Cinco de Mayo

Cinco de Mayo (pronounced [ˈsiŋko ðe ˈmaʝo] in Latin America, Spanish for "Fifth of May") is an annual celebration held on May 5. The date is observed to commemorate the Mexican Army's victory over the French Empire at the Battle of Puebla, on May 5, 1862, under the leadership of General Ignacio Zaragoza.[1][2] The victory of the smaller Mexican force against a larger French force was a boost to morale for the Mexicans. A year after the battle, a larger French force defeated Zaragoza at the Second Battle of Puebla, and Mexico City soon fell to the invaders.

In the United States, Cinco de Mayo has taken on a significance beyond that in Mexico.[3][4][5][6] More popularly celebrated in the United States than Mexico,[7] the date has become associated with the celebration of Mexican-American culture. These celebrations began in California, where they have been observed annually since 1863. The day gained nationwide popularity in the 1980s thanks especially to advertising campaigns by beer and wine companies. Today, Cinco de Mayo generates beer sales on par with the Super Bowl.

In Mexico, the commemoration of the battle continues to be mostly ceremonial, such as through military parades or battle reenactments. The city of Puebla marks the event with an arts festival, a festival of local cuisine, and re-enactments of the battle.

Cinco de Mayo is sometimes mistaken for Mexico's Independence Day—the most important national holiday in Mexico—which is celebrated on September 16, commemorating the Cry of Dolores, which initiated the war of Mexican independence from Spain.[1][8]

Cinco de Mayo
Batalla de Puebla
Observed byAmericans, Mexicans,
mixed nationality
TypeMultinational
SignificanceCelebration of the Mexican victory over French forces at the Battle of Puebla, on May 5, 1862
CelebrationsParades, food, music, folkloric dancing, battle reenactments
DateMay 5
Frequencyyearly
Related toEl Día de la Batalla de Puebla

Background

Cinco de Mayo, 1901 poster
"May 5, 1862 and the siege of Puebla", a 1901 image from the Biblioteca del Niño Mexicano, a series of booklets for children detailing the history of Mexico

Events leading to the Battle of Puebla

Cinco de Mayo has its roots in the Second French intervention in Mexico, which took place in the aftermath of the 1846–48 Mexican–American War and the 1858–61 Reform War. The Reform War was a civil war that pitted Liberals (who believed in separation of church and state, and freedom of religion) against Conservatives (who favored a tight bond between the Catholic Church and the Mexican state).[9] These wars nearly bankrupted the Mexican Treasury. On July 17, 1861, Mexican President Benito Juárez issued a moratorium in which all foreign debt payments would be suspended for two years.[3][10] In response, Britain, France, and Spain sent naval forces to Veracruz to demand reimbursement. Britain and Spain negotiated with Mexico and withdrew, but France, at the time ruled by Napoleon III, decided to use the opportunity to establish an empire in Mexico that would favor French interests, the Second Mexican Empire. The empire was part of an envisioned "Latin America" (term used to imply cultural kinship of the region with France) that would rebuild French influence in the American continent and exclude Anglophone American territories.

French invasion and Mexican victory

Late in 1861, a well-armed French fleet attacked Veracruz, landing a large French force and driving President Juárez and his government into retreat.[11] Moving on from Veracruz towards Mexico City, the French army encountered heavy resistance from the Mexicans close to Puebla, at the Mexican forts of Loreto and Guadalupe.[12] The French army of 8,000[13][14][note 1] attacked the poorly equipped Mexican army of 4,000.[15][note 2] On May 5, 1862,[16] the Mexicans decisively defeated the French army.[17][18][19] The victory represented a significant morale boost to the Mexican army and the Mexican people at large[20][21] and helped establish a sense of national unity and patriotism.[22]

Events after the battle

The Mexican victory, however, was short-lived. A year later, with 30,000 troops, the French were able to defeat the Mexican army, capture Mexico City, and install Emperor Maximilian I as ruler of Mexico.[23] The French victory was itself short-lived, lasting only three years, from 1864 to 1867.[23] By 1865, "with the American Civil War now over, the U.S. began to provide more political and military assistance to Mexico to expel the French".[23] Upon the conclusion of the American Civil War, Napoleon III, facing a persistent Mexican guerilla resistance, the threat of war with Prussia, and "the prospect of a serious scrap with the United States", retreated from Mexico starting in 1866.[24] The Mexicans recaptured Mexico City, and Maximilian I was apprehended and executed, along with his Mexican generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía Camacho in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro.[10][23] "On June 5, 1867, Benito Juárez finally entered Mexico City where he installed a new government and reorganized his administration."[10]

Significance

The Battle of Puebla was significant, both nationally and internationally, for several reasons. First, although considerably outnumbered, the Mexicans defeated a better-equipped French army. "This battle was significant in that the 4,000 Mexican soldiers were greatly outnumbered by the well-equipped French army of 8,000 that had not been defeated for almost 50 years."[25][26][note 3] Second, since the Battle of Puebla, some have argued that no country in the Americas has subsequently been invaded by any other European military force.[27][note 4] Historian Justo Sierra has written in his Political Evolution of the Mexican People that, had Mexico not defeated the French in Puebla on May 5, 1862, France would have gone to the aid of the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War and the United States' destiny would have been different.[28][29]

History of the holiday

United States

Cinco de Mayo performers at White House
Cinco de Mayo performers at the White House

According to a paper published by the UCLA Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture about the origin of the observance of Cinco de Mayo in the United States, the modern American focus on that day first started in California in 1863 in response to the resistance to French rule in Mexico.[30] "Far up in the gold country town of Columbia (now Columbia State Park) Mexican miners were so overjoyed at the news that they spontaneously fired off rifle shots and fireworks, sang patriotic songs and made impromptu speeches."[31]

A 2007 UCLA Newsroom article notes that "the holiday, which has been celebrated in California continuously since 1863, is virtually ignored in Mexico."[30] TIME magazine reports that "Cinco de Mayo started to come into vogue in 1940s America during the rise of the Chicano Movement."[21] The holiday crossed over from California into the rest of the United States in the 1950s and 1960s but did not gain popularity until the 1980s when marketers, especially beer companies, capitalized on the celebratory nature of the day and began to promote it.[32][33] It grew in popularity and evolved into a celebration of Mexican culture and heritage, first in areas with large Mexican-American populations, like Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, New York, followed by Cleveland, Boston, Indianapolis, Raleigh, Dallas, San Antonio, Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Miami, Orlando, Denver, Phoenix, Philadelphia, Tucson, San Francisco, San Jose, and San Diego.[34]

In a 1998 study in the Journal of American Culture it was reported that there were more than 120 official US celebrations of Cinco de Mayo in 21 different states. An update in 2006 found that the number of official Cinco de Mayo events was 150 or more, according to José Alamillo, a professor of ethnic studies at Washington State University in Pullman, who has studied the cultural impact of Cinco de Mayo north of the border.[35] Los Angeles' Fiesta Broadway has been billed as the largest Cinco de Mayo celebration in the world, which it most certainly was at its peak in the 1990s when it attracted crowds of 500,000 or more. In recent years attendance has seen a dramatic decrease.[36][37]

Cinco26
Cinco de Mayo celebration in Saint Paul, Minnesota

On June 7, 2005, the United States Congress issued a concurrent resolution calling on the President of the United States to issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe Cinco de Mayo with appropriate ceremonies and activities.[38] To celebrate, many display Cinco de Mayo banners while school districts hold special events to educate students about its historical significance. Special events and celebrations highlight Mexican culture, especially in its music and regional dancing. Examples include baile folklórico and mariachi demonstrations held annually at the Plaza del Pueblo de Los Ángeles, near Olvera Street. Commercial interests in the United States have capitalized on the celebration, advertising Mexican products and services, with an emphasis on alcoholic beverages,[39][40] foods, and music.[41][42] According to Nielsen, in 2013 more than $600 million worth of beer was purchased in the United States for Cinco de Mayo, more than for the Super Bowl or St. Patrick's Day.[43]

Mexico

Vista fuerte derecha
The former Forts of Guadalupe and Loreto now house a museum.

On May 9, 1862, President Juárez declared that the anniversary of the Battle of Puebla would be a national holiday regarded as "Battle of Puebla Day" or "Battle of Cinco de Mayo".[44][45][46][47][48]

Today, the commemoration of the battle is not observed as a national holiday in Mexico (i.e. not a statutory holiday).[49] However, all public schools are closed nationwide in Mexico on May 5.[50][51] The day is an official holiday in the State of Puebla, where the Battle took place, and also a full holiday (no work) in the neighboring State of Veracruz.[52][53]

In Puebla, historical reenactments, parades, and meals take place to commemorate the battle. Parade participants dress as French and Mexican soldiers to reenact the battle.[54] Every year the city also hosts the Festival Internacional de Puebla, which gathers national and international artists, traditional musicians and dancers.[54] As well as the Festival Internacional del Mole, with an emphasis on the city's iconic mole poblano.[54]

In Mexico City, military commemoration is occasionally held at the Campo Marte.[55] A street, Avenida Cinco de Mayo, in the Historic Center of Mexico City was named after the battle in 1862 by Benito Juárez.

Elsewhere

Events tied to Cinco de Mayo also occur outside Mexico and the United States. As in the United States, celebrations elsewhere also emphasize Mexican cuisine, culture and music. For example, some Canadian pubs play Mexican music and serve Mexican food and drink,[56] and a sky-diving club near Vancouver holds a Cinco de Mayo skydiving event.[57] In the Cayman Islands, in the Caribbean, there is an annual Cinco de Mayo air guitar competition,[58] and at Montego Bay, Jamaica, there is a Cinco de Mayo celebration.[59] The city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, holds an annual Mexican Festival[60] to honor the day, and celebrations are held in London[61] and New Zealand.[62] Other celebrations of the day can also be found in Cape Town, South Africa,[63] Lagos, Nigeria,[64] and in Paris.[65] Cinco de Mayo is celebrated in Japan in Osaka and in Tokyo's Yoyogi Park Event Space as a celebration of Latin American culture.[66][67][68]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Other sources give the size of the French force as 6,500. [1]
  2. ^ According to Mexico's National Institute of Historical Studies on the Mexican Revolution the Mexican force consisted of 4,802 soldiers.[2] Archived October 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine And Peter Hicks of the French Fondation Napoléon and other French sources state the size of the Mexican force was 12,000 men. [3][4]. Hayes-Batista clarifies on page 60 of his El Cinco de Mayo: An American Tradition that after the smaller Mexican force had defeated the French on May 5, they received reinforcements on May 6 and 7 of approximately 12,000 additional Mexican soldiers.
  3. ^ It has been pointed out that, contrary to reports on PBS and in Philadelphia's The Bulletin, the French were in fact considered to have been defeated by the Russians at the Siege of Petropavlovsk in 1854.
  4. ^ The statement in The Bulletin is, "This was the last time any army from another continent invaded the Americas."[25] Note it says "invaded", and not "attacked." Thus, since Cinco de Mayo no army from another continent has invaded the Americas. The War of the Falklands War, for example, was fought in the Americas but the Islands were invaded by a military from the Americas (the Argentine military). They were subsequently attacked (not invaded) by the UK. Another example, Pearl Harbor, experienced an attack, not an invasion by the Japanese. The only possible exception to the Cinco de Mayo claim above might be the brief occupation/invasion of two of the Alaskan Aleutian Islands by the Japanese military during WWII. This event, however, was so insignificant as to be virtually negligible: the islands invaded had a total population of 12 Americans and some 45 natives, the invasion was short-lived, and the battle fought there had no notoriety other than the psychological effect on the Americans that the Japanese had invaded American territory again (Alaska was not yet a full-fledged state). In short, the military importance of these small pieces of land was nowhere comparable to the superior military significance of the Battle of Puebla.

Citations

  1. ^ a b Lovgren, Stefan (May 5, 2006). "Cinco de Mayo, From Mexican Fiesta to Popular U.S. Holiday". National Geographic News.
  2. ^ "Recognizing the Significance of Cinco de Mayo". Congress.gov. House of Representatives. May 4, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Cinco de Mayo". University of California at Los Angeles. Archived from the original on April 8, 2006. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  4. ^ "Cinco de Mayo celebrations run all weekend". Deseret News. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  5. ^ "Cinco de Mayo has become a day for celebrating Mexican culture in the United States, and celebrations there easily outshine those in Mexico". About.com. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  6. ^ Krogstad, Jens (May 5, 2003). "University community celebrates Cinco de Mayo". The Minnesota Daily. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on November 18, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2016. Today, the holiday is celebrated more in the United States than in Mexico
  7. ^ "Why is Cinco de Mayo More Popular in America Than in Mexico?". US News & World Report. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  8. ^ Lauren Effron (May 5, 2010). "Cinco de Mayo: NOT Mexico's Independence Day". Discovery Channel. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  9. ^ Minster, Christopher (December 16, 2013). "Cinco De Mayo/The Battle of Puebla". About.com. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  10. ^ a b c Herz, May. "Cinco de Mayo". Inside Mexico. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  11. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". History.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  12. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico Online. April 25, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  13. ^ "Cinco de Mayo: What's all the fuss about?" Julia Goralka. The Washington Times. May 2, 2012. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  14. ^ Happy Cinco de Mayo – Sorta. Ray Suarez. PBS News Hour. May 4, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  15. ^ Cinco de Mayo. Mexico Online: The Oldest and most trusted online guide to Mexico. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  16. ^ Cinco de Mayo. 2011. The History Channel website. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  17. ^ The Significance of "Cinco de Mayo". Ignacio González. 1996. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  18. ^ Cinco de Mayo -The Backstory. Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Tony Azios. 'Llero. Jaws Communications. 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  19. ^ Cheryl VanBuskirk (May 7, 2009). "Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May". The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
  20. ^ History Channel.com. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
  21. ^ a b Happy Cinco de Mayo: Top 10 Drunkest Holidays.. Time. By Frances Romero. Wednesday, May. 05, 2010.. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
  22. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico Online. April 25, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  23. ^ a b c d "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico Online: The Oldest and most trusted online guide to Mexico.
  24. ^ Michael C. Meyer; William H. Beezley (2000). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press. pp. 387–8.
  25. ^ a b Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May. Archived May 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Cheryl VanBuskirk. The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US. May 7, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  26. ^ The Battle of Puebla and Cinco de Mayo. PBS. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
  27. ^ Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May. Archived May 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Cheryl VanBuskirk. The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper, May 7, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  28. ^ "Mexico's Lasting European Influence. By Jose Antonio Burciaga. Free Lance-Star Publishing. May, 2007. (First released in The Hispanic News Link. 1981.)". Banderasnews.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  29. ^ Robert L. Bidwell (April 1971). "The Political Evolution of the Mexican People. By Justo Sierra. Translated by Charles Ramsdell. Austin, TX: The University of Texas Press. 1969". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Miami. 13 (2): 306–308. JSTOR 174689.
  30. ^ a b Southern California Quarterly "Cinco de Mayo's First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937" Spring 2007 (see American observation of Cinco de Mayo started in California) Retrieved October 30, 2007.
  31. ^ Hayes-Bautista, David E. (April 2009). "Cinco de Mayo: The Real Story". EGP News. Eastern Group Publications. Retrieved June 2, 2016. Far up in the gold country town of Columbia (now Columbia State Park) Mexican miners were so overjoyed at the news that they spontaneously fired off rifles shots and fireworks, sang patriotic songs and made impromptu speeches.
  32. ^ Cinco de Mayo minor holiday in Mexico. UPI. World News. May 5, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2010. Verified March 20, 2013.
  33. ^ Cesares, Oscar (May 5, 2010). "Holiday of Cinco de Mayo is minor event in Mexico". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  34. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". History.com. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  35. ^ Lovgren, Stefan. "Cinco de Mayo History: From Bloodshed to Beer Fest". National Geographic. Los Angeles. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  36. ^ Canalis, John (April 26, 1992). L.A. hosts nation's biggest Cinco de Mayo party. UPI Archives. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  37. ^ Jamison, Peter (April 24, 2016). With thinner crowds in a smaller space, Fiesta Broadway feels deeply diminished. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  38. ^ Library of Congress (U.S.A.) Declaration. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
  39. ^ Kane, Courtney (May 2, 2003). "Marketers extend their holiday efforts to a Mexican celebration and even to Lent". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2016. [Cinco de Mayo] gives us an opportunity ... to really get a jump-start on the summer beer-selling season
  40. ^ "Constellation Brands and Crown Imports Ring in Cinco de Mayo at New York Stock Exchange". ACNNewswire.com. Victor, New York: Asian Corporate News Network. May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  41. ^ Salem, Nancy (May 4, 2007). "Cinco de Mayo's history neglected; it's an excuse to party". The Albuquerque Tribune. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2016. From my perspective as a marketing professional, Cinco de Mayo has morphed into a national holiday designed by Fifth Avenue to sell alcohol and excite consumership around a party-type theme
  42. ^ Alamillo, José M. "Contesting Cinco de Mayo: Cultural Politics and Commercialization of Ethnic Festivals, 1930–1950". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved May 8, 2007. Cinco de Mayo is not just a fiesta anymore, the gringos have taken it on as a good sales pitch
  43. ^ "What Is Cinco de Mayo?". The New York Times. May 5, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  44. ^ Did You Know? Cinco de Mayo is more widely celebrated in USA than Mexico. Tony Burton. Mexconnect. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  45. ^ Cultural adaptation: the Cinco de Mayo holiday is far more widely celebrated in the USA than in Mexico. Geo-Mexico. May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  46. ^ 25 Latino Craft Projects: Celebrating Culture in Your Library. Ana Elba Pabon. Diana Borrego. 2003. American Library Association. Page 14. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  47. ^ 7 Things You May Not Know About Cinco de Mayo. Jesse Greenspan. May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  48. ^ Congressional Record – House. Page 7488. 9 May 2001. Retrieved May 8, 2013. Note that contrary to most other sources, this source states the date Juarez declared Cinco de Mayo to be a national holiday was September 8, 1862.
  49. ^ Holidays 2013. Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine U.S. Consulate in Mexico. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  50. ^ Los días de 2013 que, por ley, debes descansar. January 9, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  51. ^ Calendario Escolar 2012–2013. Archived April 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Secretaria de Educacion Publica. Government of Mexico. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  52. ^ Calendario Puebla 2012.. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  53. ^ Circular 0077-13 Calendario Oficial de Días Festivos 2013. Adelante. Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz. January 16, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  54. ^ a b c "How people actually celebrate Cinco de Mayo in Mexico". Business Insider. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  55. ^ "Peña Nieto no estará en Puebla para desfile del 5 de Mayo; conmemora Batalla en Campo Marte". SDPnoticias.com (in Spanish). May 5, 2015.
  56. ^ Canadian celebration Archived August 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine; St. Albert, Canada 2012 celebration Archived June 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine; Montreal celebration. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  57. ^ "Cinco de Mayo Skydiving Boogie 2008". Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
  58. ^ Cayman Cinco de Mayo air guitar Archived January 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
  59. ^ Jamaica celebration Archived July 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  60. ^ "Brisbane Cinco de Mayo Mexican Festival"; Brisbane celebration Archived July 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ "Where to Celebrate Cinco de Mayo in London". Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  62. ^ Mexican Ambassador to New Zealand honors Cinco de Mayo. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  63. ^ Cinco de Mayo in South Africa Retrieved May 5, 2016
  64. ^ Cinco de Mayo in Lagos, Nigeria Retrieved May 5, 2016
  65. ^ "El cinco de mayo – Paris – jeudi 05 mai" After Work. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  66. ^ Cinco de Mayo festivals in Osaka and Tokyo Archived May 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 5, 2016
  67. ^ "Cinco De Mayo Festival in Tokyo" Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine JapanBases.com. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
  68. ^ "Cinco de Mayo 2013: Celebrating the Americas" Cinco de Mayo Festival. Retrieved August 16, 2013.

Sources

  • Hayes-Bautista, David E. El Cinco de Mayo: An American Tradition (University of California Press; 2012) 293 pages

External links

23rd Street (Richmond, California)

23rd Street is a major north-south trunk street in Richmond and San Pablo, California flanked by many Latino-oriented businesses.

56th Ariel Awards

The 56th Ariel Awards ceremony, organized by the Mexican Academy of Film Arts and Sciences (AMACC) took place in 2014, in Mexico City. During the ceremony, AMACC presented the Ariel Award in 23 categories honoring films released in 2013. La Jaula de Oro received nine awards out of 14 nominations, including Best Picture and Best Actor for Brandon López. Amat Escalante won the accolade for Best Director. Other multiple awarded films included Cinco de Mayo: La Batalla and Ciudadano Buelna with two awards.

Battle of Puebla

The Battle of Puebla (Spanish: Batalla de Puebla; French: Bataille de Puebla) took place on 5 May 1862, near Puebla City during the Second French intervention in Mexico. The battle ended in a victory for the Mexican Army over the occupying French soldiers. The French eventually overran the Mexicans in subsequent battles, but the Mexican victory at Puebla against a much better equipped and larger French army provided a significant morale boost to the Mexican army and also helped slow the French army's advance towards Mexico City.

The Mexican victory is celebrated yearly on the fifth of May. Its celebration is regional in Mexico, primarily in the state of Puebla, where the holiday is celebrated as El Día de la Batalla de Puebla (English: The Day of the Battle of Puebla). There is some limited recognition of the holiday in other parts of the country. In the United States, this holiday has evolved into the very popular Cinco de Mayo holiday, a celebration of Mexican heritage.

Benton Park West, St. Louis

Benton Park West is a neighborhood located in South St. Louis City, Missouri, United States. The neighborhood is bounded by Jefferson Ave. on the east, Gravois Ave. (MO Route 30) on the north and west, and an irregular boundary consisting of Cherokee Street, S. Compton Ave., and Potomac Street to the south. The neighborhood is the conglomeration of two different neighborhoods in the 1970s, Compton Hill and Marquette-Cherokee. Parts of these two 1970s neighborhoods make up the current day Benton Park West. Marquette-Cherokee was bounded by Arsenal Street on the north, Bates Street on the south and Grand Boulevard on the west. Its eastern edge was the bank of the Mississippi River. Benton Park West has the highest percentage of Latino residents among St. Louis neighborhoods.

In 2005 Benton Park West was added to the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Gravois-Jefferson Streetcar Suburb National Historic District.

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The sixth season of the television sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine premiered on January 10, 2019 on NBC, and concluded on May 16, 2019. It is the first season to air on NBC (whose partner studio Universal Television produces the show), as the series was cancelled on May 10, 2018 by Fox, and NBC picked it up for a sixth season on May 11, 2018. The season consisted of 18 episodes.

Cascarón

A cascarón (plural cascarones, without accent mark; from Spanish cascarón, "eggshell", the augmentative form of cáscara, "shell") is a hollowed-out chicken egg filled with confetti or small toys. Cascarones are common throughout Mexico and are similar to the Easter eggs popular in many other countries. They are mostly used in Mexico during Carnival, but in US and Mexico border towns the cultures combined to make them a popular Easter tradition.

Decorated, confetti-filled cascarones may be thrown or crushed over the recipient's head to shower them with confetti. This originated in Spain. When a child would act up, their father would crack an egg over their head as a consequence, and a way of showing their disappointment in them. In addition to Easter, cascarones have become popular for occasions including birthdays, New Year's, Halloween, Cinco de Mayo, Dieciséis, Day of the Dead, and weddings. (wedding cascarones can be filled with rice). Like many popular traditions in Mexico, cascarones are increasingly popular in the southwestern United States. For example, they are especially prominent during the two-week, citywide festival of Fiesta in San Antonio, Texas. Cascarones are usually made during Easter time.

In order to make cascarones, one can use a pin or knife to break a hole in the end of the eggshell and pour the contents out. The shell is then cleaned out, decorated as desired, and allowed to dry, before it is filled with confetti or a small toy. Usually, glue is applied around the outside of the hole and covered with tissue paper.

Durango Municipality

Durango is one of the 39 municipalities of Durango, in north-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Durango. The municipality covers an area of 10,041 km².

As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 582,267, up from 526,659 as of 2005.

The municipality had 1,323 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: Victoria de Durango (518,709), El Nayar (3,308), Cinco de Mayo (2,249), classified as urban, and La Ferrería (Cuatro de Octubre) (2,021), José María Pino Suárez (2,014), Colonia Hidalgo (1,986), Llano Grande (1,938), Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (1,712), Villa Montemorelos (1,617), Banderas del Águila (1,274), José Refugio Salcido (1,262), Santiago Bayacora (1,218), Cinco de Febrero (1,131), José María Morelos y Pavón (La Tinaja) (1,072), and El Arenal (San Jerónimo) (1,015), classified as rural.

Fiesta Broadway

Fiesta Broadway is an annual event held in downtown Los Angeles to celebrate Cinco de Mayo, Mexican culture and Latin American culture in general. Modeled on Miami’s Calle Ocho Festival and harking back to the early 20th-century Fiesta de Los Angeles, it features vendors and musical acts. At its peak, Fiesta Broadway stretched for 36 blocks centered on a long stretch of Broadway and attracted hundreds of thousands of visitors. More recently it has been confined to a few blocks around 1st Street and Broadway and has seen attendance shrink to as little as 7,000. Although the holiday of Cinco de Mayo falls on May 5, which is the meaning of its Spanish name, Fiesta Broadway is always held on the last Sunday in April, since 1995.

Fiestas Patrias (Mexico)

Fiestas Patrias (English: Patriotic Holidays) in Mexico originated in the 19th century and are observed today as five public holidays.

Ignacio Zaragoza

Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín (Spanish pronunciation: [iɣˈnasjo saɾaˈɣosa]; March 24, 1829 – September 8, 1862) was a Mexican general and politician. He led the Mexican army that defeated invading French forces at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862 (mostly celebrated in the United States as Cinco de Mayo).

Live Oak High School (Morgan Hill, California)

Live Oak High School (LOHS) is a public high school in Morgan Hill, California. Designated as a California Gold Ribbon School in 2015, Live Oak is part of the Morgan Hill Unified School District.

Market Square (San Antonio)

Market Square is a three-block outdoor plaza lined with shops, and restaurants in downtown San Antonio, Texas. Market Square is the largest Mexican market in the United States. The "El Mercado" section has 32 specialty shops and the "Farmer's Market Plaza" section has 80. "Mi Tierra Cafe Y Panaderia" and "La Margarita Mexican Restaurant & Oyster Bar" are the major eateries, but snack and specialty foods are available at other shops. Market Square is the site of Cinco de Mayo in central San Antonio and many other fiestas throughout the year.The "El Mercado" building was built as a Works Progress Administration project during 1938-1939 after the existing municipal market house (known as the Giles building) was torn down. The new building was originally named the "Municipal Truck Market", but locals commonly called it the "Farmer's Market", as farmer's sold their produce straight from their trucks inside the open air building. In 1975, the last produce was sold there, and the market house underwent renovation to convert it into an enclosed air-conditioned mercado.

Outlaw (War album)

Outlaw is an album by War, released on RCA Victor Records in 1982.

This was War's first album for RCA. Between this and the previous album on MCA, War released a single on LA Records, a company owned by their producer Jerry Goldstein: "Cinco de Mayo", which also appears on Outlaw, backed with "Don't Let No One Get You Down", an older track from Why Can't We Be Friends? (1975).

Alice Tweed Smith (vocals) had left the band since their previous album, reducing the group to eight members, although the cover only shows seven. Pat Rizzo isn't on cover picture. Assuming that composer credits indicate the lineup of each track (excluding producer Jerry Goldstein); on some tracks, Ron Hammon (drums) and Pat Rizzo (saxophone) are not credited .

Three more singles from the album were issued on RCA Victor: "You Got the Power" backed with "Cinco de Mayo", "Outlaw" backed with "I'm About Somebody", and "Just Because" backed with "The Jungle (medley)". Also, "Baby It's Cold Outside" (not the popular 1940s song by Frank Loesser) was issued as a promotional single for seasonal music radio programming. Therefore, every track on the album was also issued on a single, though some were probably edited.

The album was re-released on CD in 1995 with a different running order and the extended version of "Cinco de Mayo" added as a bonus track.

Pati Jinich

Patricia Jinich (born March 30, 1972) is an award-winning Mexican chef, TV personality, cookbook author, and food writer. She is best known for her James Beard Award winning and Emmy nominated public television series Pati's Mexican Table. Her first cookbook, also Pati's Mexican Table, was published in March 2013 and her second cookbook, Mexican Today, was published in April 2016.Jinich is the resident chef at the Mexican Cultural Institute in Washington, DC, where she has run her "Mexican Table" live culinary program since 2007. She has appeared on The Today Show, The Chew, The Talk, CBS This Morning, The Home and Family Show, All Things Considered, Morning Edition, and The Splendid Table among other media. Her food writing has appeared in The Washington Post. In May 2014, Jinich was invited to cook at the White House for President Barack Obama's Cinco de Mayo dinner. In May 2018, she cooked at the James Beard House in New York city for their Cinco de Mayo dinner.

Rio Bravo Cantina

Rio Bravo was a Tex-Mex style Mexican restaurant serving the metro the southern United States and Michigan from its opening in 1985 until its closure in 2004. The company relaunched in August 2015, only to close again 18 months later.

The Rio Bravo concept began in Atlanta, Georgia, United States, the first restaurant opening in the Buckhead section of Atlanta in May 1985. The concept was created by Ray Schoenbaum in conjunction with Innovative Restaurant Concepts Inc (or IRC).

On February 11, 1999 Applebee’s sold the Rio Bravo concept to Chevys Fresh Mex [1]. After Chevy's purchase the menus between both chains were merged for supply and marketing purposes. Rio Bravo was famous for their cheese dip and salsa. Both of these were changed after the purchase. The drastic across the board changes in the menu contributed to the decline of the chain.

On November 6, 2014, Ray Schoenbaum confirmed that the Rio Bravo concept is set to return to the Atlanta metropolitan area in 2015.On February 15, 2017, Ray's Rio Bravo permanently closed.

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