aged 49.

Leopoldo Serran

Leopoldo Augusto Bhering Serran (May 6, 1942 – 20 August 2008) was a Brazilian screenwriter best known for the 1976 film Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands, based on the novel by Jorge Amado.

Serran frequently collaborated with directors Carlos Diegues and Bruno Barreto and was considered a major screenwriter of Brazil's Cinema Novo movement.

Serran died in Rio de Janeiro of liver cancer.

Os Trapalhões e o Mágico de Oróz

Os Trapalhões e o Mágico de Oróz (English: The Bumbling and the Wizard of Oróz) is the 1984 entry in the Brazilian comedy film series Os Trapalhões. This is a parody of The Wizard of Oz (1939). It was directed by Dedé Santana and Vitor Lustosa. It injects elements and actors of Cinema Novo into family film to direct attention to the ongoing drought in the Northeast, an issue that remains unresolved. It was shot in the city of Orós, in the state of Ceará.

Rio, 100 Degrees F.

Rio, 100 Degrees F. (Portuguese: Rio, 40 Graus) is a 1955 Brazilian film written and directed by Nelson Pereira dos Santos. It is dos Santos' first feature work, inspired by the Italian Neo-Realism, and is considered a precursor of the Cinema Novo movement.

The Brave Warrior

The Brave Wales (Portuguese: O Bravo Guerreiro) is a 1968 Brazilian drama film directed by Gustavo Dahl. The directorial debut of Dahl, it is one of the most important films of the second phase of Brazil's Cinema Novo movement. It won the Special Award at the 1968 Festival de Brasília, Best Director at the 1968 Festival de Belo Horizonte, and the Best Cinematography at the 1969 Instituto Nacional do Cinema (INC) Awards.

Vidas Secas (film)

Vidas Secas (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈvi.das ˈse.kas], meaning "Dry lives"; Pre-Reform spelling: Vidas Sêcas) is a 1963 Brazilian drama film directed by Nelson Pereira dos Santos, and based on the 1938 novel of the same name by Graciliano Ramos. It tells the story of a poverty-stricken family in the dry Brazilian northeast.

The film stars Átila Iório, Orlando Macedo, Maria Ribeiro and Jofre Soares. It is one of the key films in the Brazilian Cinema Novo movement. It was entered into the 1964 Cannes Film Festival.

New Wave in cinema
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or period
By demographic groups
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