Cimolodonta

The Cimolodonta are a taxon of extinct mammals that lived from the Cretaceous to the Eocene. They were some of the more derived members of the extinct order Multituberculata. They probably lived something of a rodent-like existence until their ecological niche was assumed by true rodents. The more basal multituberculates are found in a different suborder, "Plagiaulacida".

Cimolodonta is apparently a natural (monophyletic) suborder. Remains have been identified from across the Northern Hemisphere. The taxon is recognized as the informal Paracimexomys group and the superfamilies Djadochtatherioidea, Taeniolabidoidea, and Ptilodontoidea. Additionally, and of uncertain affinities, are the families Cimolomyidae, Boffiidae, Eucosmodontidae, Kogaionidae, Microcosmodontidae and the two genera Uzbekbaatar and Viridomys. More precise placement of these types awaits further discoveries and analysis.

Cimolodonta
Temporal range: Aptian-Eocene 125–35 Ma
Ptilodus
A reconstruction of Ptilodus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Multituberculata
Suborder: Cimolodonta
Superfamilies

Taxonomy

Suborder †Cimolodonta McKenna, 1975

References

  • Kielan-Jaworowska Z. and Hurum J.H. (2001), "Phylogeny and Systematics of multituberculate mammals". Paleontology 44, p. 389-429.
  • Much of this information has been derived from [1] Multituberculata Cope, 1884.
Boffius

Boffius is a genus of mammal from the Paleocene of Europe , which was named by Vianey-Liaud M. in 1979. It is a member of the extinct order of Multituberculata.

Boffius lies within the suborder Cimolodonta and is the only known member of the family Boffiidae (Hahn & Hahn, 1983). The species Boffius splendidus is known from Lower Paleocene remains found in Hainin, Belgium. It was a relatively large multituberculate.

Bryceomys

Bryceomys is an extinct mammal that lived during the late Cretaceous period (between 100 and 66 million years ago) and thus shared the world with dinosaurs. It was a member of the also extinct order of Multituberculata. It was within the suborder of Cimolodonta, and a member of the Paracimexomys group.

The genus Bryceomys ("Bryce mouse", after Bryce Canyon National Park) was named by Eaton J.G. in 1995.

Buginbaatar

Buginbaatar is an extinct genus of mammal from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. It is a member of the extinct order Multituberculata, within the suborder Cimolodonta and family Cimolomyidae. It lived towards the end of the Mesozoic era.

The genus Buginbaatar was named by Kielan-Jaworowska Z. and Sochava A.V. in 1969 based on the remains of a single species. Remains of this species, dubbed Buginbaatar clarki, were found in Upper Cretaceous strata of Bügiyn Tsav in Mongolia.

This is the only known Upper Cretaceous Mongolian multituberculate not to belong to the family Djadochtatherioidea. Remains are incomplete and the assignment of B. to the Cimolomyidae is tentative, (Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum 2001, p. 408).

Cedaromys

Cedaromys ("Cedar mouse") is an extinct mammal which lived during the Upper Cretaceous, at the same time as many dinosaurs. It was a member of the also extinct order of Multituberculata. It's within the suborder of Cimolodonta, and a possible member of the Paracimexomys group.

Cimolodon

Cimolodon is a genus of the extinct mammal order of Multituberculata within the suborder Cimolodonta and the family Cimolodontidae. Specimens are known from the Late Cretaceous of North America.

Cimolomyidae

Cimolomyidae is a family of fossil mammal within the extinct order Multituberculata. Representatives are known from the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleocene of North America and perhaps Mongolia. The family is part of the suborder Cimolodonta. Other than that, their systematic relationships are hard to define. Some authors have placed the taxon within Taeniolabidoidea. Kielan-Jaworowska and Hurum (2001) expressly don't.

The family Cimolomyidae was named by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1889.

Cimolomys

Cimolomys is a mammal genus from the Upper Cretaceous of North America. It was a member of the extinct order Multituberculata within the suborder Cimolodonta and family Cimolomyidae.

The genus Cimolomys was named by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1889.

Dakotamys

Dakotamys is a genus of extinct mammal that lived during the Upper Cretaceous. It shared the world with dinosaurs. This small creature was a member of the also extinct order Multituberculata within the suborder Cimolodonta and was a member of the Paracimexomys group.

The genus Dakotamys ("Dakota mouse") was named by Eaton J.G. in 1995. Dakota refers to the Dakota Formation. "Paracimexomys and Dakotamys... resemble the Eobaataridae in the structure of the upper and lower molars, with cusps showing a tendency to coalesce, and with ornamentation of grooves and ribs on the molars," (Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum, 2001, p. 403).

Djadochtatheriidae

Djadochtatheriidae is a family of fossil mammals within the extinct order Multituberculata. Remains are known from the Upper Cretaceous of Central Asia. These animals lived during the Mesozoic, also known as the "age of the dinosaurs". This family is part of the suborder of Cimolodonta. The taxon Djadochtatheriidae was named by Z. Kielan-Jaworowska and J. H. Hurum in 1997.

Multituberculates are a rather diverse group in terms of locomotion and diet. Forms like Kryptobaatar and Catopsbaatar were hopping, gerboa-like omnivores (and this is probably the ancestral condition for the group, given that Nemegtbaatar also had this lifestyle), while Mangasbaatar was a robust, digging herbivore.

Djadochtatherioidea

Djadochtatherioidea is a group of extinct mammals known from the upper Cretaceous of Central Asia. They were members of an also extinct order called Multituberculata. These were generally somewhat rodent-like creatures, who scurried around during the "age of the dinosaurs", though nonetheless very ecologically diverse; several were jerboa-like hoppers, while others like Mangasbaatar were large sized and fossorial. Unusually for multituberculates, some of this group are represented by very good remains. All upper Cretaceous Mongolian multituberculates are included with one exception, the genus Buginbaatar.

This superfamily is further subdivided into two families and several other genera, as listed in the table. These djadochs are within the suborder of Cimolodonta.

Djadochtatherioidea was established by Kielan-Jaworowska and Hurum in 2001 as a replacement for the previously proposed Djadochtatheria (Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum, 1997).

Eucosmodon

Eucosmodon is a genus of extinct mammal from the Paleocene of North America. It is a member of the extinct order of Multituberculata within the suborder of Cimolodonta, and the family Eucosmodontidae. This genus has partly also been known as Neoplagiaulax. All known fossils of this small mammal are restricted to teeth.

Eucosmodontidae

Eucosmodontidae is a poorly preserved family of fossil mammals within the extinct order Multituberculata. Representatives are known from strata dating from the Upper Cretaceous through the Lower Eocene of North America, as well as the Paleocene to Eocene of Europe. The family is part of the suborder of Cimolodonta. They might be related with the Djadochtatherioidea but without further finds, this remains unclear. Other than a partial snout, fossil evidence is limited to teeth.

The taxonomic name Eucosmodontidae was given by Jepsen in 1940. Some authors interpret this version of Eucosmodontidae and Microcosmodontidae as being subfamilies rather than families.

Kogaionon (genus)

Kogaionon is a mammal genus from the Upper Cretaceous of Romania. It lived in Transylvania the same time as some of the last dinosaurs and was a member of the extinct order of Multituberculata. It was named after Kogaionon, the holy mountain of the ancient Dacians. It lies within the suborder Cimolodonta and the family Kogaionidae. The genus Kogaionon was named by Rădulescu R. and Samson P. in 1996.

This genus is known from one species, Kogaionon ungureanui, the fossil remains of which have been found in the Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) Sinpetru Beds of the Hateg Formation in Romania. It is a micro-mammal, based on a well-preserved and near complete skull. The species name is in appreciation of the geologist, Costin Ungureanu, who found the fossil.

Mesodmops

Mesodmops is a genus of small mammal from the Eocene of China. It was a late member of the extinct order of Multituberculata. It's within the suborder of Cimolodonta and family Neoplagiaulacidae. The genus was named by Y. Tong and T. Wang in 1994.

The primary species is Mesodmops dawsonae, also named by Tong and Wang. It has been found in the Lower Eocene of the Wutu Basin in Shandong, China.

Neoplagiaulacidae

Neoplagiaulacidae is a family of mammal within the extinct order Multituberculata. Fossil remains are known from the Upper Cretaceous through to the latest Eocene/early Oligocene. Representatives have been found in North America, Europe and Asia. They are the last multituberculates known.Neoplagiaulacinae (Ameghino 1890) has been seen as a sub-family within Ptilodontidae (Cope, 1887). More recent thinking has it as a family. Synonyms are Ectypodidae (Sloan & Van Valen 1965) and Ectypodontidae (Sloan & Van Valen 1965). Most fossils are restricted to teeth. The family is part of the suborder of Cimolodonta within the superfamily of Ptilodontoidea.

Sloanbaataridae

Sloanbaataridae is a family of fossil mammals within the extinct order Multituberculata. Remains are known from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. These small herbivores lived during the "age of the dinosaurs". This family is part of the suborder Cimolodonta. The family Sloanbaataridae was named by Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. in 1974.

Tombaatar

Tombaatar is a mammal genus that existed during the Mongolian Upper Cretaceous period. It co-existed with some of the late dinosaurs. This animal was a member of the extinct order Multituberculata, within the suborder Cimolodonta and family Djadochtatheriidae. The genus Tombaatar was named by Rougier G.W., Novacek M. and Dashzeveg D. in 1997.

The species Tombaatar sabuli is known from remains found in the Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia. Tombaatar was a relatively large multituberculate. The skull is about 6 cm in length.

Uzbekbaatar

Uzbekbaatar is a genus of extinct mammal from the Upper Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. It was a member of the extinct order Multituberculata within the suborder Cimolodonta, though its further affinities are unclear. The genus was named by Kielan-Jaworowska Z. and Nesov L.A. in 1992 and means "Uzbek hero".

The one species named by Kielan-Jaworowska and Nesov is Uzbekbaatar kizylkumensis, found in the Upper Cretaceous strata of Uzbekistan. A second species was also apparently described by Averianov in 1999.

Viridomys

Viridomys is a genus of extinct mammal from the Upper Cretaceous of North America. It was a member of the extinct order of Multituberculata, and lived during the Mesozoic, also known as the "age of the dinosaurs." It's within the suborder of Cimolodonta, though its further affinities are unclear.

The primary species, Viridomys orbatus, is known from fossils found in Campanian (Upper Cretaceous)-aged strata of the Upper Milk River Formation in Alberta, Canada. Possible remains have also been found in Dogie Mountain, Texas (United States). The Texas site is believed to be Paleocene in age.

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